APUSH Chapter 18

APUSH Chapter 18 - Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional...

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Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional Struggle I. The Popular Sovereignty Panacea I. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War, butit started a whole new debate about the extension of slavery, withNortherners rallying around the Wilmot Proviso (which proposed that theMexican Cession lands be free soil); however, the Southerners shot itdown. II. Before, the two national parties, the Democrats and the Whigs, hadhad strong support from all over the nation; now, that was in jeopardy. III. In 1848, Polk, due to tremendous overworking and chronic diarrhea,did not seek a second term, and the Democrats nominated General LewisCass, a veteran of the War of 1812, a senator and diplomat of wideexperience and considerable ability, and the originator of popularsovereignty, the idea that issues should be decided upon by the people(specifically, it applied to slavery, stating that the people in theterritories should decide to legalize it or not). It was good (and liked by politicians) because it was a compromisebetween the extremes of the North and the South, and it stuck with theidea of self-determination, but it could spread slavery. II. Political Triumphs for General Taylor I. The Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor, the hero of Buena Vistain the Mexican War, a man with no political experience, but popularman, and they avoided all picky issues in his campaign. II. Disgusted antislavery Northerners organized the Free Soil Party, aparty committed against the extension of slavery in the territories andone that also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urgedfree government homesteads for settlers. This party appealed to people angry over the half-acquisition ofOregon, people who didn’t like Blacks in the new territory, aswell as “conscience Whigs” who condemned slavery on moralgrounds. The Free-Soilers nominated Martin Van Buren. III. Neither major party talked about the slavery issue, but Taylor won narrowly. III. “Californy Gold” I. In 1848, gold was discovered in California, and thousands flooded into the state, thus blowing the lid off of the slavery issue. II. Most people didn’t “strike it rich,” but there were many lawless men and women.
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III. As a result, California (privately encouraged by the president)drafted a constitution and then applied for free statehood, thusbypassing the usual territorial stage and avoiding becoming a slavestate. IV. Sectional Balance and the Underground Railroad I. In 1850, the South was very well off, with a Southerner aspresident (Taylor), a majority in the cabinet and on the Supreme Court,and equality in the Senate meaning that its 15 states could block anyproposed amendment that would outlaw slavery. Still, the South wasworried. II.
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This note was uploaded on 08/04/2011 for the course HIST 1 taught by Professor Johhfear during the Spring '11 term at Arkansas Pine Bluff.

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APUSH Chapter 18 - Chapter 18 Renewing the Sectional...

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