APUSH Chapter 21

APUSH Chapter 21 - Chapter 21 The Furnace of Civil War I....

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Chapter 21 The Furnace of Civil War I. Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War” I. When President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 militiamen onApril 15, 1861, he and just about everyone else in the North expected aswift war lasting about 90 days, with a quick suppression of the Southto prove the North’s superiority and end this foolishness. II. On July 21, 1861, ill-trained Yankee recruits swaggered out towardBull Run to engage a smaller Confederate unit. They expected one bigbattle and a quick victory for the war. The atmosphere was like that of a sporting event, as spectators gathered in picnics to watch. However, after initial success by the Union, Confederatereinforcements arrived and, coupled with Stonewall Jackson’s lineholding, sent the Union soldiers into disarray. III. The Battle of Bull Run showed the North that this would not be ashort, easy war and swelled the South’s already too-large ego. II. “Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign I. Later in 1861, command of the Army of the Potomac (name of theUnion army) was given to 34 year old General George B. McClellan, anexcellent drillmaster and organizer of troops, but also a perfectionistwho constantly believed that he was outnumbered, never took risks, andheld the army without moving for months before finally ordered byLincoln to advance. II. At Lincoln’s urging, he finally decided upon a water-borneapproach to Richmond (the South’s capital), called the PeninsulaCampaign, taking about a month to capture Yorktown before coming toRichmond. At this moment, President Lincoln took McClellan’s expectedreinforcements and sent them chasing Stonewall Jackson, and after“Jeb” Stuart’s Confederate cavalry rode completelyaround McClellan’s army, Southern General Robert E. Lee launcheda devastating counterattack—the Seven Days’Battles—on June 26 to July 2 of 1862. The victory at Bull Run ensured that the South, if it lost, wouldlose slavery as well, and it was after this battle that Lincoln beganto draft an emancipation proclamation. III. With the quick-strike plan a failure, the Union strategy now turnedto total war. Summed up, the plan was to blockade, divide, and conquer.The plan included… Suffocate the South through an oceanic blockade. Free the slaves to undermine the South’s very economic foundations. Cut the Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi River.
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Chop the Confederacy to pieces by marching through Georgia and the Carolinas. Capture its capital, Richmond, Virginia. Try everywhere to engage the enemy’s main strength and grind it to submission. This was essentially General Winfield Scott’s “Anaconda Plan.” III. The War at Sea I. The Union blockade started with many leaks at first, but it clamped down later. II.
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APUSH Chapter 21 - Chapter 21 The Furnace of Civil War I....

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