APUSH Chapter 22

APUSH Chapter 22 - Chapter 22 The Ordeal of Reconstruction...

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Chapter 22 The Ordeal of Reconstruction I. The Problems of Peace I. After the war, there were many questions over what to do with thefree Blacks, such as how to reintegrate the Southern states into theUnion, what to do with Jefferson Davis, and who would be in charge ofReconstruction? II. The Southern way of life had been ruined, as crops and farms weredestroyed, the slaves had been freed, the cities were burnt down, butstill, and many Southerners remained defiant. II. Freedmen Define Freedom I. At first, the freed Blacks faced a confusing situation, as many slave owners re-enslaved their slaves after Union troops left. Other planters resisted emancipation through legal means, citingthat emancipation wasn’t valid until local or state courtsdeclared it. II. Some slaves loyally stuck to their owners while others let outtheir pent-up bitterness by pillaging their former masters’ land,property, and even whipping the old master. III. Eventually, even resisting plantation owners had to give up theirslaves, and afterwards tens of thousands of Blacks took to the roads tofind new work or look for lost loved ones. IV. The church became the focus of the Black community life in the years following the war. Emancipation also meant education for Blacks, but despite all thegains Blacks made, they still faced severe discrimination and wouldhave to wait a century before truly attaining their rights. III. The Freedman’s Bureau I. In order to train the unskilled and unlettered freed Blacks, theFreedman’s Bureau was set up on March 3, 1865. Union GeneralOliver O. Howard headed it. II. The bureau taught about 200,000 Blacks how to read (its greatestsuccess), since most former slaves wanted to narrow the literary gapbetween them and Whites; the bureau also read the word of God. III. However, it wasn’t as effective as it could have been, asevidenced by the further discrimination of Blacks, and it expired in1872 after much criticism by racist Whites. IV. Johnson: The Tailor President I. Andrew Johnson came from very poor and humble beginnings, and heserved in Congress for many years (he was the only Confederatecongressman not to leave Congress when the rest of the South seceded). II. He was feared for his reputation of having a short temper and beinga great fighter, was a dogmatic champion of states’ rights andthe Constitution, and he was a Tennessean who never earned the trust ofthe North and never regained the confidence of the South. V. Presidential Reconstruction I. Since Abraham Lincoln believed that the South had never legallywithdrawn from the Union, restoration was to be relatively simple. Inhis plan for restoring the union, the southern states could bereintegrated into the Union if and when they had only 10% of its
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voterspledge and taken an oath to the Union, and also acknowledge theemancipation of the slaves; it was appropriately called the Ten PercentPlan. Like the loving father who welcomed back the prodigal son,Lincoln’s plan was very forgiving to the South. II.
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APUSH Chapter 22 - Chapter 22 The Ordeal of Reconstruction...

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