APUSH Chapter 38

APUSH Chapter 38 - Chapter 38 The Stormy Sixties I II III...

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Chapter 38 The Stormy Sixties I. Kennedy’s “New Frontier” Spirit I. In 1960, young, energetic John F. Kennedy was elected as presidentof the United States —the youngest man ever elected to that office. II. The 1960s would bring a sexual revolution, a civil rightsrevolution, the emergence of a “youth culture,” adevastating war in Vietnam, and the beginnings of a feminist revolution. III. JFK delivered a stirring inaugural address (“Ask not, whatyour country can do for you…”), and he also assembled avery young cabinet, including his brother, Robert Kennedy, as attorneygeneral. Robert Kennedy tried to recast the priorities of the FBI, but was resisted by J. Edgar Hoover. Business whiz Robert S. McNamara took over the Defense Department. IV. Early on, JFK proposed the Peace Corps, an army of idealist andmostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdevelopedcountries. V. A graduate of Harvard and with a young family, JFK was very vibrant and charming to everyone. II. The New Frontier at Home I. Kennedy’s social program was known as the New Frontier, butconservative Democrats and Republicans threatened to kill many of itsreforms. JFK did expand the House Rules Committee, but his programdidn’t expand quickly, as medical and education bills remainedstalled in Congress. JFK also had to keep a lid on inflation and maintain a good economy. However, almost immediately into his term, steel managementannounced great price increases, igniting the fury of the president,but JFK also earned fiery attacks by big business against the NewFrontier. II. Kennedy’s tax-cut bill chose to stimulate the economy through price-cutting. iii. Kennedy also promoted a project to land Americans on the moon, though apathetic Americans often ridiculed this goal. III. Rumblings in Europe I. JFK met Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev and was threatened, but didn’t back down. II. In August of the 1961, the Soviets began building the Berlin Wall to separate East and West Germany. III. Western Europe, though, was now prospering after help from the super-successful Marshall Plan. America had also encouraged a Common Market (to keep trade barriersand tariff low in Europe), which later became the European Union (EU). The so-called Kennedy Round of tariff negotiations eased trade between Europe and the U.S. IV. Unfortunately, French leader Charles de Gaulle was one who wassuspicious of the U.S., and he rejected Britain’s applicationinto the Common Market. IV. Foreign Flare-Ups and “Flexible Response” I. There were many world problems at this time: The African Congo got its independence from Belgium in 1960 andthen erupted into violence, but the United Nations sent a peacekeepingforce.
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Laos, freed of its French overlords in 1954, was being threatenedby communism, but at the Geneva Conference of 1962, peace was shakilyimposed. Defense Secretary McNamara pushed a strategy of “flexibleresponse,” which
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APUSH Chapter 38 - Chapter 38 The Stormy Sixties I II III...

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