AP Euro Chapter 13

AP Euro Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 European Society in the Age...

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Chapter 13 European Society in the Age of the Renaissance 1. The evolution of the Italian Renaissance 1. Beginnings 1. The Renaissance was a period of commercial, financial, political, and cultural achievement in two phases, from 1050 to 1300 and from 1300 to about 1600. 2. The northern Italian cities led the commercial revival, especially Venice, Genoa, and Milan. 1. Venice had a huge merchant marine; improvements in shipbuilding enhanced trade. 2. These cities became the crossroads between northern Europe and the East. 3. The first artistic and literary flowerings of the Renaissance appeared in Florence. 1. Florentine mercantile families dominated European banking. 2. The wool industry was the major factor in the city's financial expansion and population increase. 2. Communes and republics 1. Northern Italian cities were communes--associations of free men seeking independence from the local lords. 1. The nobles, attracted by the opportunities in the cities, often settled there and married members of the mercantile class, forming an urban nobility. 2. The popolo, or middle class, was excluded from power. 3. Popololed republican governments failed, which led to the rule of despots (signori) or oligarchies. 4. In the fifteenth century, the princely courts of the rulers were centers of wealth and art. 3. The balance of power among the Italian citystates 1. Italy had no political unity; it was divided into citystates such as Milan, Venice, and Florence, the Papal States, and a kingdom of Naples in the south. 2. The political and economic competition among the citystates prevented centralization of power. 3. Shifting alliances among the citystates led to the creation of permanent ambassadors. 4. After 1494 a divided Italy became a European battleground. 2. Intellectual hallmarks of the Renaissance 1. Many, like the poet and humanist Petrarch, saw the fourteenth century as a new golden age and a revival of ancient Roman culture. 2. Individualism 1. Literature specifically concerned with the nature of individuality emerged. 2. Renaissance people believed in individual will and genius. 3. Humanism 1. Italians collected ancient manuscripts and monuments, and copied the ancient Roman lifestyle. 2. The study of the classics led to humanism, an emphasis on human beings. 1. Humanists sought to understand human nature through a study of pagan and classical authors and Christian thought. 2. The humanist writer Pico della Mirandola believed that there were no limits to what human beings could accomplish. 3. Ancient Latin style was considered superior to medieval Latin. 4. Secular spirit
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1. Secularism means a concern with materialism rather than religion. 2. Unlike medieval people, Renaissance people were concerned with money and pleasure. 1. In On Pleasure, Lorenzo Valla defended the pleasure of the senses as the highest
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This note was uploaded on 08/04/2011 for the course HIST 1 taught by Professor Johhfear during the Spring '11 term at Arkansas Pine Bluff.

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AP Euro Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 European Society in the Age...

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