AP Euro Chapter 14

AP Euro Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the...

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Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church 1. The condition of the church (ca. 1400-1517) 1. The declining prestige of the church 1. The Babylonian Captivity and the Great Schism damaged the church's prestige. 2. Secular humanists satirized and denounced moral corruption within the church. 2. Signs of disorder in the early sixteenth century 1. The parish clergy brought spiritual help to the people. 2. Critics of the church wanted moral and administrative reform in three areas. 1. Clerical immorality (neglect of celibacy, drunkenness, gambling) created a scandal. 2. The lack of education of the clergy and law standards of ordination were condemned by Christian humanists. 3. The absenteeism, pluralism (holding of several benefices, or offices), and wealth of the greater clergy bore little resemblance to the Christian gospel. 3. The prelates and popes of the period, often members of the nobility, lived in splendor and moral corruption. 3. Signs of vitality in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries 1. Sixteenthcentury Europe remained deeply religious, and calls for reform testify to the spiritual vitality of the church. 2. New organizations were formed to educate and minister to the poor. 1. The Brethren of the Common Life in Holland lived simply and sought to make religion a personal, inner experience based on following the scriptures. 2. The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à Kempis urged Christians to seek perfection in a simple way of life. 3. Pope Julius II summoned an ecumenical council on reform in the church called the Lateran Council (1512-1527). 2. Martin Luther and the birth of Protestantism 1. Luther's early years 1. Luther was a German monk and professor of religion whose search for salvation led him to the letters of St. Paul. 2. He concluded that faith was central to Christianity and the only means of salvation. 2. Luther's Ninetyfive Theses (October 1517) 1. Luther's opposition to the sale of indulgences (remissions of penalties for sin) prompted his fight with Rome. 2. His Ninetyfive Theses, or propositions on indulgences, raised many theological issues and initiated a long period of debate in Europe. 1. Luther rejected the idea that salvation could be achieved by good works, such as indulgences. 2. An indulgence was a release from the penalties to be paid for sin. 3. He also criticized papal wealth. 3. Luther later denied the authority of the pope and was excommunicated and declared an outlaw by Charles V at Worms in 1521. 4. Meanwhile, Ulrich Zwingli introduced the reformation in Switzerland. 1. He believed in the supremacy of Scripture, and was opposed to indulgences, the Mass, monasticism, and clerical celibacy. 3. Protestant thought
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1. The basic theological tenets of Protestantism were set forth in the Confession of Augsburg, in which Luther provided new answers to four basic theological issues.
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This note was uploaded on 08/04/2011 for the course HIST 1 taught by Professor Johhfear during the Spring '11 term at Arkansas Pine Bluff.

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AP Euro Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Reform and Renewal in the...

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