AP EURO Chapter 15

AP EURO Chapter 15 - CHAPTER 15 Age of Religious Wars And...

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CHAPTER 15 Age of Religious Wars And European Expansion 1. POLITICS, RELIGION, AND WAR 1. The SpanishFrench wars ended in 1559 with a Spanish victory, leading to a variety of European wars centering on religious and national issues. 1. These wars used bigger armies and gunpowder, and led to the need for administrative reorganization. 2. Religious passions conditioned the mind-sets of all elements of society. 3. Governments had to use various propaganda devices, including the printing press, to arouse public opinion. 4. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended religious wars but also ended the idea of a unified Christian society. 2. The origins of difficulties in France (1515-1559) 1. By 1500, France was recovering from plague and disorder, and the nobility began to lose power. 2. The French kings, such as Francis I and Henry II, continued the policies of centralization and were great patrons of Renaissance art but spent more money than they raised. 3. The wars between France and Emperor Charles V--the Habsburg-Valois wars--were also costly. 4. To raise money, Francis sold public offices and signed the Concordat of Bologna (1516), in which he recognized the supremacy of the papacy in return for the right to appoint French bishops. 1. This settlement established Catholicism as the state religion in France. 2. It also perpetuated corruption within the French church. 3. The corruption made Calvinism attractive to Christians eager for reform: some clergy and members of the middle and artisan classes. 3. Religious riots and civil war in France (1559-1589) 1. The French nobility, many of them Calvinist, attempted to regain power over a series of weak monarchs. 1. While Henry III was involved with his male favorites, his mother, Catherine de Medici, dominated French policy. 2. Frequent religious riots symbolized the struggle for power in the upper classes and serious religious concerns among the lower classes. 3. The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre of Calvinists in 1572 led to the War of the Three Henrys, a damaging conflict for secular power. 4. King Henry IV's Edict of Nantes (1598) saved France from further civil war by allowing Protestants to worship. 4. The Netherlands under Charles V 1. The Low Countries were part of the Habsburg empire and enjoyed commercial success and relative autonomy. 2. In 1556 Charles V abdicated and divided his empire between his brother, Ferdinand, and his son, King Philip of Spain. 5. The revolt of the Netherlands (1556-1587) 1. Calvinism took deep root among the merchants and financiers. 2. Regent Margaret attempted to destroy Protestantism by establishing the Inquisition in the Netherlands. 3. She also raised taxes, causing those who opposed the repression of Calvinism to unite with those who opposed the taxes.
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4. Popular support for Protestantism led to the destruction of many Catholic churches. 5. The duke of Alva and his Spanish troops were sent by Philip II to crush the disturbances in
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AP EURO Chapter 15 - CHAPTER 15 Age of Religious Wars And...

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