AP Euro Chapter 16

AP Euro Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Absolutism and...

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Chapter 16 Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe I. Absolutism A. Absolutism defined     1. In the absolutist state, sovereignty resided in kings--not the nobility or the  parliament--who considered themselves responsible to God alone. 2. Absolute kings created new state bureaucracies and standing armies, regulated  all the institutions of government, and secured the cooperation of the nobility. a. Some historians deny that absolutism was a stage of development that  followed feudalism, but, instead, was "administrative monarchy." 3. The absolutist state foreshadowed the modern totalitarian state but lacked its  total control over all aspects of its citizens' lives. B. The foundations of French absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu     1. Henry IV cared for his people, lowered taxes, achieved peace, and curtailed the  power of the nobility. 2. His minister, Sully, brought about financial stability and economic growth. 3. Cardinal Richelieu, the ruler of France under King Louis XIII, broke the power of  the French nobility. a. His policy was total subordination of all groups and institutions to the French  monarchy. b. He changed the royal council, leveled castles, and crushed aristocratic  conspiracies. c. He established an efficient administrative system using  intendants , who  further weakened the local nobility. d. They delivered royal orders, recruited men for the army, collected taxes, and  more. 4. Through the Edict of Nantes, Henry IV and given religious freedom to Protestants  (Huguenots) in 150 towns, but Louis XIII decided otherwise. a. He defeated the city of La Rochelle in 1628 and re-instituted the Catholic  mass. b. Richelieu and the French kings faced many urban protests over high taxes  and food shortages. c. Local authorities usually let local riots "burn themselves out." 5. Under Richelieu, France sought to break Habsburg power.
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a. He supported the struggle of the Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus, against  the Habsburgs. b. He acquired land and influence in Germany. 6. Richelieu supported the new French Academy, which created a dictionary to  standardize the French language. 7. The French government's ability to tax was severely limited by local rights and the  taxexempt status of much of the nobility and the middle class. 8. Mazarin continued Richelieu's centralizing policies, but these policies gave rise to  a period of civil wars known as the Fronde. a.
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AP Euro Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Absolutism and...

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