AP EURO Chapter 21 - CHAPTER 21 REVOLUTION IN...

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CHAPTER 21 REVOLUTION IN POLITICS (1775-1815) I. Liberty and equality A. In the eighteenth century, liberty meant human rights and freedoms and the sovereignty  of the people. 1. Liberals demanded that citizens' rights had no limits except those that assure rights to  others. 2. Revolutionary liberals believed that the people were sovereign. B. Equality meant equal rights and equality of opportunity. 1. But most liberals did not extend such rights to women. 2. "Equality" pertained to equality of opportunity and legal equality, not economic  equality. C. The roots of classical liberalism 1. The Classical Greek and the JudeoChristian traditions liberalism. 2. Liberalism's modern roots are found in the Enlightenment's concern for human dignity,  human happiness on earth, faith in science, personal freedom and legal equality. 3. These were best expressed by Locke and Montesquieu. D. The attraction of liberalism 1. Liberalism was attractive to the prosperous, welleducated elites. 2. It lacked popular support because common people were more interested in economic  issues and the protection of traditional practices and institutions. II. The American Revolution (1775-1789) A. Some argue that the American Revolution was not a revolution at all but merely a war for  independence. B. The origins of the Revolution     1. The British wanted the Americans to pay their share of imperial expenses. a. Americans paid very low taxes. b. Parliament passed the Stamp Act (1765) to raise revenue. c. Vigorous protest from the colonies forced its repeal (1766). 2. Although no less represented than Englishmen themselves, many Americans believed  they had the right to make their own laws. a. Americans have long exercised a great deal of independence.
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b. Their greater political equality was matched by greater social and economic  equality--there was no hereditary noble or serf class. 3. The issue of taxation and representation ultimately led to the outbreak of fighting. C. The independence movement was encouraged by several factors.     1. The British refused to compromise, thus losing the support of many colonists. 2. The radical ideas of Thomas Paine, expressed in the bestselling  Common Sense greatly influenced public opinion in favor of independence. 3. The Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson and passed by the  Second Continental Congress (1776), further increased the desire of the colonists for  independence. 4. Although many Americans remained loyal to Britain, the independence movement had  widebased support from all sections of society.
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