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Unformatted text preview: 1 SUBTLE CARDINALS AND LINEAR ORDERINGS by Harvey M. Friedman Department of Mathematics Ohio State University friedman@math.ohiostate.edu www.math.ohiostate.edu/~friedman/ April 9, 1998 INTRODUCTION The subtle, almost ineffable, and ineffable cardinals were introduced in an unpublished 1971 manuscript of R. Jensen and K. Kunen, and a number of basic facts were proved there. These concepts were extended to that of ksubtle, kalmost ineffable, and kineffable cardinals in [Ba75], where a highly developed theory is presented. This important level of the large cardinal hierarchy was discussed in some detail in the survey article [KM78], section 20. However, discussion was omitted in the subsequent [Ka94]. This level is associated with the discrete/finite combinatorial independence results in [Fr98] and [Fr ]. In section 1 we give a self contained treatment of the basic facts about this level of the large cardinal hierarchy, which were established in [Ba75]. In particular, we give a proof that the ksubtle, kalmost ineffable, and kineffable cardinals define three properly intertwined hierarchies with the same limit, lying strictly above &total indescribability and strictly below &arrowing w . The innovation here is presented in section 2, where we take a distinctly minimalist approach. Here the subtle cardinal hierarchy is characterized by very elementary properties that do not mention closed unbounded or stationary sets. This development culminates in a characterization of the hierarchy 2 by means of a striking universal second order property of linear orderings. As is usual in set theory, we treat cardinals and ordinals as von Neumann ordinals. We use w for the first limit ordinal, which is also N. For sets X and integers k 1 , we let S k (X) be the set of all k element subsets of X. To orient the reader, we mention two results proved in this paper. The first is an important result from [Ba75] which is perhaps the simplest way of defining the kineffable cardinals from the point of view of set theoretic Ramsey theory. We say that l is kSRP if and only if l is a limit ordinal, and for every f:S k ( l ) f {0,1}, there exists a stationary E l such that f is constant on S k (E). Here SRP stands for "stationary Ramsey property." In [Ba75] it is proved that for all k 0 and ordinals l , l is kineffable if and only if l is a regular cardinal with (k+1)SRP. The second is a new result that is the most elementary way we know of defining the least ksubtle cardinal. We say that a linear ordering (X,<) is kcritical if and only if it has no endpoints, and: for all regressive f:X k f X, there exists b 1 < ... < b k+1 such that f(b 1 ,...,b k ) = f(b 2 ,...,b k+1 )....
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 Fall '08
 JOSHUA
 Math

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