ECE 209:Circuits and Electronics LaboratoryNotes for Lab 7 (Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Application)1. Digital-to-analog converter (DAC) — “1 least significant bit (LSB)”definesSmallest outputsteppossible•Now, signals are generated by a computer ascodesseparated by intervals of time.•To use those signals in the physical world, need to convert those abstract codes to voltages.•When codes are in binary, each bit canelectronicallycontrol a switch (e.g., atransistor); thoseswitches turn on and off currents intosumming junctionformed by operational amplifier.–Amplifiergainchanges outputscale— “clicking” heard in function generators (50 Ω output?).–Modern DAC’s use more complicated schemes. “1-bit DAC” technologiespulsemodulate.*Switches(as opposed to analog amp.) burn negligible power (wall switches vs. dimmers).*Increase “number of bits” by increasing samples per second (no extra hardware).
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