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Chapter 3 cognition

Chapter 3 cognition - Chapter 3 Perception 20:58 The left...

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Chapter 3 - Perception 20:58 The left side shows a clear photo (a) without and (b) with a grid. The right side shows a blocky image (c) without and (d) with a grid. This example demonstrates the illusion of clarity as we see the blocky image with the grid (d) as clearer than the blocky image without the grid (c). Both images are exactly the same but the grid creates a illusion that makes the image (d) look clearer even though one would expect the image without the grid (c) to be clearer (due to interference of the grid). Visual Agnosia: The inability of the brain to make sense of or make use of some part of otherwise normal visual stimulus and is typified by the inability to recognize familiar objects or faces . This is distinct from blindness, which is a lack of sensory input to the brain due to damage to the eye, optic nerve, or primary visual systems in the brain such as the optic radiations or primary visual cortex. Visual agnosia is often due to damage , such as stroke, in the posterior occipital and/or temporal lobe(s) in the brain. Lissauer (1890) suggested a distinction between apperceptive and associative agnosia , each representing a breakdown in different stages of the perceptual hierarchy. Apperception - deficit in the initial stages of sensory processing in which the perceptual representation is constructed. Association - deficit in mapping the final structural representation onto stored knowledge. o According to this differentiation, a patient with apperceptive agnosia would typically fail to copy or match basic visual stimuli, whereas an associative agnosic would experience “normal vision stripped of its meaning”. Original line drawings and the copies made by an associative agnostic - Rubens & Benson (1971).
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Time Spaces: The perceptual experience of time units such as days of the week or months of the year as occupying spatial locations outside of the body. E.g. when individuals with time spaces hear or see the names of various units of times such as days (e.g., Monday), weeks, and months (January), they experience seeing them in spatial patterns external to themselves. o Can be in different shapes in front of face, around body, etc. Seem to occur automatically, not consciously inhibited. Reported to be used to store important dates such as birthdays and due dates.
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Perception: Processing sensory information such that it produces a meaningful understanding of information. How sensory information is processed How conscious experiences related to the senses emerge How information in the environment guides action in the world Perception depends on both the external environment and the internal knowledge of the observer Stimulus: An entity in the external environment that can be perceived by and observer.
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Chapter 3 – Perception Perception as a Function of the Environment 20:58 Gibson’s theory of ecological optics In real-world situations, the sensory organs receive a complex array of information that can be directly apprehended and used to guide action.
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