Chapter 6 cognition

Chapter 6 cognition - Chapter 6: Memory Systems Tulving and...

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Chapter 6: Memory Systems Tulving and the Theory of Memory Systems - Endel Tulving explored how many and what kinds of memory systems there are ENCODING SPECIFICITY - principle of encoding speci±city : the way that an item is retrieved from memory depends on the way that it was stored in memory - ex. a smell triggers a memory of your grandmothers house - the word “bridge” can be understood as either an engineering structure or a card game. If the word “bridge” is encoded as a structure then the word “card game” will lead to the recall of the word - Tulving and Thomson’s (1973) experiment: - participants learned a list of 24 pairs of words; the pairs only weekly associated. - one word was printed in lower case, the other in upper case (ex. plant & BUG) - the ±rst word of each pair is called the “weak cue word” and the second word is the “target word” - after learning the list they were given tasks. - in one task they were shown a list of 24 words each of which was strongly associated with one member of the original list of target words (ex. insect is strongly associated with BUG); these new strongly associated words are called “strong cue words” - they were asked to free associate to the entire set of strong cue words they had been given by writing up to 6 words that came to mind for each strong cue word - participants generated about 18 of the original 24 target words in this way - how many of the words they had generated would they be able to recognize as target words? if they were able to recognize all the target words they had generated, they would have recognized about 18 words on average - they were only able to recognize about 4; meaning that the participants were able to generate target words without being able to recognize them as target words - then they were given the original 24 weak cue words and asked to recall the target words; they were able to recall about 15 - participants were generating words in response to the strong cues that were the same as the words that they learned in response to the weak cues (but not able to recognize the words they were generating) - thus, conditions can be created where information about a word event is available in memory in a form suf±cient for the production of the appropriate response and yet a literal copy of the word is not recognized; called recognition failure of recallable words - the participants encoded the target words in the context of the weak cues therefore the weak cues were a more effective retrieval cue - the strong cues were associated with the target cues because it is part of knowledge of words; this could be an example of two different kinds of memory EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY - episodic memory : the memory system concerned with personally experienced events - semantic memory : the memory system concerned with knowledge of words, concepts, and their relationships
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NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE INDEPENDENCE OF EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY - studies of brain-injured persons have provided evidence for the distinction between the
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Chapter 6 cognition - Chapter 6: Memory Systems Tulving and...

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