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Chapter 12 cog

Chapter 12 cog - Chapter 12 Intelligence and Creativity The...

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Chapter 12 : Intelligence and Creativity The concept of intelligence: historical backgrounds The Binet Simon Test In spite of variations in form and content, intelligence tend to be similar to the one originally invented by Binet in collabartion with Simon. They wanted to develop a test to measure the extent to which a child could benefit from schooling. They created a test designed to discriminate btwn normally and sub normally intelligent children. Intelligence: A fundamentally faculty, the alteration or lack of which is of the utmost importance for practical life Notice the practical nature of definition: intelligence is practical sense the faculty of adapting oneself to circumstances and consists of activities such as reasoning and comprehension. Look at some examples of Binet and Simon’s items in Table 12.1 The items are arranged in real order of increasing difficulty in the sense that children tend not to fail items at lower level and then pass items at a higher level. o The Binet simon scale allows children to be compared in terms of their mental age which is determined by the age level of the items a child can pass. o Terman developed the most successful adaption of the scale for the American context, its called Stanford –Benit. o One of Terman’s most durable innovation was the Intelligence quotient. IQ. o A useful measure of intelligence could be obtained by dividing the person’s mental age (MA) by his/her chronological age (CA) IQ= MA/CA X 100 The formula means that normal children will have IQs of 100. Charles Spearman It is not east to decide whether the world intelligence should be taken to refer to one ability or to many different abilities. If it is taken to mean many different abilities then it is not easy to determine precisely how these abilities are related to one another. Factors analysis: A statistical procedure that derives a number underlying factors that may explain the structure of a set of correlations. Factors analysis begins with a set of correlations between several measures, such as different mental tests. One then apples statistical procedure to derive a number of underlying factors describing the structure of the set of correlations. As a result of his analysis of the pattern of correlations between different tests of mental abilities, Spearman proposed what came to be called a two factors theory of Intelligence.
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This theory held that: “ every individual measurement of every ability. . Can be divided into two independent parts… The one part that has been called the general factor and denoted by the letter “g” it is so named bacuse although varying freely from individual it remains the same for any one individual… The second part has ben called the specific factor and denoted by the letter s. It not only varies from individual to individual, but even for any one individual from each ability to another. “ Spearman The two factors theory is a hierarchical model, in which general intelligence,
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Chapter 12 cog - Chapter 12 Intelligence and Creativity The...

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