Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 The Cell: Structure and Function Part...

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Chapter 2 – The Cell: Structure and Function Part 1 = Cell Chemical and Macromolecule Structure Part 2 = Cell Structure ± Covalent bonds - atoms share electrons. ± Covalent bonds formed between identical atoms are strongest because electrons are equally shared. ± Since electrons are equally shared, molecules are nonpolar and bonds between them are nonpolar covalent. ² Covalent bonds formed between different atoms share electrons unequally causing them to be polar Water is a good solvent because it is polar Molecules composed of polar covalent bonds are said to be hydrophilic (glucose) Molecules composed primarily of nonpolar covalent bonds are insoluble in water and said to be hydrophobic (lipids) Atoms, Ions, & Chemical Bonds
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Ionic bonds : One or more electrons from one atom are completely transferred to a second atom. The atom losing its electrons becomes a positively charged ion (cation ). The atom gaining an electron now has more electrons than protons so it becomes a negatively charged atom (anion ). Hydrogen Bonds ± When hydrogen bonds with an electronegative atom, it gains a slight positive charge and is weakly attracted to another electronegative atom. This weak attraction is a hydrogen bond ± Weak polar attraction between water molecules H + --------O - Hydrogen bonds are also responsible for many of the physical properties of water. surface tension capillary action (its ability to be pulled in a column) Biomolecules I. Carbohydrates II. Lipids III. Proteins IV. Nucleic Acids
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I.Carbohydrates are organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), as well as some polar covalent bonds. Function primarily as fuel. Types: Monosaccharides - Glucose Disaccharides - Sucrose Polysaccharides - Starch Glycogen - chain of glucose Dehydration Synthesis + Hydrolysis of covalent bonds II. LIPIDS : Also contain carbons and hydrogen atoms, but linked by nonpolar
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This note was uploaded on 08/05/2011 for the course APK 2105 taught by Professor Brooks during the Summer '07 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 The Cell: Structure and Function Part...

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