Chapters 7 and 8 - Chapter 7 - Nerve Cells and Electrical...

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1 Chapter 7 - Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling Anatomical Organization of Nervous System Neuron = basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Sensory neuron = conduct impulses into CNS Motor neuron = conduct impulses out of CNS Nucleus = grouping of neuron cell bodies in CNS. Pathway or Tract = bundles of CNS axons Continue • Ganglion = grouping of neuron cell bodies located in the PNS. •N e rv e = bundle of axons located in PNS – Somatic motor nerve = responsible for skeletal muscle contraction. – Autonomic
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2 Myelin and CNS + PNS Neurons PNS – Schwann Cells: CNS – Oligodendrocytes: • Myelin speeds the transmission of electrical information. • Many myelinating cells are needed to cover the axon of one neuron. Electrophysiology Action Potentials • Ions (e.g. sodium and potassium) are subject to both electrical and chemical gradients. •An ion is at equilibrium when there is no net force for it to move across the membrane: Chemical force = Electrical force Electrochemical force = 0 Ionic Potentials
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Ion Gating Leak Channels Gated Channels - Polypeptide chains that can open or close transmembrane channels 1. Ligand gated 2. Mechanically gated 3. Voltage gated Potassium Channels = Leak and Gated channels Sodium Channels = Most are gated (some are leak) Voltage Gated Channels • Have both activation and inactivation gates . • Progress from Closed to Open to Inactive to Closed to Open, etc. Closed State: Open State: Inactive State: Neurons and Electrical Activity • Excitable cells - neurons and muscle cells which can produce or conduct changes in membrane potential. • Ion Channels are responsible for the change in permeability, causing a in resting polarity (-65mv to -70mv). •Na + electrochemical gradient favors inward movement. •K
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This note was uploaded on 08/05/2011 for the course APK 2105 taught by Professor Brooks during the Summer '07 term at University of Florida.

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Chapters 7 and 8 - Chapter 7 - Nerve Cells and Electrical...

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