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Chapter 20 - American Foreign Policy Instruments Actors and...

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American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers Foreign policy is a policy that involves choice taking, like domestic policy, but additionally involves choices about relations with the rest of the world. President is chief initiator of foreign policy in USA. Instruments of Foreign Policy Foreign policies depend on three types of tools, military, economic, and diplomatic. The oldest instrument is war and the threat of war. Today, economic instruments are becoming weapons as potent as those of war. Control of oil, trade regulations, tariff policies, and monetary policies. Diplomacy is quietest. Involves ambassadors, summit talks, and working out treaties Actors of the World Stage Once foreign relations were almost exclusively transactions among nations in which military, economic, or diplomatic methods were used, but today’s world stage is more crowded. International Organizations United Nations is in New York City and was created in 1945. The General Assembly has 185 member nations. Each nation has one vote. General Assembly resolutions achieve a measure of collective legitimization when a broad international consensus is formed on some matter concerning relations among states. UN members agree to renounce war and respect certain human and economic freedoms. Seat of real power is Security Council. Security Council has 15 members, 5 are permanent: US, Britain, China, Russia, France. Others are chosen from session to session by General Assembly. Each permanent member has veto over Security Council decisions, including decisions committing UN to peacekeeping operations.
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