UNEP_-Capacity_Building_for_Sustainable.pdf - Capacity Building for Sustainable Development An overview of UNEP environmental capacity development

UNEP_-Capacity_Building_for_Sustainable.pdf - Capacity...

This preview shows page 1 out of 164 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 164 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Capacity Building for Sustainable Development: An overview of UNEP environmental capacity development initiatives. Printed on environmentally friendly paper. Published in December 2002. © 2002 UNEP. ISBN: 92-807-2266-2. Coordination team: Donald Kaniaru, Xia Kunbao; Strike Mkandla; Levis Kavagi. UNEP Division of Enviromental Policy Implementation. Editing and design: David Simpson. Additional design: Enid Ngaira. UNEP Division of Commmunications and Public Information The text was compiled and edited from material provided by UNEP Divisions, Regional Offices and Collaborating Centres. Divisional focal points: Hussein Abaza; Sylvia Bankobeza; Najib Bendahou; Aneta Buyse-Kalneiva; Dan Claasen; Beth Ingraham; Naomi Poulton; Neil Pratt; Vijay Samnotra; Cristina Zucca. All $ referred to are US$. The term ‘one billion’ refers to one thousand million. All World Wide Web addresses are prefixed http://. The designation of geographical entities in this report, and the presentation of the material herein, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the publisher or the participating organisations concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from UNEP. Capacity building for sustainable development: AN OVERVIEW OF UNEP ENVIRONMENTAL CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES Contents Chapter 1: Capacity building for sustainable development: an overview of UNEP environmental capacity development initiatives 9 Capacity building for sustainable development: the role of UNEP 11 The UNEP approach to capacity building 14 Developing and disseminating environmental knowledge products 15 Legal and institutional development and strengthening 18 Multilateral environmental agreements and conventions 20 Strengthening regional and national environmental management capacity 20 UNEP and the media: engaging civil society 21 Sustainable management of natural resources 23 Integrating economic development and environmental protection 24 Emerging issues and challenges for sustainable development Chapter 2: Legal and institutional development and strengthening 28 Environmental law: the Montevideo Programme 30 Enhancing the role of the judiciary 32 Global training of national legal experts 34 Interlinkages and synergies between MEAs 36 Compliance and enforcement 37 Harmonisation of national reporting 38 Law and institutions in Africa 42 Legal capacity building in Central and Eastern Europe 44 National legal technical assistance Chapter 3: Sustainable use and management of natural resources 50 The Global Programme of Action 53 The GEF and land-based sources of pollution 54 Capacity building on sewage management 56 The GPA clearing-house mechanism 57 The GPA: building national and regional capacity 60 The UNEP Regional Seas Programme 61 A time for revitalisation 62 Protecting coral reefs 64 Integrated coastal area and river basin management 66 Integrated water resources management: Nairobi River 68 Integrated water resources management: Latin America 70 Inter-American Strategy for Participation 71 Dams: capacity building to move beyond conflict 72 Awareness raising and information exchange 72 Combating desertification and land degradation 74 Implementing the UNCCD in West Asia 75 Land degradation and desertification success stories 76 Integrated land and water management: Limpopo Basin 77 Land care strategies in East and Southern Africa 78 Rehabilitating degraded rangelands 80 Information for soil and water conservation 81 The GEF Desert Margins Programme 82 Conservation and management of biodiversity Environment for development: people, planet, prosperity 4 83 84 86 87 88 Conserving biodiversity in Central and Eastern Europe Capacity building and UNEP-WCMC Conservation of below-ground biodiversity Conserving priority species in African forests National biosafety frameworks Chapter 4: Integrating economic development and environmental protection 92 The Montreal Protocol: protecting the ozone layer 94 The UNEP OzonAction programme 98 The UNEP Sustainable Energy Programme 100 Financing solar photovoltaic systems in South India 102 Brazil rural energy enterprise development 103 Finance for cleaner production 104 Transfer of environmentally sound technology 105 Tools for sustainable production and consumption 106 Trade and environment 108 Trade and environment country projects 110 Sustainable tourism 112 Chemicals and sustainable development 114 Chemicals and waste in West Asia 116 Managing persistent organic pollutants 117 Health and the environment Chapter 5: Environmental assessment, monitoring and reporting 120 GEO: capacity building for environmental assessment 122 Africa Environment Outlook 124 Capacity building within GIWA 126 Enhancing access to environmental information 130 Mitigation of and adaptation to climate change 132 Environmental emergency management 134 Flood events and their impacts in South Asia 136 Conflict and the environment 138 Awareness and preparedness at local level Chapter 6: Promoting public participation in environmental management 142 Best practices and success stories 144 Working with NGOs and civil society 146 Environmental education and training 148 Environmental training: Asia and the Pacific 150 Environmental training network for Latin America 151 Eco-schools for sustainable development 152 Women and natural resource management 154 Capacity building for children and youth 157 World Environment Day 158 UNEP: communicating with the world 160 Appendix 1: Acronyms 162 Appendix 2: UNEP contact information Working for a sustainable future 5 Foreword by the UNEP Executive Direc tor I t is hard to overstate the importance of the environment to sustainable development. It is the bedrock on which our survival lies. Any global programme of development created without taking the environment into account will truly be a house built on sand. Over the thirty years since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment paved the way for the establishment of UNEP that message has been gradually, but surely, incorporated into the global development debate. While there is still much to be done to ensure that the environment features in all planning and decision making by governments, intergovernmental bodies and the private sector, it can now honestly be said that the environment is firmly on the development agenda. The credit for that achievement should be broadly spread. The scientific community, civil society and non-governmental organisations have played a large part. So have the many organisations within the United Nations system, not least the special efforts of the current Secretary-General, Mr. Kofi Annan, through initiatives like the Global Compact and his report to the Millennium Assembly which informed the Millennium Declaration. Also deserving credit are the many governments and private sector organisations which are increasingly embracing the fundamental principles of sound environmental management: sustainable consumption, cleaner production, and the life-cycle and precautionary approaches which are central to the quest for sustainable development. As the voice for the environment within the United Nations system, UNEP has played, and continues to play, an essential role, not only as catalyst, advocate and educator, but as a key facilitator. Turning words into actions is no easy task. Often tools need to be developed, new skills learned, institutional infrastructures evolved. That is the subject of this book. Capacity building is central to the work of UNEP. In whatever field UNEP finds itself working, whether in assessing global environmental trends and conditions, developing international or national legal instruments for environmental management, or encouraging new partnerships and mind-sets within civil society and the private sector, capacity building is, and has always been, an integral component. As the international community prepares to face the challenges of sustainable development in a globalised world, with political will reinvigorated by the World Summit on Sustainable Development, UNEP capacity building work will be essential if we are to successfully attain the goals of a peaceful, prosperous and secure future for humankind. Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme Environment for development: people, planet, prosperity 6 Preface T he following pages detail the broad scope of UNEP capacity building for wise environmental management. They are a resource for the growing family of UNEP partners. Within these pages governments, intergovernmental organisations, national, regional and global institutions, academia, civil society and the private sector will find ideas and examples of how UNEP can help make real their plans and aspirations for a better, more sustainable world. This series of examples of areas in which UNEP works, and the activities it performs within those areas, is not exhaustive. Nonetheless, it gives a taste of how UNEP is supporting the environmental pillar of sustainable development. The purpose of such a compilation is twofold. First, UNEP wants to inform the governments, institutions and citizens of developing countries and countries with economies in transition about capacity building opportunities available from UNEP. Second, it wants to encourage donors and other partners to join UNEP in meeting the urgent needs of environmental capacity development. Fulfilling those needs is essential for creating a sustainable future. The increasing impacts of climate change and urbanisation; the impending water crisis in much of the world; the over-exploitation of the world’s oceans, forests and other natural resources: all demand innovative thinking, new approaches, and the capacity to implement them. Sometimes this means strengthening legal infrastructure, sometimes it means developing new institutional mechanisms, sometimes it means transferring appropriate technology to where it is needed. These are among the activities that UNEP, in collaboration with a growing family of partners, is supporting. By building capacity across the globe and in every sector where sound environmental management is an issue, UNEP is helping to fulfil the goals for a sustainable future set out in Agenda 21 and reinforced at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. Donald Kaniaru, Director, UNEP Division of Environmental Policy Implementation Working for a sustainable future 7 © UNEP / Agustin Sagasti Environment for development: people, planet, prosperity 8 1 Capacit y building for sustainable development : the role of UNEP Working for a sustainable future 9 Capacit y building for sustainable development : the role of UNEP The primary function of UNEP in caring for the environment in the framework of sustainable development is to motivate and inspire. UNEP’s goal is to raise the level of environmental action and awareness at all levels of society. © Larry Prosor/UNEP UNEP coordinates the environmental activities of all United Nations entities and works in close partnership with governments, NGOs and the scientific and professional communities. O ver the past several years it has become clear that capacity building is central to the quest for sustainable development. If society is going to realise the goals of Agenda 21, which were strongly reaffirmed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), the ability of regional organisations, national governments and civil society to address the principal challenges of sustainable development must be reinforced. Capacity building has therefore become a core goal of technical assistance provided by the United Nations system. Instead of being regarded as merely a component or by-product of development programmes and products, capacity building has become a principal and explicit priority of all United Nations activities. Chapter 37 of Agenda 21 makes clear the nature and importance of capacity building. It is the key to the Agenda’s successful implementation. Without the necessary capacity, developing countries and countries with economies in transition will be unable to identify and solve their own development problems. But, to acquire the necessary skills and institutional infrastructure these countries need assistance. The three pillars of sustainable development—social progress, economic growth and environmental protection—are inextricably linked. Each depends on the others to support a sustainable future for humankind. Over the past three decades understanding of the role of the environment in our future, and its fragility under the growing pressure from human activity, has grown immensely. Yet the environment is still by no means an equal partner in the development debate. Long-term environmental considerations are still subjugated to the short-term demands of economic growth and social progress. What is too frequently overlooked is how today’s apparent socio-economic advances can Environment for development: people, planet, prosperity 10 become tomorrow’s disasters when their environmental impact is not taken into account. Increased climate variability, the growing global water crisis, the diminishing productivity of our soils and fisheries and the unprecedented loss of invaluable biological diversity across the globe are just a few examples of how the environment on which we all depend is coming under ever greater strain. Because sustainable development involves a complex interplay between economic, environmental and socio-cultural considerations, it follows that for a country to achieve sustainable development it must consider all these issues in making short- and long-term development plans. However, environmental considerations cannot be appreciated if there is lack of up-to-date information, knowledge, tools and skills to address the various issues. Therefore, if the needs of the present generation are to be satisfied without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, capacity building should be central to the sustainable development agenda. This priority is strongly reflected in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, where capacity building, especially for developing countries and countries with economies in transition, features prominently throughout. The UNEP approach to capacity building It is the mandated role of UNEP, as the voice for the environment within the United Nations system, to promote the incorporation of environmental protection into development planning at all levels. UNEP also has the responsibility of helping national, regional and global bodies to develop the capacity to do so. The UNEP mission statement is a manifesto for capacity building. The organisation’s role is “to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations.” How UNEP fulfils its mandate is the subject of this book. Sustainable development is the goal. Capacity building is a means to achieving it. The definition of capacity building is broad. It is a holistic enterprise, encompassing a multitude of activities. It means building abilities, relationships and values that will enable organisations, groups and individuals to improve their performance and achieve their development objectives. It includes strengthening the processes, systems and rules that influence collective and individual behaviour and performance in all development endeavours. And it means enhancing people’s technical ability and willingness to play new developmental roles and adapt to new demands and situations. What does that mean in practical terms? UNEP develops environmental capacity in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in three principal ways: • Facilitating and supporting environmental institution building by governments at regional, sub-regional, national and local levels. Working for a sustainable future Capacity building and Agenda 21 Paragraph 137 of the WSSD Plan of Implementation states that UNEP and other United Nations agencies should “strengthen their contribution to sustainable development programmes and the implementation of Agenda 21 at all levels, particularly in the area of promoting capacity building.” The details of Agenda 21 were agreed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It remains the global blueprint for sustainable development. Chapter 37 of Agenda 21, ‘National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity building’, notes that: • “The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the capacity of its people and its institutions as well as by its ecological and geographical conditions. • “Specifically, capacity building encompasses the country’s human, scientific, technological, organisational, institutional and resource capabilities. • “A fundamental goal of capacity building is to enhance the ability to evaluate and address the crucial questions related to policy choices and modes of implementation among development options, based on an understanding of environmental potentials and limits and of needs as perceived by the people of the country concerned. As a result, the need to strengthen national capacities is shared by all countries. • “The overall objectives of endogenous capacity building in this programme area are to develop and improve national and related sub-regional and regional capacities and capabilities for sustainable development…” Environmental capacity building also features strongly in Agenda 21 chapters 34, 38, 39 and 40, and throughout the 2002 Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, which builds upon and reaffirms the priorities set out in Agenda 21. The full texts of Agenda 21 and the WSSD Plan of Implementation are available as downloads from the UNEP web site . 11 The UNEP mandate for capacity building UNEP is the designated authority of the United Nations system in environmental issues at the global and regional level. Its mandate is to coordinate the development of environmental policy consensus by keeping the global environment under review and bringing emerging issues to the attention of governments and the international community for action. The mandate and objectives of UNEP emanate from United Nations General Assembly resolution 2997 (XXVII) of 15 December 1972 and subsequent amendments adopted at UNCED in 1992, the Nairobi Declaration on the Role and Mandate of UNEP, adopted at the Nineteenth Session of the UNEP Governing Council, and the Malmö Ministerial Declaration of 31 May, 2000. The Nairobi Declaration on the Role and Mandate of the United Nations Environment Programme further elaborated the existing UNEP policy mandate as follows: • To provide policy advice based on the best scientific and technical capabilities available. • To advance the implementation of agreed international norms and policies. • To serve as an effective link between the scientific community and policy makers. • To provide policy and advisory services in key areas of institution building to governments and other institutions. UNEP’s responsibilities include: • Promoting international cooperation in the field of the environment and recommending appropriate policies. • Catalysing action to address major environmental threats. • Monitor...
View Full Document

  • Summer '20
  • Dr joseph

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes