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Unformatted text preview: On Special Needs and Inclusive Education in China in the Perspective of Care Ethics Paper presented to seminar of the Centre for Research in Beliefs, Rights & Values in Education(BRaVE) on Friday 25 th May in Froebel College Hou Jingjing Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This paper makes a diachronic and synchronic analysis of care ethics in China. China’s past special education mainly concerns Confucius’ caring educational thoughts, and China’s contemporary caring special and inclusive education is illustrated in the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives. Macroscopically speaking, since the end of the last century, China’s schooling began to shift from “obedience ethics” to care ethics, in China’s context, care ethics involves more than individual care, but highlights the construction of caring social policy and the pursuit of social justice and the integration of social value and individual needs. Practice of educational care in China concerns multifold agents and is manifested in aspects such as educational institutional constructions, schools’ education experiment, curriculum reform, teacher-student relations, family support and social ethos. In microscopic analysis, the paper presents some typical case studies on different schooling levels, including the author’s first person experience and reflection. The essay concludes that China’s inclusive education enterprise is following a multi-pattern approach with care ethics as a penetrative and influential factor or rationale. Key words: China, special needs education, inclusion, care ethics This paper makes a diachronic and synchronic analysis of care ethics in China. China’s past special education mainly concerns Confucius’ (551 BC - 479 BC) caring educational thoughts, and China’s contemporary caring special and inclusive education is illustrated in the macroscopic and microscopic perspectives. In this article, care and caring are sometimes used as synonyms for variation of wording. The author of this paper takes a multi-dimensional research stance, presenting the theme as an insider, an outsider and a “mid-sider” or a bridge. As an insider, in terms of time, space and schooling trajectory, the author is a woman paralytic in legs since Year 6 due to a medical accident for twenty-one years, has lived in a tiny county, a small city and a provincial capital city Nanjing in China for years respectively, and has experienced ten years “home-study” (1988-98) and six years inclusive postgraduate and PhD schooling, thus has been acquainted personally with a somewhat panorama of China’s special education in the past two decades. As an EdD and university teacher, the author has expertise in various international approaches to special needs education and is capable to do grass-root research and to theorize observations and relevant phenomena neutrally. As the chairperson of the Disabled People’s Association of Nanjing, a Model Self-empowered Person with...
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- Spring '11