The_59th_Annual_Western_Social_Science_A.pdf - The 59th Annual Western Social Science Association(WSSA Conference San Francisco CA Conference Abstracts

The_59th_Annual_Western_Social_Science_A.pdf - The 59th...

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Unformatted text preview: The 59th Annual Western Social Science Association (WSSA) Conference San Francisco, CA Conference Abstracts AFRICAN AND AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES Stephen Brown, California Baptist University Antoinette S. Christophe, Michael O. Adams & Carroll G. Robinson Texas Southern University “U. S. Cyber-Age: The Impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on African Americans” Humans are implementing and designing AI and these machines are fed massive data many times by the emotionally-flawed. Kate Crawford, Microsoft researcher stated, “The journalists found...real disparity between African Americans who were being labeled as potential recidivists versus white people’s system that produce bias in its very design” (Glaser, 2016). The U.S. goal is to create technology that cognitively elucidate problems and attain goals effectively and efficiently. Accordingly, the Computational Theory of Mind sees the human brain as computer; the mind as the program that the brain runs. With AI there’s a disconnect, the brain (machine) isn’t linked to the mind (computer program), instead is interceded with decision made by design. AI may regulate who gets jobs, medical treatment, mortgage, or parole. Software profiles by name, if it is ethnic or not. What ethical consideration are needed regarding the Cyber-Age, as it relates to African Americans in the U.S.? This research explores AI bias that may infiltrate algorithms and create greater racial and cultural divides within the U.S. Theodore S. Ransaw, Michigan State University “Dad Play - More Than You Think: How Six Fathers in Mid-Michigan Use Sports As a Tool for Engagement, Accessibility, and Responsibility to Increase the Educational Outcomes of Their Children” Caregiver stereotypes typically favor a mother’s parenting style more so than a father’s. Consequently, a father’s parental contribution is often undervalued. While fathers from many cultures are affected by the preference of female parenting styles, Black males are especially troubled by negative preconceived norms. Could the fact that, traditionally, men have only been given space to parent through sports be the reason that contributions of fathers in general, and Black fathers are not valued equally? This study examined how African American father’s relationship with their children and the mother of their children affect their involvement about the educational outcomes of their children. The participants were African American fathers between the ages of 18-52 with children between the ages of 13-25. The results suggest that sports played a key and interrelated role in fostering positive educational outcomes in the three areas of fathering involvement: accessibility, engagement, and responsibility. Ken Corbit & Cody Dockery University of Alabama “An Ideological Criticism of T.I.’s War Zone” Contrasts between jurisdictional paradigms and community expectations are at extremes. While the militarization of law enforcement advances, so too do the number of protests in multiple cities throughout America. There seems to be distinct opposition in the way each of the parties view one another, and as such the gulf appears to be increasing rather than narrowing. While 2 communities and governments find opposing stances, both the tension and potential for conflict between the two increase. This research looks at specific ideologies that are in play, utilizing T.I.’s “War Zone” as a rhetorical artifact. This research utilizes a critical methodology to further ideological analysis of the song. This is done through disclosure, identification, and interpretation of ideologies within the lyrics and composition, and an extensive review of existing research on those ideologies. The research reveals T.I.’s shift to conscious rap as a rhetorical tool to identify social inclusion, social control of the black community and police militarization. George H. Junne, Jr., University of Northern Colorado “Immigration, Emigration And Communities: African Americans In Colorado” The presence of African Americans in what is now Colorado can be traced to York of the Lewis and Clark expedition, the explorations of John C. Fremont and others, plus additional historical records of trappers, gold miners and traders. In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, there were also important emigration plans that focused on African Americans resettling to Africa. Further, there were probably about twenty-five African American communities founded in the state, but many were unincorporated. This presentation will highlight some of the diverse experiences of Colorado’s African Americans. Teresa F. Divine, Central Washington University “Finding a New Measure for Historically Black Colleges and Universities” Many HBCUs are struggling with retention and graduation rates. A question that this presentation will attempt to answer: are HBCUs graduating black students at an equal or higher rate than Predominately White Institutions (PWIs)? Furthermore, are there alternative ways of looking at this issue? Some would argue it depends on the actual measure used and the PWIs schools HBCUs are compared against. This presentation will discuss the unique educational, cultural and social features of HBCUs and how to measure their successes. Barbara Hewins-Maroney & William Austin University of Nebraska Omaha “Mindset and African American Student Achievement: An Educational Challenge” Initial results of a study involving mindset and the academic achievement of African American high school students will be presented. Mindset involves an individual’s core beliefs about themselves which influences a person’s inclination to learn and overcome challenges. Did African American high school students in a Midwestern urban community primarily have a fixed mindset (fear of failure, insecure, and risk avoidant) or a growth mindset (self-directed, resilient, and academically tenacious)? Was their mindset different than other racial/ethnic group respondents in the sample? Based on initial findings, the results may not surprise but raise troubling questions about academic support and quality of instruction. Theodore S. Ransaw, Michigan State University “Hood Winked: Exploring, Exposing and Eliminating Miss-truth’s About African American Males and Education Looking for heuristic ways to educate Black males, researchers have been searching for the best approaches to support Black boys academically. Using evidence-based practices, this presentation will show that not all commonly excepted interventions have significant gains and many assumed positive educational outcomes decrease over time. This presentation will help 3 attendees critically examine how same race teachers and classrooms, cultural competency, as well as charter schools impact the lives of Black male students. 4 AMERICAN INDIAN STUDIES Michelle Hale Arizona State University Tennille Marley Arizona State University “#NoDAPL” Laurence Armand French, Western New Mexico University “Dakota Access Pipeline Controversy: 150-years of government deceit” The current Dakota Access controversy involving the completion of the 1,200-mile pipeline that is intended to take sand oil resources from western North Dakota to an Illinois terminal has it foundation: (1) in the 30-year official Indian Wars (1862-1892); (2) the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie that created the Great Sioux Reservation that now encompasses the oil fields and pipeline; and (3) the 1885 Major Crimes Act that federalized crimes by Indians in Indian Country. Despite the Fort Laramie treaty, white settlers illegally entered the Great Sioux Reservation during the Black Hills gold rush provoking the Battle of the Little Big Horn resulting and Lt. Colonel Custer’s defeat along with the Black Hills being confiscated by the U.S. Government and other punitive measures including the murder of both Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse and the U.S. Army killing of hundreds unarmed Indians at Wounded Knee in December 1890. Collectively, these actions of deceit contributed to the emergence of the American Indian Movement (AIM) during the 1960s and 1970s resulting in Wounded Knee II. This paper exam the U.S. Government’s Indian Policies that fueled these situations ultimately leading to the current Indian protest movement. Robert A. Bell, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire “The Relevance of the Fort Laramie Treaties of 1851 and 1868 Today” The treaties of Fort Laramie 1851 and 1868 have may implications among the Lakota Sioux tribes today. Article 3 of the 1851 Treaty and article 1 of the 1868 Treaty both describe the commitment of the United States to protect and compensate the Lakota and other Plains tribes if non-Native Americans enter and do damage to any person living on the reservation or the environment of the reservation. Today there is a situation on the Standing Rock Reservation on North Dakota that these two articles of the Fort Laramie Treaties along with a few other minor articles from the same treaties apply. The issue is the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline in which many Native Americans are joining the people of Standing Rock to stop the construction of the pipeline across reservation land. This is just one of many issues that the Fort Laramie Treaties cover that the Lakota Sioux face today not just on Standing Rock but on other reservations as well. These treaties were made an d agreed upon over one hundred years ago but are still binding agreements that the United States must honor, and protect the rights of Native American through these treaties. 5 Moana Vercoe, TURN Research “Pipelines, Protests and Costs: A Human Rights Analysis of the Dakota Access Pipeline” This paper offers an examination of the Dakota Access Pipeline combining legal and economic perspectives. It examines events related to the water protectors at the Sacred Stone Camp, Oceti Sakowan Camp and other sites on the Cannon Ball community on the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation. This analysis presents a timeline of events on the ground, in the courts and within the political arena in examining the policy, policing, and legal responses to the actions of water protectors. An estimation of the costs involved in pushing the pipeline forward in spite of resistance and legal challenges is counterbalanced by a discussion of the long term implications of policy and policing decisions in relation to human rights and the rights of indigenous peoples. Michael Lerna “Oceti Sakowin-Mni Waconi: World Water Wars at Standing Rock” As national attention shifts toward Lakota Country, honing in on the standoff at Oceti Sakowin, the dialog about what is going on has been vastly diverse, ranging from nonchalance to outrage. Most of the information has been disseminated through social media. This paper will, hopefully, reframe the way the world processes the actions taking place on the ground, as well as the motives behind those actions. We will offer suggestions on future posts about the #NoDAPL movement. It has been observed that disinterest and ignorance about Indigenous sovereignty has kept a large portion of the population unaware of the standoff taking place. Additionally, clear communication about the importance of observing, respecting and enacting Lakota sovereignty can be further articulated by those opposing the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline. “Advocacy for Environment & Water Rights” Athena Talk, Northern Arizona University “Uranium, Radiation, and Radon Education and Outreach” The Navajo Nation has had a long history of uranium mining dating back to 1944 and lasting until 1986, when mines were shut down due to radiation exposure. However, more than 500 abandoned uranium mines left behind. The purpose of the Uranium, Radiation and Radon Education and Outreach internship is to produce adequate ways to communicate with tribal members about the effect uranium mining has had on the environment and one’s health. Although, the federal and Navajo government established a Community Outreach Network which includes representatives from: EPA, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Energy, Indian Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Navajo Nation Environmental Protection Agency, Navajo Nation Abandoned Mine Lands/Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, and the Navajo Nation Department of Health. However, with this process there have been shortfalls in how these agencies proceed with communication. Many times they continue to use scientific words that many individuals do not understand. It is the goal of this paper is to discuss the best practices to educate Navajo residents and inform grades K-12 curriculum that educates students of the harms that uranium, radiation, and radon has on the environment and health. 6 Veronica Hirsch, University of Arizona “Watering Tribal Homelands: Examining Water Rights Settlement Agreement Criteria” Indian reserved water right settlements and negotiation processes illustrate complex relationships between federal Indian law, various water right doctrines, and standards used to quantify settlement rights. Each of the approximately thirty negotiated settlements that have been ratified by Congress possess unique attributes, including water right priority date; quantified amounts and amount determination methodology; intended water uses; and the number of settlement parties. Settlement negotiations that define and delimit tribal water right claims impact each reservation community’s social, cultural, political, and legal framework. Indian reservations must serve as ecologically and economically viable, permanent homelands and accelerating climate change will affect water resource availability and usage that necessitates balancing settlement criteria enforcement with hydrologically responsible resource management. A brief review of water rights doctrine and court case summaries reveals disparities between individual states regarding what standards and formulas are used to quantify reservation water resource requirements. Tribes contemplating a settlement may use this information to advocate for a methodology that best reflects their reservation’s economic, geographical, and geophysical characteristics. Reviewed settlement criteria are categorized and listed so that tribes may identify and communicate their primary water resource concerns, expectations, and priorities and create a community-specific settlement agreement. Nicholas C. Peroff, University of Missouri-Kansas City “Indian Termination Policy by Any Other Name: A Book Review” In a new book entitled The New Trail of Tears: How Washington is Destroying American Indians, Naomi Schaefer Riley argues that America’s modern policies toward Native Americans deny Indians ownership of their land, refuse them access to the free market and legal protections due to them as American citizens. Dustcover comments describe the book as a powerful antidote to the romantic nonsense pervading our ¦history of American Indian groups and a candidate for the book-of-the-year on racial issues in the United States. This paper critically reviews Riley’s book and in doing so challenges the opinion that Indian termination is a distant political artefact of the 1950s that could never to return in the United States. It concludes with an examination of several reasons why Indian termination policy, by any name, should not be pursued in the 21st century. Chris Jocks, Northern Arizona University “Flagstaff Indigenous Community Forums: A Process for Bordertown Justice and Strengthening Community” Flagstaff, Arizona is a small city at the foot of the San Francisco Peaks, a being and a place of significance to 13 Indigenous nations. It is also a border town, adjacent or proximate to the territories of the Dine, the Hopi people, and others. Native people who live, work, shop, or visit in the city experience injustices and alienation common to border towns everywhere. In response to a proposal to declare Indigenous Peoples Day in October, 2015, a group of Indigenous residents responded with a challenge: Instead of an empty declaration, could we create a process in which the City would revisit its relationship with Indigenous people, listen to what they have to say about their experiences, struggles, ideas, and demands; and build an action plan with community members and organizations to actually improve the conditions under which Native people live? On the basis of this effort, could we let Indigenous people decide whether the City deserves to declare an Indigenous Peoples Day? 7 This presentation will describe this process, which is underway and of which I am a participant. I will discuss it as an example of Indigenous community-based participatory research and action, employing principles of Indigenous methodology. “Resilience” June Lorenzo, Arizona State University “Using a Pueblo chthonic lens to examine Spanish colonialism in New Mexico” Most of current discourse on the Doctrine of Discovery analyzes the doctrine as realized in common law systems. Yet in the three and a half centuries between issuance of the Bull Inter Caetera of 1493, which provided one source of justification for the Doctrine, and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, Pueblo peoples in New Mexico were forced to contend with Spain and its exercise of the Doctrine of Discovery under a civil law tradition. This history necessitates a reach for analysis beyond the common law in order to examine the Spanish civil law tradition as it played out in New Mexico during Spanish colonial years. My paper discusses the Spanish civil law tradition and its impacts on the chthonic or indigenous legal traditions among Pueblo peoples. Because indigenous legal traditions relate to our daily lives as Pueblo peoples, this paper transcends a narrow legalistic look at our colonial past. Rather, Spanish colonialism altered the sociocultural and political landscape for Pueblo peoples in ways that we continue to address; we were raced, gendered and sexualized as part of the colonial agenda facilitated by dominant institutions including the military, civil government, courts and the Catholic Church. James Riding In “Pawnee Survival during a Time of Death and Cultural Genocide” Pawnee history in the late 1800s and early 1900s has received scant scholarly attention. This paper addresses this void in our knowledge by examining how several Pawnee families dealt with the U.S. policies of coercive assimilation and allotments during a time of death and dying in a new environment in Oklahoma. It examines the ways in which they adapted to the harsh realities of life under white American totalitarian rule as they struggle to survive through economic hardships, diseases, cultural suppression, and other forms of myopic paternalism. An examination of these families indicates that Pawnees took different approaches to give meaning to their lives. Some took up the Ghost Dance and peyote worship in defiance of U.S. objections while others embraced Christianity and assimilation and still others sought to carry on the old values, beliefs, and customs they had brought with them from their Nebraska homeland. It was the youth who became the victims of an alien educational system that aimed to strip them of their history, cultural identity, and traditional roles. Despite its impacts on Pawnee sovereignty, landholdings, human rights, religious freedom, health, welfare, and cultural integrity, U.S. policy failed to transform the Pawnees into mirror images of white Americans. Marianne Nielsen, Northern Arizona University “Conquest by Rape and Violence: Crimes against Indigenous Women” Crimes against Indigenous women have occurred since First Contact. The colonial ideology of Indigenous inferiority and patriarchy are discussed as a means of justifying rape and other forms of violence against women as part of conquest, contributing to the high sexual victimization and domestic violence rates that exist today, and...
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  • Summer '20
  • Dr joseph
  • Native Americans in the United States, Northern Arizona University

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