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13.06.2020Rome - Wikipedia7/3915th-century illustration depictingthe Sack of Rome (410) by theVisigothic king Alaric IDetail view on an illustration byRaphael portraying the crowning ofCharlemagne in Old Saint Peter'sBasilica, on 25 December 800society continued right through the sixth century and probably prevented the population from fallingfurther.[49]The figure of 450,000–500,000 is based on the amount of pork, 3,629,000 lbs. distributed topoorer Romans during five winter months at the rate of five Roman lbs per person per month, enough for145,000 persons or 1/4 or 1/3 of the total population.[50]Grain distribution to 80,000 ticket holders at thesame time suggests 400,000 (Augustus set the number at 200,000 or one-fifth of the population).The Bishop of Rome, called thePope, was important since the early days ofChristianity because of the martyrdom of both the apostlesPeter andPaulthere. The Bishops of Rome were also seen (and still are seen by Catholics)as the successors of Peter, who is considered the first Bishop of Rome. Thecity thus became of increasing importance as the centre of theCatholicChurch. After thefall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, Rome wasfirst under the control ofOdoacer and then became part of theOstrogothicKingdom before returning toEast Roman control after theGothic War,which devastated the cityin 546 and550. Its population declined frommore than a million in 210 AD to 500,000 in 273[51]to 35,000 after theGothic War (535–554),[52]reducing the sprawling city to groups ofinhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins, vegetation,vineyards and market gardens.[53]It is generally thought the population ofthe city until 300 AD was 1 million (estimates range from 2 million to 750,000) declining to 750–800,000 in400 AD, 450–500,000 in 450 AD and down to 80–100,000 in 500 AD (though it may have been twicethis).[54]After theLombard invasion of Italy, the city remained nominally Byzantine, but in reality the popes pursued apolicy of equilibrium betweenthe Byzantines, theFranks, and theLombards.[55]In 729, the Lombard kingLiutprand donated the north Latium town ofSutri to the Church, starting its temporal power.[55]In 756,Pepinthe Short, after having defeated the Lombards, gave the Pope temporal jurisdiction over the Roman Duchy andtheExarchate of Ravenna, thus creating thePapal States.[55]Since this period, three powers tried to rule thecity: the pope, the nobility (together with the chiefs of militias, the judges, the Senate and the populace), andthe Frankish king, as king of the Lombards, patricius, and Emperor.[55]These three parties (theocratic,republican, and imperial) were a characteristic of Roman life during the entire Middle Ages.[55]On Christmasnight of 800,Charlemagne was crowned in Rome as emperor of theHoly Roman Empire byPope Leo III: onthat occasion the city hosted for the first time the two powers whose struggle for control was to be a constant ofthe Middle Ages.

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