Lesson 1 Descriptive Statistics

Lesson 1 Descriptive Statistics - Probability and...

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Probability and Statistics
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STATISTICS - A body of mathematical techniques or processes for gathering, organizing, and interpreting data. - a branch of mathematics concerned with the systematic collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data to be able to draw inferences, valid conclusions or decisions.
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Descriptive Statistics - concerned with the collection of data to yield meaningful information. - Methods summarizing or describing important characteristics of a set of data. Inferential Statistics - the methods concerned with the analysis of smaller group of data (sample) leading to prediction/ inferences/ generalization about a larger set of data (population)
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Important Terms 1. Population - the complete collection of all elements to be studied. 2. Sample - a sub-collection of elements drawn from a population. 3. Parameter – is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population. 4. Statistic – is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample. 5. Data – are observations that have been collected. - what the data is all about - how were the data collected - from where was it obtained 6. Qualitative Data – representing attributes or non-numeric data. 7. Quantitative Data consist of numbers representing counts or measurements which can be discrete or
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4 Levels of Measurement of Data 1. Nominal level – is characterized by data that consists of names, labels, or categories. These data can not be arranged in an ordering scheme. They can not be used for calculations. Ex: Name, Program, Gender 2. Ordinal Level characterized by data that can be arranged in some order, however, differences between data can not be determined. Provide information about relative comparisons. Can not be used for calculations. Ex: Ranking 3. Interval Level – similar to the ordinal in the sense that it provide information about relative comparison with the additional property that the difference between any two is meaningful. These data do not have a natural zero starting point. Ex: Year of Birth, Body temperature 4. Ratio Level – is a modified interval level to include the natural zero starting point. For these data, differences and ratios are meaningful. These can be used in calculations. Ex: Weight, age, height
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Methods of Data Collection 1. Direct Method or Interview Method – expensive and time consuming method but gives researchers a more valid results. This is mainly used for small sample size. 2. Indirect Method or Questionnaire Method less expensive and requires a shorter time but might give a high possibility of incorrect responses. 3. Registration or Documentary Analysis uses data/ facts/ information on file. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 07/31/2011 for the course MATH 30 taught by Professor Teodoro during the Spring '11 term at Mapúa Institute of Technology.

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Lesson 1 Descriptive Statistics - Probability and...

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