4.1.Depressants.Inhalants.alcohol

4.1.Depressants.Inhalants.alcohol - Barbiturates...

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Depressants: Benzodiazepines, Inhalants, Alcohol ! Depressants = drugs that slow activity in the central nervous system ! Include prescription drugs that treat _________________ ! Alcohol is the most widely used depressant ! __________________ are the most widely prescribed depressants Depressants ! Introduced in the early 1900s to reduce anxiety or induce sleep ! Grouped on the basis of the time of onset and duration of activity ! Low-dose, long-acting forms used for daytime relief of anxiety ! Higher-dose, shorter-acting forms used to induce sleep Barbiturates ! Ultra-short acting barbiturate ! Administered intravenously ! Used as an anesthetic for brief surgical procedures ! Also used to make people relaxed and talkative (truth serum) ! Thiopental is currently the first of the three drugs administered for the death penalty Sodium Pentathol
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! Can produce psychological and physical dependence ! Reported overdoses ! Some still available as a prescription drug, although largely replaced by benzodiazepines Barbiturates ! 1960: Introduction of chlordiazepoxide (Librium), the first commercially marketed benzodiazepine ! 1970s: Diazepam (Valium), a lower-dose benzodiazepine, became for a time the best seller among all prescription drugs Benzodiazepines ! Dependence and overdose can occur ! Overdose deaths more likely for drugs sold in higher doses ! ___________________ more likely with drugs that have a rapid onset of effects ! ___________________ more likely with drugs that have a short duration of action ! More differences among the barbiturates and among the benzodiazepines than there are between these two classes of drugs? Benzodiazepines ! Produces profound intoxication when mixed with alcohol ! Changes in laws and in the formulation of the pills should reduce its abuse Benzodiazepines: Rohypnol
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! Anxiolytics ! As sleeping agents ! As anticonvulsants Beneficial Uses: Summary ! Anxiolytics (anxiety-reducers) ! Sedatives often prescribed to reduce anxiety ! Four benzodiazepines (Xanax, Ativan, Klonopin, Valium) are among the top 100 most commonly prescribed medications in the United States Beneficial Uses ! As sleeping pills ! Taking a large enough dose of a hypnotic drug helps a person get to sleep more quickly ! Today, fewer hypnotics are prescribed than in the past, and they are usually taken for only a few nights at a time Beneficial Uses ! __________________ hypnotics ! Zolpidem (Ambien) binds selectively to GABA-A receptors ! Rapid onset and short duration of action ! Eszopiclone (Lunesta) ! Approved for long-term use Beneficial Uses
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