5.2.Opioids

5.2.Opioids - MORPHINE ! 1806: Active ingredient in O...

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OPIOIDS CULTIVATION OF OPIUM ! Opium is produced and available for collection for only a few days of the plant’s (_____________ ) life ! Opium harvesters use a sharp, clawed tool to make shallow cuts into the unripe seedpods ! The resinous substance that oozes from the cuts is scraped and collected MORPHINE ! 1806: Active ingredient in opium isolated ! Named morphium after Morpheus, ___________ ! 1832: Another alkaloid of opium discovered: codeine MORPHINE ! Medically useful characteristics ! ________________ ! Pure chemical ! Known potency ! Use spread due to two developments
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HEROIN ! Two acetyl groups added to morphine in the laboratory, creating diacetylmorphine ! Given the brand name _____ ! Placed on the market in 1898 by Bayer ! Acts like morphine except that it is more potent and acts more quickly HISTORY OF OPIOIDS: PATTERNS OF ABUSE ! Production and Purity ! Efforts made to lower the number of heroin users ! End of the “French connection” in the early 1970s ! By 1975, most U.S. heroin came from Mexico ! Opium processed into morphine by a different process, resulting in pure heroin with a brown or black color, so-called Mexican brown or _______________ CURRENT PATTERNS OF ABUSE ! Heroin used in U.S. is currently produced mostly in South America, Mexico, and Southeast Asia ! Purity of heroin from South America is higher than
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5.2.Opioids - MORPHINE ! 1806: Active ingredient in O...

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