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Osteology01 - OSTEOLOGY AND ARTHROLOGY A Functions of the...

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Unformatted text preview: OSTEOLOGY AND ARTHROLOGY A. Functions of the Skeleton 0 Provides a supporting framework for the body 0 Provides attachment points for muscles, creating a lever system that enables body movement 0 Provides protection of vital organs 0 Blood cell formation — red bone marrow produces red and white blood cells and platelets. Bone is richly supplied with blood vessels. 0 Mineral storage — calcium and phosphorus B. Structure of Bone See Lab Manual, pages 1-8 to 1-9 The major building blocks of bone are calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, collagen fibers, and water. Collagen is a protein that is the main organic constituent of connective tissue. Bone tissue is composed of widely separated cells, called osteocytes, surrounded by matrix. The matrix is about 25% water, 25% protein, and 50% mineral salts. Bone is highly dynamic and is continually being remodeled in response to mechanical stress or even absence of stress. Longitudinal growth of a bone occurs at the epiphyseal plate, which is a layer of cartilage. The proliferating cartilage cells are gradually replaced by bone. The bones of physically active individuals tend to be denser and therefore more mineralized than those of sedentary individuals of the same age and gender. ...
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