Muscular Strength04

Muscular Strength04 - 3 Muscle Fiber Composition for a...

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Unformatted text preview: 3. Muscle Fiber Composition - for a given size of muscle, there is a positive correlation between percentage of fast twitch fibers and strength. 4. Mechanical Factors - the force exerted by a muscle is affected by: a) the initial length of the muscle fibers b) the angle of pull of the muscle on the bony skeleton c) the speed of shortening 5. Sex and Age - after age 16, the average female is about 2/3 as strong as the average male when the measure of strength is the absolute amount of force exerted or weight lifted. Prior to puberty the strength of boys is only slightly greater than the strength of girls. Muscle strength in children: Muscle strength progressively improves as children age and mature, principally as a result of increasing muscle size. Hormonal influences at puberty (testosterone) are responsible for the dramatic increase in muscle bulk and strength in males. During this time period the increase in muscle mass in both sexes is due to hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers and not hyperplasia. Muscle strength can be improved by resistance training before puberty in both boys and girls. These changes occur without significant increases in muscle size. Consider chronological age versus biological age when designing individualized weight training programs for children During the time period surrounding peak height velocity (age 11.5 in girls and age 13.5 in boys), young athletes may be at increased risk for injury. Sex differences in strength in adults are greater in the arms and shoulders than in the legs. On average, the female's upper body is 50% to 60% as strong as the male's upper body and the female's lower body is 70% to 80% as strong as the male's lower body. ...
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