lec 9 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Chem 221 Monday, July 2011...

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Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Chem 221 Monday, July 2011
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Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons meaning they have the maximum number of hydrogens for the carbon number. Alkanes have the general formula C n H 2n+2 . Cycloalkanes are cyclic structures with the carbon atoms in a ring. Although cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, the general formula is C n H 2n because two hydrogens are lost when a C-C bond is made to form a ring. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 hexane C 6 H 14 cyclohexane C 6 H 12
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Sources of Alkanes: Petroleum and Natural Gas Petroleum is the source of alkanes. It is a complex mixture of mostly alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons with smaller amounts of oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing compounds. Natural gas is a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons recovered from natural sources. It is mostly methane (CH 4 , BP -162 o C) with small amounts of ethane (C 2 H 6 , BP -88 o C) and propane (C 3 H 8 , BP -42 o ). Petroleum Refining
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Hydrocarbon Fractions from Petroleum boiling range of fraction ( o C) size range name and use below 20 C 1 to C 4 natural gas, bottled gas, petrochemicals 20 to 60 C 5 to C 6 petroleum "ether". solvents 60 to 100 C 6 to C 7 ligroin, solvents 40 to 200 C 5 to C 10 straight-run gasoline 175 to 325 C 12 to C 18 kerosene and jet fuel 250 to 400 C 12 and higher gas oil, fuel oil and diesel oil nonvolatile liquids C 20 and higher mineral oil, lubricating oil nonvolatile solids C 20 and higher paraffin wax, asphalt, tar
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Alkane Shapes Unbranched (or straight-chain) alkanes have a single strand of carbon atoms. All the carbons of branched alkanes cannot be connected in a single line. C 5 H 12 C 5 H 12 C 5 H 12
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Shapes of Alkanes Alkanes assume shapes imposed by the tetrahedral geometry at each carbon atom. Even "straight-chain" alkanes are not straight. The alkane chains take on a zigzag geometry.
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lec 9 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Chem 221 Monday, July 2011...

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