lec 10 - Functional Groups Chem 221 Tuesday, July 26, 2011...

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Functional Groups Chem 221 Tuesday, July 26, 2011
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Functional Groups Groups of atoms that show characteristic chemical reactivity are called functional groups . When the functional group is part of larger organic structures, it is assumed that it will display the same basic chemistry.
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Alkyl Groups: Generic Symbol R- Alkane Alkyl Group Abbreviation CH 4 methane CH 3 - methyl Me- CH 3 CH 3 ethane C C H H H H H H CH 3 CH 2 - ethyl Et- CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 propane C C C H H H H H H H H CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 - propyl Pr- CH 3 CHCH 3 or CH 3 CH- CH 3 isopropyl i-Pr-
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The Symbol for a Generic Alkyl Group, R The symbol "R" is used generically for an alkyl group. Some Simple Alkyl Groups CH 3 - methyl CH 3 CH 2 - ethyl CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 - propyl CH 3 CHCH 3 isopropyl all are designated in a general way by R- The general representation of an alkane is R-H .
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Alkyl Halides or Haloalkanes Alkyl halides are compounds that contain one or more halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, I) in place of hydrogens in alkanes. The name haloalkanes is also used. examples CH 3 Br CH 3 CH 2 Cl Classification of Alkyl Halides C C C C H H H H H H R R R R R R methyl primary secondary tertiary number of alkyl or aryl groups 0 1 2 3
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Primary Alkyl Halide C H H R primary (1 o ) C H H CH 3 ethyl C H H CH 3 ethyl chloride a primary alkyl chloride Cl Secondary Alkyl Halide C H R R secondary (2 o ) C H CH 3 isopropyl CH 3 C H CH 3 CH 3 Cl isopropyl chloride a secondary alkyl chloride Tertiary Alkyl Halide C R R R tertiary (3 o ) C CH 3 tertiary butyl CH 3 CH 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 Cl tertiary butyl chloride a tertiary alkyl chloride
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Alcohols This family of organic compounds is characterized by the hydroxyl group: -OH . Note that when an R group (an alkyl group) replaces one H in the water molecule, an alcohol results. C O-H : the alcohol functional group O H H 105 o water O H R 109 o an alcohol Names of Alcohols Simple alcohols often are named by using the alkyl group name followed by "alcohol." CH 4 methane CH 3 - methyl CH 3 - OH methyl alcohol CH 3 CH 3 ethane CH 3 CH 2 - ethyl CH 3 CH 2 - OH ethyl alcohol
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Classification of Alcohols Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary or tertiary according to the structure around the carbon to which the hydroxyl group is attached.
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lec 10 - Functional Groups Chem 221 Tuesday, July 26, 2011...

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