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Ch 8 - Introductory Chemistry 3rd Edition Nivaldo Tro...

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Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA Introductory Chemistry , 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Chapter 8 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 2009, Prentice Hall
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2 Tro's “Introductory Chemistry”, Chapter 8 Global Warming Scientists have measured an average 0.6 °C rise in atmospheric temperature since 1860. During the same period atmospheric CO 2 levels have risen 25%. Are the two trends causal?
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3 Tro's “Introductory Chemistry”, Chapter 8 The Source of Increased CO 2 The primary source of the increased CO 2 levels are combustion reactions of fossil fuels we use to get energy. 1860 corresponds to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the U.S. and Europe. (g) (g) (g) (g) O H 2 CO O 2 CH 2 2 2 4 + + (g) (g) (g) (l) O H 18 CO 16 O 25 H C 2 2 2 2 18 8 + +
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4 Tro's “Introductory Chemistry”, Chapter 8 Quantities in Chemical Reactions The amount of every substance used and made in a chemical reaction is related to the amounts of all the other substances in the reaction. Law of Conservation of Mass. Balancing equations by balancing atoms. The study of the numerical relationship between chemical quantities in a chemical reaction is called stoichiometry .
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5 Tro's “Introductory Chemistry”, Chapter 8 Making Pancakes The number of pancakes you can make depends on the amount of the ingredients you use. This relationship can be expressed mathematically. 1 cup flour 2 eggs ½ tsp baking powder 5 pancakes 1 cup flour + 2 eggs + ½ tsp baking powder 5 pancakes
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6 Tro's “Introductory Chemistry”, Chapter 8 Making Pancakes, Continued If you want to make more or less than 5 pancakes, you can use the number of eggs you have to determine the number of pancakes you can make. Assuming you have enough flour and baking powder. pancakes 20 eggs 2 pancakes 5 eggs 8 = ×
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7 Tro's “Introductory Chemistry”, Chapter 8 Making Molecules Mole-to-Mole Conversions The balanced equation is the “recipe” for a chemical reaction. The equation 3 H 2 ( g ) + N 2 ( g ) 2 NH 3 ( g ) tells us that 3 molecules of H 2 react with exactly 1 molecule of N 2 and make exactly 2 molecules of NH 3 or: 3 molecules H 2 1 molecule N 2 2 molecules NH 3 Since we count molecules by moles: 3 moles H 2 1 mole N 2 2 moles NH 3
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8 Tro's “Introductory Chemistry”, Chapter 8 Example 8.1—How Many Moles of NaCl Result from the Complete Reaction of 3.4 Mol of Cl 2 ? 2 Na( s ) + Cl 2 ( g ) → 2 NaCl Since the reaction makes 2 molecules of NaCl for every 1 molecule of Cl 2 , the number makes sense. 1 mol Cl 2 2 NaCl 3.4 mol Cl 2 mol NaCl Check: Solution: Solution Map: Relationships: Given: Find: mol Cl 2 mol NaCl 2 Cl mol 1 NaCl mol 2 NaCl mol .8 6 Cl mol 1 NaCl mol 2 Cl mol .4 3 2 2 = ×
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9 Tro's “Introductory Chemistry”, Chapter 8 Practice According to the following equation, how many moles of water are made in the combustion of 0.10 moles of glucose?
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