Ch 9 - Introductory Chemistry, 3rd Edition Nivaldo Tro...

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Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA Introductory Chemistry , 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Chapter 9 Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table 2009, Prentice Hall
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2 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 9 Classical View of the Universe Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the stuff of the physical universe has been classified as either matter or energy. We define matter as the stuff of the universe that has mass and volume. Therefore, energy is the stuff of the universe that doesn’t have mass and volume. We know from our examination of matter that it is ultimately composed of particles, and its the properties of those particles that determine the properties we observe. Energy, therefore, should not be composed of particles. In fact, the thing that all energy has in common is that it travels in waves .
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3 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 9 The Nature of Light—Its Wave Nature Light is one of the forms of energy. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation . Electromagnetic radiation is made of waves. Electromagnetic radiation moves through space like waves move across the surface of a pond
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4 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 9 Electromagnetic Waves Every wave has four characteristics that determine its properties: wave speed, height (amplitude), length, number of wave peaks that pass in a given time. All electromagnetic waves move through space at the same, constant speed. 3.00 x 10 8 meters per second in a vacuum = The speed of light, c .
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5 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 9 Characterizing Waves The amplitude is the height of the wave. The distance from node to crest. Or node to trough. The amplitude is a measure of how intense the light is—the larger the amplitude, the brighter the light. The wavelength ( λ ) is a measure of the distance covered by the wave. The distance from one crest to the next. Or the distance from one trough to the next, or the distance between alternate nodes. Usually measured in nanometers. 1 nm = 1 x 10 -9 m
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6 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 9 Electromagnetic Waves
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7 Tro's "Introductory Chemistry", Chapter 9 Characterizing Waves The frequency ( ν ) is the number of waves that pass a point in a given period of time. The number of waves = number of cycles. Units are hertz (Hz), or cycles/s = s -1 . 1 Hz = 1 s -1 The total energy is proportional to the amplitude and frequency of the waves. The larger the wave amplitude, the more force it has. The more frequently the waves strike, the more total force there is.
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Low Frequency Wave High Frequency Wave λ λ λ
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9 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Light passed through a prism is separated into all its colors. This is called a continuous spectrum .
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Ch 9 - Introductory Chemistry, 3rd Edition Nivaldo Tro...

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