Ch 13 - Introductory Chemistry, 3rd Edition Nivaldo Tro...

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Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA Introductory Chemistry , 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Chapter 13 Solutions 2009, Prentice Hall
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 13 2 Solutions Homogeneous mixtures. Composition may vary from one sample to another. Appears to be one substance, though really contains multiple materials. Most homogeneous materials we encounter are actually solutions. E.g., air and lake water.
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3 Solutions, Continued Solute is the dissolved substance. Seems to “disappear.” “Takes on the state” of the solvent. Solvent is the substance solute dissolves in. Does not appear to change state. When both solute and solvent have the same state, the solvent is the component present in the highest percentage (ex. Wine has about 10% ethanol dissolved in water; Bacardi 151 rum has about 25% water dissolved in ethanol). Solutions in which the solvent is water are called aqueous solutions .
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Brass (brass is a “solid solution”, a mixture, since the composition can vary.) Type Color % Cu % Zn Density g/cm 3 MP °C Tensile strength psi Uses Gilding Reddish 95 5 8.86 1066 50K Pre-83 pennies, munitions, plaques Commercial Bronze 90 10 8.80 1043 61K Door knobs, grillwork Jewelry Bronze 87.5 12.5 8.78 1035 66K Costume jewelry Red Golden 85 15 8.75 1027 70K Electrical sockets, fasteners, eyelets Low Deep yellow 80 20 8.67 999 74K Musical instruments, clock dials Cartridge Yellow 70 30 8.47 954 76K Car radiator cores Common Yellow 67 33 8.42 940 70K Lamp fixtures, bead chain Muntz metal Yellow 60 40 8.39 904 70K brazing rods
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 13 5 Common Types of Solution Solution phase Solute phase Solvent phase Example Gaseous solutions Gas Gas Air (mostly N 2 and O 2 ) Liquid solutions Gas Liquid Solid Liquid Liquid Liquid Soda (CO 2 in H 2 O) Vodka (C 2 H 5 OH in H 2 O) Seawater (NaCl in H 2 O) Solid solutions Solid Solid Brass (Zn in Cu)
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 13 6 Solubility When one substance (solute) dissolves in another (solvent) it is said to be soluble . Salt is soluble in water. Bromine is soluble in methylene chloride. When one substance does not dissolve in another it is said to be insoluble . Oil is insoluble in water. The solubility of one substance in another depends on two factors: nature’s tendency towards mixing and the types of intermolecular attractive forces.
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Tro's Introductory Chemistry, Chapter 13 7 Will It Dissolve? Chemist’s rule of thumb: Like dissolves like A chemical will dissolve in a solvent if it has a similar structure to the solvent. When the solvent and solute structures are similar, the solvent molecules will attract the solute particles at least as well as the solute particles to each other.
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Solvent Class Structural feature Water, H 2 O Polar O-H Ethyl alcohol, C 2 H 5 OH Polar O-H Acetone, C 3 H 6 O Polar C=O Toluene, C
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2011 for the course CHEM 151 taught by Professor Mcbroom during the Summer '10 term at College of the Canyons.

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Ch 13 - Introductory Chemistry, 3rd Edition Nivaldo Tro...

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