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chapter3notes - Chapter 3 Newspapers Whats Ahead? First...

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Chapter 3 Newspapers What’s Ahead? • First Mass Medium to Deliver News • Publishers Fight for an Independent Press • Newspapers Take Advantage of Early Technology • Dissident Voices Create the Early Alternative Press • Newspapers Seek Mass Audiences and Big Profits • Newspapers Dominate the Early 20th Century • Unionization Encourages Professionalism • Television Brings New Competition • Alternative Press Revives Voices of Protest • Newspapers Expand and Contract • Newspapers at Work • Newspapers Struggle to Retain Readers • Technology Transforms Production • Consolidation Increases Chain Ownership • Newspapers Look for New Audiences Chapter Outline I. Introduction A. Los Angeles Times: 1. purchased by Harrison Gray Otis in 1882 for $6,000 2. sold by his descendants (along with other media properties) in 2000 for $8.3 billion to the Tribune Company. 3. This success demonstrates the rapid growth of newspapers over 300 years. B. Newspapers: one-page sheets ship arrivals and departures large urban newspapers. C. Today, large urban newspapers rely on satellite-fed information and may run to 500 pages on Sunday. D. Most news today: one part of large media companies v. family-run operations.
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II. First Mass Medium to Deliver News A. 230 years: newspapers only method of spreading information to many people simultaneously. B. Despite competition newspapers continue to be a significant source of information and news. C. historic role: independent press providing information the public needs to know. III. Publishers Fight for an Independent Press A. At 1 st , (“Published by Authority”) 1. newspapers depended on England for news and subsidies 2. licensed by the British government. B. Publick Occurrences 1 . published by Benjamin Harris in Boston in 1690 2. America’s first newspaper 3. only one edition before being shut down by authorities. (French president sleeps with sons wife) C. 1 st consecutively issued newspaper: The Boston News-Letter, 1704 1. one half-sheet printed on two sides. D. 1721, James Franklin New England Courant 1. 1 st newspaper without the heading “By Authority,” 2. establishing the tradition of an independent press. E. Truth v. Libel : John Peter Zenger, 1. issue of Gov’t control of what press writes an issue for 70 years 2. publisher of The New York Weekly Journal 3. criticized the governor for incompetence 3. arrested in 1734 and put on trial for printing false and seditious writing, which authorities believed could incite rebellion against the government. 4. his defence: truth was a defense against the charge of libel , so that if Zenger’s words were true, they could not be libelous, establishing a landmark precedent for freedom of the press in America.
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5. While Zenger was in jail, his wife, Anna, continued to publish the paper. a) by 1776, at least 14 women had been trained by their families to be printers
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This note was uploaded on 08/06/2011 for the course COMM 1301 taught by Professor Tj during the Spring '11 term at HCCS.

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chapter3notes - Chapter 3 Newspapers Whats Ahead? First...

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