chapter8notes - Chapter 8 Television Whats Ahead Television...

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Chapter 8 Television What’s Ahead? • Television Transforms Daily Life • TV Delivers an Audience to Advertisers Visual Radio Becomes Television • Television Outpaces Radio • Quiz Shows Bring Ethics Scandals • Ratings Target the Audience • Newton Minow Targets TV’s “Vast Wasteland” • Public Television Finds an Audience • Satellites Bring a Technological Breakthrough • Television Changes National Politics • TV News Images Share 21 st Century Grief • Television at Work • Audiences Drive TV Programming • New Technology Changes TV’s Focus • Television Views the Future Chapter Outline I. Introduction A. According to A. C. Nielsen, Americans on average watch nearly eight hours of TV a day. II. Television Transforms Daily Life A. Television has been blamed and praised for its effects on society. 1. TV has been blamed for a variety of societal ill, such as: a. declines in literacy b. rises in crime c. trivialization of politics 2. TV has been praised for: a. providing instant access to important events b. uniting audiences in times of national crisis B. The meaning of the term television has evolved. 1. Television used to mean broadcast programs with pictures and sound delivered to antennas by over-the-air transmission.
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2. Now, television refers to the television screen, where a variety of delivery systems bring a diversity of programs. C. The programs Americans watch today are delivered by antennas, cables, and satellites, but they appear on the same television screen. D. About 1,600 TV stations operate in the United States. 1. Three out of four are commercial stations. 2. About half the commercial stations are affiliated with a network. E. TV commentator Jeff Greenfield says that, while the program is the product to the audience, the audience is the product to the television executive, because it is the audience television delivers to advertisers that makes television money. III. TV Delivers an Audience to Advertisers A. Commercial TV exists primarily as an advertising medium. 1. Because TV can deliver a larger audience faster than any other medium, TV can charge the highest rates for its advertising. 2. A 30-second spot during a widely watched TV program like the Super Bowl costs about $2 million. IV. Visual Radio Becomes Television A. The word television first appeared in the June 1907 issue of Scientific American. B. The first major technological discovery to suggest that pictures could travel over distance (via wires) was the Nipkow disk, an “electrical telescope” patented by Paul Nipkow in Germany in 1884. C. In 1927, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover appeared on a 2-inch screen by wire in an experimental AT&T broadcast. D. Two researchers brought TV into the electronic age.
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chapter8notes - Chapter 8 Television Whats Ahead Television...

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