Glossary of Isms

Europeansencouraged

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Unformatted text preview: that
anyone
could
achieve
enlightenment
by
following
the
 Eightfold
Path.

Buddhism
entered
China
from
India
in
the
first
and
second
 centuries
C.E.,
but
only
became
popular
in
300‐800
C.E.
through
a
series
of
cultural
 accommodations.

The
Mahayana
from
of
Buddhism,
a
more
popular
form,
spread
 to
China,
Korea,
and
Japan;
the
Theravada
(traditional)
form
was
practiced
in
India,
 Sri
Lanka,
and
Southeast
Asia;
and
the
Tantric
form
in
Tibet.


 
 Economic
system
in
which
the
means
of
production
(labor,
machines,
and
 investments)
is
controlled
by
private
sources
for
personal
profit.

Modern
 capitalism
emphasizes
free
enterprise.
 
 Agricultural
production,
often
on
a
large
scale,
of
crops
for
sale
in
the
market,
 rather
than
for
consumption
by
the
farmers
themselves.

Europeans
encouraged
 cash‐crop
agriculture
in
their
Asian
and
African
colonies
during
the
19th
and
20th
 centuries.
 
 Political
System
that
emphasizes
protection
of
individual
liberties
and
private
 property
with
safeguards
against
unchecked
political
power.
 
 Process
of
rural
reform
undertaken
by
the
Communist
leadership
of
both
the
Soviet
 Union
(beginning
in
1929)
and
China
(in
the
mid‐1950s)
in
which
private
property
 rights
in
land
were
largely
abolished.

Peasants
had
to
give
up
their
individual
plots
 of
land
as
well
as
their
tools
and
animals
and
join
“collective
farms,...
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