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Glossary of Isms

Glossary of Isms - *Thisisastudyaid. answers. Exam...

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Global Understanding – Isms ‐ KEY *This is a study aid. It is important that you learn the definitions – not just memorize the answers. You aren’t likely to see the exact same answers for each term on the Quiz or the Exam. Anarchism Belief that government is unnecessary and should be replaced free association of people. Antiglobalism International movement that opposed development of corporate‐based global economy on the ground that it make the rich richer and exploits labor and environments in poor regions. Authoritarianism Form of government in which a ruler tries to maintain the existing social order using obedient armies, police, and government officials to suppress dissent and attempts at liberal reform. Bazaar Economy Traditional economy with few salaried jobs and an abundance of tiny unregulated businesses such as peddlers and pushcart operators. In modern times, bazaar economies became common in urban area of developing countries as the gap between rich and poor widened. Buddhism Religion and cultural tradition founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha, or “enlightened one”) around 500 B.C.E., which set forth the Four Noble Truths and a cod of conduct, the Eightfold Path. Buddhism ignored India’s strict cast system and held that anyone could achieve enlightenment by following the Eightfold Path. Buddhism entered China from India in the first and second centuries C.E., but only became popular in 300‐800 C.E. through a series of cultural accommodations. The Mahayana from of Buddhism, a more popular form, spread to China, Korea, and Japan; the Theravada (traditional) form was practiced in India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia; and the Tantric form in Tibet. Capitalism Economic system in which the means of production (labor, machines, and investments) is controlled by private sources for personal profit. Modern capitalism emphasizes free enterprise. Cash‐crop Agriculture Agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than for consumption by the farmers themselves. Europeans encouraged cash‐crop agriculture in their Asian and African colonies during the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Classical Liberalism Political System that emphasizes protection of individual liberties and private property with safeguards against unchecked political power. Collectivization Process of rural reform undertaken by the Communist leadership of both the Soviet Union (beginning in 1929) and China (in the mid‐1950s) in which private property rights in land were largely abolished. Peasants had to give up their individual plots of land as well as their tools and animals and join “collective farms,” where they had to world cooperatively and share the proceeds as a community rather than as individuals. Collectivization in China occurred more easily and more rapidly than in the Soviet Union, where resistance was strong and peasants destroyed their livestock and crops rather than relinquish them to collective farms.
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Colonialism
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