Classics Final Review

Classics Final Review - From Hellenism to Rome • Begin...

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Unformatted text preview: From Hellenism to Rome • Begin: Fall of Alexander the Great; End: Rise of Octavian • Alexander the Great transformed ancient world o Hellenism: mix of culture, urbanism + religions o Embraced Persian culture • The Hellenistic World o Legacy of “classical city” Athens had a lot to offer while Sparta did not o New foundations east + west o Colonies: Alexandria, Antiochia, Selecia: many settlers army carried own beliefs Greek language o Converging of architecture traditions o Greek language + gods : Hellenization o Hellenism + local traditions: The Greek East o Politics + urbanism • Greek was lingua franca for Rome ( in east too) • Adoption of local customs and deities • Columinated streets main street (n-s) adopted in Hellenistic cities: channel traffic + monumental • Priene o Asia minor? o Late 4 th century becomes vibrant community o City plan: grid o Example of the lingering of classical city but functions as Hellenistic city o Theater illustrates popularity of drama and tragedy; also seemed as location for meetins o 4 th century BC age in which individual with good speaking skills could impact public opinions • Pergamon o Eventually became capital of kingdom: known as capital of Hellenism o Asia minor o Example of urban dueling with many states public space used for civil matters • Miletos o Had very old foundation architects and engineers added building to st ructure • Necropoleis- cemeteries; tombs looked like house/ temple o Hierapolis o Xanthus o Both are majestic and replica of city • Megalamania o Em ulat ion of Alexander the Great became “God” after death o Comm ingling of various t radit ions: Persia, Egypt and Greece o Religious eclecticism: cult of ruler • Halikarnassus o Western coast of Tu rkey; Caria o Mausoleum (tomb) destroyed by Crusaders o Mausoleus was king wife cont ributed • Nem rud Dag o King of t igris o Two terraces: one in east, one in west: had temples • Apamea o Best presented columned st reets would continue for miles mark off urban area; provided area for commercial activit ies o Different then agora; stores lined up o Local elites want to please king • Trends o Orthogonal plan o Public squares; stoai, sanctuaries ( in and outside the city); their architecture and sculpture programs o City walls o Theaters o Buildings for officials; Prytaneion, St rategion, etc o Necropoleis- reappearance of grandiosity when it comes of dead o Roads and columned st reets- used for deployment of t roops o Religious and polit ical affirmat ions- cit ies created communit ies for different purposes ( religious) map out own commercial religious o Independence o Hellenist ic city and its blueprint The Et ruscans • a civilizat ion that bloomed 9 th century BC and introduced urban culture in central I taly • Et ruscans o Who?...
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Classics Final Review - From Hellenism to Rome • Begin...

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