Classics Midterm Review

Classics Midterm Review - Early Sumerian Cities • Time...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Early Sumerian Cities • Time periods o Ubaid period: 5000-3500 BC o Protoliterate (Uruk) period: 3500-2900 BC o Early Dynastic period: 2900-2350 BC (divided into 3 parts: I, I I, I I I) • Inhabited southern Mesopotamia from the fourth into the early second millennium BC • Language has now known relatives and architecture and artifacts do not indicate ethnic ties with culture of other regions • Had independent self governing cities ; ruled by a mortal king • Each Sumerian city nominally belonged to a god or goddess; temple was the focus of both ritual and economic activity regional administrative center • Rivalries b/t cities in Early Dynastic period cause of agricultural land warfare people migrated to cities from countryside • Tigris and Euphrates Rivers fertile soil deposited + fresh water but fluctuates depending on seasons • Also had marshes (fishing + hunting), steppe land (useful for grazing) and mountains and seas (long distance trade, raw materials such as wood, stone and metals) • I r rigation channels brought salts but did not flush them away problem as far back as the end of the 3 rd millennium no remedy • Sumerian city was divided into different neighborhoods, residential, administrative, industrial and a cemetery • Neighborhoods were divided by streets, walls and water channels canals flowed through and alongside through cities gave rise to separate markets, commercial centers and harbors • Uruk (Protoliterate period Levels IV and III) o Dominant city of early Sumer o Temples dominated main god or goddess considered ruler of all; over divinities celebrated in smaller temples o New temples provided with its own mountain: ziggurats- key form of Mesopotamian architecture o Temple quarter was off center or at the edge; set apart from the secular o Contained two main temple areas: White temple- dedicated to Anu, sky god Eanna Precinct- dedicated to Inanna, goddess of fertility, love and war. “house of heaven” o White Temple is example of High Temple. Sits on terrace. Mud brick walls covered with plaster and were buttressed; considered a characteristic Mesopotamian way of incorporating 3 dimensional decoration o Inanna adopted by other cultures with different name: Astarte/Ishtar by Akkadians/Babylonians and shares features with Anatolian Kubaba and Greek goddess Artemis o Temples of Eanna precinct were ground levels o Uruk vase- gives knowledge of Sumerian religion in the Protoliterate period. Sculptered scenes of ritual activity, homage to the goddess Inanna. Made 3000 BC. 5 layers: Top has Inanna herself receiving gifts; priests offer food and drink; world of animals; plants; river o Limestone head of a woman, 20cm high....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 08/07/2011 for the course CLASSICS 190 taught by Professor Mcglew during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

Page1 / 56

Classics Midterm Review - Early Sumerian Cities • Time...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online