DIGItal electronic - Fourth Edition last update 2 Lessons...

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Fourth Edition, last update January 18, 2006
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Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume IV – Digital By Tony R. Kuphaldt Fourth Edition, last update January 18, 2006
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i c ° 2000-2006, Tony R. Kuphaldt This book is published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modiFcation of this document by the general public. The full Design Science License text is included in the last chapter. As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MER- CHANTABILITY or ±ITNESS ±OR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science License for more details. Available in its entirety as part of the Open Book Project collection at: www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits PRINTING HISTORY ±irst Edition: Printed in June of 2000. Plain-ASCII illustrations for universal computer readability. Second Edition: Printed in September of 2000. Illustrations reworked in standard graphic (eps and jpeg) format. Source Fles translated to Texinfo format for easy online and printed publication. Third Edition: Printed in ±ebruary 2001. Source Fles translated to SubML format. SubML is a simple markup language designed to easily convert to other markups like L A T E X, HTML, or DocBook using nothing but search-and-replace substitutions. ±ourth Edition: Printed in March 2002. Additions and improvements to 3rd edition.
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Contents 1 NUMERATION SYSTEMS 1 1.1 Numbers and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Systems of numeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 Decimal versus binary numeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.4 Octal and hexadecimal numeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.5 Octal and hexadecimal to decimal conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.6 Conversion from decimal numeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2 BINARY ARITHMETIC 19 2.1 Numbers versus numeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2 Binary addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.3 Negative binary numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.4 Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.5 OverFow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.6 Bit groupings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3 LOGIC GATES 29 3.1 Digital signals and gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.2 The NOT gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.3 The ”bu±er” gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.4 Multiple-input gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.5 TTL NAND and AND gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.6 TTL NOR and OR gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.7 CMOS gate circuitry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.8 Special-output gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3.9 Gate universality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.10 Logic signal voltage levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3.11 DIP gate packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 3.12 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 4 SWITCHES 103 4.1 Switch types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.2 Switch contact design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.3 Contact ”normal” state and make/break sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 iii
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iv CONTENTS 4.4 Contact ”bounce” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 5 ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS 119 5.1 Relay construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5.2 Contactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 5.3 Time-delay relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 5.4 Protective relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 5.5 Solid-state relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 6 LADDER LOGIC 135 6.1 ”Ladder” diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 6.2 Digital logic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 6.3 Permissive and interlock circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 6.4 Motor control circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 6.5 Fail-safe design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 6.6 Programmable logic controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 6.7 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 7 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 173 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 7.2 Boolean arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 7.3 Boolean algebraic identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 7.4 Boolean algebraic properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 7.5 Boolean rules for simpli±cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 7.6 Circuit simpli±cation examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 7.7 The Exclusive-OR function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 7.8 DeMorgan’s Theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 7.9 Converting truth tables into Boolean expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 8 KARNAUGH MAPPING 219 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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DIGItal electronic - Fourth Edition last update 2 Lessons...

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