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Unformatted text preview: SIMULATING HUMANS: COMPUTER GRAPHICS, ANIMATION, AND CONTROL Norman I. Badler Cary B. Phillips1 Bonnie L. Webber Department of Computer and Information Science University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-6389 Oxford University Press c 1992 Norman I Badler, Cary B. Phillips, Bonnie L. Webber March 25, 1999 1 Current address: Paci c Data Images, 1111 Karlstad Dr., Sunnyvale, CA 94089. i To Ginny, Denise, and Mark ii Contents 1 Introduction and Historical Background 1.1 Why Make Human Figure Models? : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.2 Historical Roots : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.3 What is Currently Possible? : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.3.1 A Human Model must be Structured Like the Human Skeletal System : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.3.2 A Human Model should Move or Respond Like a Human 1.3.3 A Human Model should be Sized According to Permissible Human Dimensions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.3.4 A Human Model should have a Human-Like Appearance 1.3.5 A Human Model must Exist, Work, Act and React Within a 3D Virtual Environment : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.3.6 Use the Computer to Analyze Synthetic Behaviors : : : 1.3.7 An Interactive Software Tool must be Designed for Usability : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.4 Manipulation, Animation, and Simulation : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.5 What Did We Leave Out? : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 Body Modeling 2.1 Geometric Body Modeling : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.1.1 Surface and Boundary Models : : : : : : : : 2.1.2 Volume and CSG Models : : : : : : : : : : 2.1.3 The Principal Body Models Used : : : : : : 2.2 Representing Articulated Figures : : : : : : : : : : 2.2.1 Background : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.2.2 The Terminology of Peabody : : : : : : : : 2.2.3 The Peabody Hierarchy : : : : : : : : : : : 2.2.4 Computing Global Coordinate Transforms : 2.2.5 Dependent Joints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.3 A Flexible Torso Model : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.3.1 Motion of the Spine : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.3.2 Input Parameters : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.3.3 Spine Target Position : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.3.4 Spine Database : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : iii : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 4 7 11 12 12 14 15 15 16 18 19 20 23 23 23 25 27 28 29 30 31 33 33 34 36 37 38 38 CONTENTS iv 2.4 Shoulder Complex : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.4.1 Primitive Arm Motions : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.4.2 Allocation of Elevation and Abduction : : : : 2.4.3 Implementation of Shoulder Complex : : : : 2.5 Clothing Models : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.5.1 Geometric Modeling of Clothes : : : : : : : : 2.5.2 Draping Model : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.6 The Anthropometry Database : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.6.1 Anthropometry Issues : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.6.2 Implementation of Anthropometric Scaling : 2.6.3 Joints and Joint Limits : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.6.4 Mass : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.6.5 Moment of Inertia : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.6.6 Strength : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.7 The Anthropometry Spreadsheet : : : : : : : : : : : 2.7.1 Interactive Access Anthropometric Database 2.7.2 SASS and the Body Hierarchy : : : : : : : : 2.7.3 The Rule System for Segment Scaling : : : : 2.7.4 Figure Creation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.7.5 Figure Scaling : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.8 Strength and Torque Display : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.8.1 Goals of Strength Data Display : : : : : : : : 2.8.2 Design of Strength Data Displays : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.1 Direct Manipulation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.1.1 Translation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.1.2 Rotation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.1.3 Integrated Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.1.4 The Jack Direct Manipulation Operator : : : : : : 3.2 Manipulation with Constraints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.2.1 Postural Control using Constraints : : : : : : : : : 3.2.2 Constraints for Inverse Kinematics : : : : : : : : : 3.2.3 Features of Constraints : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.2.4 Inverse Kinematics and the Center of Mass : : : : 3.2.5 Interactive Methodology : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.3 Inverse Kinematic Positioning : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.3.1 Constraints as a Nonlinear Programming Problem 3.3.2 Solving the Nonlinear Programming Problem : : : 3.3.3 Assembling Multiple Constraints : : : : : : : : : : 3.3.4 Sti ness of Individual Degrees of Freedom : : : : : 3.3.5 An Example : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.4 Reachable Spaces : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.4.1 Workspace Point Computation Module : : : : : : : 3.4.2 Workspace Visualization : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.4.3 Criteria Selection : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 Spatial Interaction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 39 40 41 41 45 46 48 49 49 50 51 53 53 54 54 56 57 57 59 59 60 61 61 67 67 68 68 69 70 75 75 77 78 78 80 83 86 87 91 93 93 94 96 97 98 CONTENTS 4 Behavioral Control 4.1 An Interactive System for Postural Control 4.1.1 Behavioral Parameters : : : : : : : : 4.1.2 Passive Behaviors : : : : : : : : : : : 4.1.3 Active Behaviors : : : : : : : : : : : 4.2 Interactive Manipulation With Behaviors : 4.2.1 The Feet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.2.2 The Center of Mass and Balance : : 4.2.3 The Torso : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.2.4 The Pelvis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.2.5 The Head and Eyes : : : : : : : : : 4.2.6 The Arms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.2.7 The Hands and Grasping : : : : : : 4.3 The Animation Interface : : : : : : : : : : : 4.4 Human Figure Motions : : : : : : : : : : : 4.4.1 Controlling Behaviors Over Time : : 4.4.2 The Center of Mass : : : : : : : : : 4.4.3 The Pelvis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.4.4 The Torso : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.4.5 The Feet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.4.6 Moving the Heels : : : : : : : : : : : 4.4.7 The Arms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.4.8 The Hands : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4.5 Virtual Human Control : : : : : : : : : : : v : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1 Forward Simulation with Behaviors : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.1 The Simulation Model : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.2 The Physical Execution Environment : : : : : : 5.1.3 Networks of Behaviors and Events : : : : : : : : 5.1.4 Interaction with Other Models : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.5 The Simulator : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.6 Implemented Behaviors : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.1.7 Simple human motion control : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2 Locomotion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2.1 Kinematic Control : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2.2 Dynamic Control : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2.3 Curved Path Walking : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.2.4 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3 Strength Guided Motion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3.1 Motion from Dynamics Simulation : : : : : : : : 5.3.2 Incorporating Strength and Comfort into Motion 5.3.3 Motion Control : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3.4 Motion Strategies : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5.3.5 Selecting the Active Constraints : : : : : : : : : 5.3.6 Strength Guided Motion Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 Simulation with Societies of Behaviors : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 101 102 103 109 114 116 117 117 120 123 123 123 126 126 128 129 129 130 130 130 131 132 132 132 137 139 141 142 144 145 147 149 150 150 151 152 154 159 161 161 163 164 167 169 170 CONTENTS vi 5.3.7 Evaluation of this Approach : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 173 5.3.8 Performance Graphs : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 173 5.3.9 Coordinated Motion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 174 5.4 Collision-Free Path and Motion Planning : : : : : : : : : : : : 180 5.4.1 Robotics Background : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 180 5.4.2 Using Cspace Groups : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 181 5.4.3 The Basic Algorithm : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 182 5.4.4 The Sequential Algorithm : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 183 5.4.5 The Control Algorithm : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 185 5.4.6 The Planar Algorithm : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 186 5.4.7 Resolving Con icts between Di erent Branches : : : : : 186 5.4.8 Playing Back the Free Path : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 187 5.4.9 Incorporating Strength Factors into the Planned Motion 189 5.4.10 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 190 5.4.11 Completeness and Complexity : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 191 5.5 Posture Planning : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 192 5.5.1 Functionally Relevant High-level Control Parameters : : 196 5.5.2 Motions and Primitive Motions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 197 5.5.3 Motion Dependencies : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 197 5.5.4 The Control Structure of Posture Planning : : : : : : : 199 5.5.5 An Example of Posture Planning : : : : : : : : : : : : : 200 6 Task-Level Speci cations 6.1 Performing Simple Commands : : : : : : : : : : : 6.1.1 Task Environment : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.1.2 Linking Language and Motion Generation : 6.1.3 Specifying Goals : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.1.4 The Knowledge Base : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.1.5 The Geometric Database : : : : : : : : : : 6.1.6 Creating an Animation : : : : : : : : : : : 6.1.7 Default Timing Constructs : : : : : : : : : 6.2 Language Terms for Motion and Space : : : : : : : 6.2.1 Simple Commands : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.2.2 Representational Formalism : : : : : : : : : 6.2.3 Sample Verb and Preposition Speci cations 6.2.4 Processing a sentence : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.2.5 Summary : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.3 Task-Level Simulation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.3.1 Programming Environment : : : : : : : : : 6.3.2 Task-actions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.3.3 Motivating Some Task-Actions : : : : : : : 6.3.4 Domain-speci c task-actions : : : : : : : : 6.3.5 Issues : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.3.6 Summary : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6.4 A Model for Instruction Understanding : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 207 208 208 209 209 210 211 211 212 214 214 215 217 219 221 222 223 224 225 226 228 231 231 CONTENTS vii 7 Epilogue 243 7.1 A Roadmap Toward the Future : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.1.1 Interactive Human Models : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.1.2 Reasonable Biomechanical Properties : : : : : : : : : : 7.1.3 Human-like Behaviors : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.1.4 Simulated Humans as Virtual Agents : : : : : : : : : : : 7.1.5 Task Guidance through Instructions : : : : : : : : : : : 7.1.6 Natural Manual Interfaces and Virtual Reality : : : : : 7.1.7 Generating Text, Voice-over, and Spoken Explication for Animation : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.1.8 Coordinating Multiple Agents : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 7.2 Conclusion : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Bibliography Index 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 247 248 249 267 CONTENTS viii Preface The decade of the 80's saw the dramatic expansion of high performance computer graphics into domains previously able only to irt with the technology. Among the most dramatic has been the incorporation of real-time interactive manipulation and display for human gures. Though actively pursued by several research groups, the problem of providing a virtual or synthetic human for an engineer or designer already accustomed to Computer-Aided Design techniques was most comprehensively attacked by the Computer Graphics Research Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania. The breadth of that e ort as well as the details of its methodology and software environment are presented in this volume. This book is intended for human factors engineers requiring current knowledge of how a computer graphics surrogate human can augment their analyses of designed environments. It will also help inform design engineers of the state-of-the-art in human gure modeling, and hence of the human-centered design central to the emergent notion of Concurrent Engineering. Finally, it documents for the computer graphics community a major research e ort in the interactive control and motion speci cation of articulated human gures. Many people have contributed to the work described in this book, but the textual material derives more or less directly from the e orts of our current and former students and sta : Tarek Alameldin, Francisco Azuola, Breck Baldwin, Welton Becket, Wallace Ching, Paul Diefenbach, Barbara Di Eungenio, Je rey Esakov, Christopher Geib, John Granieri, Marc Grosso, PeiHwa Ho, Mike Hollick, Moon Jung, Jugal Kalita, Hyeongseok Ko, Eunyoung Koh, Jason Koppel, Michael Kwon, Philip Lee, Libby Levison, Gary Monheit, Michael Moore, Ernest Otani, Susanna Wei, Graham Walters, Michael White, Jianmin Zhao, and Xinmin Zhao. Additional animation help has come from Leanne Hwang, David Haynes, and Brian Stokes. John Granieri and Mike Hollick helped considerably with the photographs and gures. This work would not have been possible without the generous and often long term support of many organizations and individuals. In particular we would like to acknowledge our many colleagues and friends: Barbara Woolford, Geri Brown, Jim Maida, Abhilash Pandya and the late Linda Orr in the Crew Station Design Section and Mike Greenisen at NASA Johnson Space Center; Ben Cummings, Brenda Thein, Bernie Corona, and Rick Kozycki of the U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Grounds; James Hartzell, James Larimer, Barry Smith, Mike Prevost, and Chris Neukom of the A3I Project in the Aero ight Dynamics Directorate of NASA Ames Research Center; Steve Paquette of the U. S. Army Natick Laboratory; Jagdish Chandra and David Hislop of the U. S. Army Research O ce; the Army Articial Intelligence Center of Excellence at the University of Pennsylvania and its Director, Aravind Joshi; Art Iverson and Jack Jones of the U.S. Army TACOM; Jill Easterly, Ed Boyle, John Ianni, and Wendy Campbell of the U. S. Air Force Human Resources Directorate at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; Medhat Korna and Ron Dierker of Systems Exploration, Inc.; Pete Glor CONTENTS ix and Joseph Spann of Hughes Missile Systems formerly General Dynamics, Convair Division; Ruth Maulucci of MOCO Inc.; John McConville, Bruce Bradtmiller, and Bob Beecher of Anthropology Research Project, Inc.; Edmund Khouri of Lockheed Engineering and Management Services; Barb Fecht of Battelle Paci c Northwest Laboratories; Jerry Duncan of Deere and Company; Ed Bellandi of FMC Corp.; Steve Gulasy of Martin-Marietta Denver Aerospace; Joachim Grollman of Siemens Research; Kathleen Robinette of the Armstrong Medical Research Lab at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; Harry Frisch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Jerry Allen and the folks at Silicon Graphics, Inc.; Jack Scully of Ascension Technology Corp.; the National Science Foundation CISE Grant CDA88-22719 and ILI Grant USE-9152503; and the State of Pennsylvania Benjamin Franklin Partnership. Martin Zaidel a contributed valuable L TEX help. Finally, the encouragement and patience of Don Jackson at Oxford University Press has been most appreciated. Norman I. Badler University of Pennsylvania Cary B. Phillips PDI, Sunnyvale Bonnie L. Webber University of Pennsylvania x CONTENTS Chapter 1 Introduction and Historical Background People are all around us. They inhabit our home, workplace, entertainment, and environment. Their presence and actions are noted or ignored, enjoyed or disdained, analyzed or prescribed. The very ubiquitousness of other people in our lives poses a tantalizing challenge to the computational modeler: people are at once the most common object of interest and yet the most structurally complex. Their everyday movements are amazingly uid yet demanding to reproduce, with actions driven not just mechanically by muscles and bones but also cognitively by beliefs and intentions. Our motor systems manage to learn how to make us move without leaving us the burden or pleasure of knowing how we did it. Likewise we learn how to describe the actions and behaviors of others without consciously struggling with the processes of perception, recognition, and language. A famous Computer Scientist, Alan Turing, once proposed a test to determine if a computational agent is intelligent Tur63 . In the Turing Test, a subject communicates with two agents, one human and one computer, through a keyboard which e ectively restricts interaction to language. The subject attempts to determine which agent is which by posing questions to both of them and guessing their identities based on the intelligence" of their answers. No physical manifestation or image of either agent is allowed as the process seeks to establish abstract intellectual behavior," thinking, and reasoning. Although the Turing Test has stood as the basis for computational intelligence since 1963, it clearly omits any potential to evaluate physical actions, behavior, or appearance. Later, Edward Feigenbaum proposed a generalized de nition that included action: Intelligent action is an act or decision that is goal-oriented, arrived at by an understandable chain of symbolic analysis and reasoning steps, and is one in which knowledge of the world informs and guides the reasoning." Bod77 . We can imagine an analogous Turing Test" that would have the 1 2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND subject watching the behaviors of two agents, one human and one synthetic, while trying to determine at a better than chance level which is which. Human movement enjoys a universality and complexity that would de nitely challenge an animated gure in this test: if a computer-synthesized gure looks, moves, and acts like a real person, are we going to believe that it is real? On the surface the question almost seems silly, since we would rather not allow ourselves to be fooled. In fact, however, the question is moot though the premises are slightly di erent: cartoon characters are hardly real," yet we watch them and properly interpret their actions and motions in the evolving context of a story. Moreover, they are not realistic" in the physical sense no one expects to see a manifest Mickey Mouse walking down the street. Nor do cartoons even move like people they squash and stretch and perform all sorts of actions that we would never want to do. But somehow our perceptions often make these characters believable: they appear to act in a goal-directed way because their human animators have imbued them with physical intelligence" and behaviors that apparently cause them to chase enemies, bounce o walls, and talk to one another. Of course, these ends are achieved by the skillful weaving of a story into the crafted images of a character. Perhaps surprisingly, the mechanisms by which motion, behavior, and emotion are encoded into cartoons is not by building synthetic models of little creatures with muscles and nerves. The requisite animator skills do not come easily; even in the cartoon world re nements to the art and technique took much work, time, and study TJ81 . Creating such movements automatically in response to real-time interactive queries posed by the subject in our hypothetical experiment does not make the problem any easier. Even Turing, however, admitted that the intelligence sought in his original test did not require the computational process of thinking to be identical to that of the human: the external manifestation in a plausible and reasonable answer was all that mattered. So why are we willing to assimilate the truly arti cial reality of cartoons characters created and moved entirely unlike real" people yet be skeptical of more human-like forms? This question holds the key to our physical Turing Test: as the appearance of a character becomes more human, our perceptual apparatus demands motion qualities and behaviors which sympathize with our expectations. As a cartoon character takes on a human form, the only currently viable method for accurate motion is the recording of a real actor and the tracing or transfer  rotoscoping" of that motion into the animation. Needless to say, this is not particularly satisfying to the modeler: the motion and actor must exist prior to the synthesized result. Even if we recorded thousands of individual motions and retrieved them through some kind of indexed video, we would still lack the freshness, variability, and adaptability of humans to live, work, and play in an in nite variety of settings. If synthetic human motion is to be produced without the bene t of prior real" execution and still have a shot at passing the physical Turing Test, then models must carefully balance structure, shape, and motion in a compatible package. If the models are highly simpli ed or stylized, cartoons or caricatures will be the dominant perception; if they look like humans, then they will be 3 expected to behave like them. How to accomplish this without a real actor showing the way is the challenge addressed here. Present technology can approach human appearance and motion through computer graphics modeling and three-dimensional animation, but there is considerable distance to go before purely synthesized gures trick our senses. A number of promising research routes can be explored and many are taking us a considerable way toward that ultimate goal. By properly delimiting the scope and application of human models, we can move forward, not to replace humans, but to substitute adequate computational surrogates in various situations otherwise unsafe, impossible, or too expensive for the real thing. The goals we set in this study are realistic but no less ambitious than the physical Turing Test: we seek to build computational models of human-like gures which, though they may not trick our senses into believing they are alive, nonetheless manifest animacy and convincing behavior. Towards this end, we Create an interactive computer graphics human model. Endow it with reasonable biomechanical properties. Provide it with human-like" behaviors. Use this simulated gure as an agent to e ect changes in its world. Describe and guide its tasks through natural language instructions. There are presently no perfect solutions to any of these problems, but signi cant advances have enabled the consideration of the suite of goals under uniform and consistent assumptions. Ultimately, we should be able to give our surrogate human directions that, in conjunction with suitable symbolic reasoning processes, make it appear to behave in a natural, appropriate, and intelligent fashion. Compromises will be essential, due to limits in computation, throughput of display hardware, and demands of real-time interaction, but our algorithms aim to balance the physical device constraints with carefully crafted models, general solutions, and thoughtful organization. This study will tend to focus on one particularly well-motivated application for human models: human factors analysis. While not as exciting as motion picture characters, as personable as cartoons, or as skilled as Olympic athletes, there are justi able uses to virtual human gures in this domain. Visualizing the appearance, capabilities and performance of humans is an important and demanding application Plate 1. The lessons learned may be transferred to less critical and more entertaining uses of human-like models. From modeling realistic or at least reasonable body size and shape, through the control of the highly redundant body skeleton, to the simulation of plausible motions, human gures o er numerous computational problems and constraints. Building software for human factors applications serves a widespread, non-animator user population. In fact, it appears that such software has broader application since the features needed for analytic applications such as multiple 4 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND simultaneous constraints provide extremely useful features for the conventional animator. Our software design has tried to take into account a wide variety of physical problem-oriented tasks, rather than just o er a computer graphics and animation tool for the already skilled or computer-sophisticated animator. The remainder of this chapter motivates the human factors environment and then traces some of the relevant history behind the simulation of human gures in this and other domains. It concludes with a discussion of the speci c features a human modeling and animation system should have and why we have concentrated on some and not others. In particular, we are not considering cognitive problems such as perception or sensory interpretation, target tracking, object identi cation, or control feedback that might be important parts of some human factors analyses. Instead we concentrate on modeling a virtual human with reasonable biomechanical structure and form, as described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 4 we address the psychomotor behaviors manifested by such a gure and show how these behaviors may be interactively accessed and controlled. Chapter 5 presents several methods of motion control that bridge the gap between biomechanical capabilities and higher level tasks. Finally, in Chapter 6 we investigate the cognition requirements and strategies needed to have one of these computational agents follow natural language task instructions. 1.1 Why Make Human Figure Models? Our research has focused on software to make the manipulation of a simulated human gure easy for a particular user population: human factors design engineers or ergonomics analysts. These people typically study, analyze, assess, and visualize human motor performance, t, reach, view, and other physical tasks in a workplace environment. Traditionally, human factors engineers analyze the design of a prototype workplace by building a mock-up, using real subjects to perform sample tasks, and reporting observations about design satisfaction. This is limiting for several reasons. Jerry Duncan, a human factors engineer at Deere & Company, says that once a design has progressed to the stage at which there is su cient information for a model builder to construct the mock-up, there is usually so much inertia to the design that radical changes are di cult to incorporate due to cost and time considerations. After a design goes into production, de ciencies are alleviated through specialized training, limits on physical characteristics of personnel, or various operator aids such as mirrors, markers, warning labels, etc. The goal of computer-simulated human factors analysis is not to replace the mock-up process altogether, but to incorporate the analysis into early design stages so that designers can eliminate a high proportion of t and function problems before building the mock-ups. Considering human factors and other engineering and functional analyses together during rather than after the major design process is a hallmark of Concurrent Engineering Hau89 . 1.1. WHY MAKE HUMAN FIGURE MODELS? 5 It is di cult to precisely characterize the types of problems a human factors engineer might address. Diverse situations demand empirical data on human capabilities and performance in generic as well as highly speci c tasks. Here are some examples. Population studies can determine body sizes representative of some group, say NASA astronaut trainees, and this information can be used to determine if space vehicle work cells are adequately designed to t the individuals expected to work there. Will all astronauts be able to t through doors or hatches? How will changes in the workplace design a ect the t? Will there be unexpected obstructions to zero gravity locomotion? Where should foot- and hand-holds be located? An individual operating a vehicle such as a tractor will need to see the surrounding space to execute the task, avoid any obstructions, and insure safety of nearby people. What can the operator see from a particular vantage point? Can he control the vehicle while looking out the rear window? Can he see the blade in order to follow an excavation line? Speci c lifting studies might be performed to determine back strain limits for a typical worker population. Is there room to perform a lift properly? What joints are receiving the most strain? Is there a better posture to minimize torques? How does placement of the weight and target a ect performance? Is the worker going to su er fatigue after a few iterations? Even more specialized experiments may be undertaken to evaluate the comfort and feel of a particular tool's hand grip. Is there su cient room for a large hand? Is the grip too large for a small hand? Are all the controls reachable during the grip? The answers to these and other questions will either verify that the design is adequate or point to possible changes and improvements early in the design process. But once again, the diversity of human body sizes coupled with the multiplier of human action and interaction with a myriad things in the environment leads to an explosion in possible situations, data, and tests. Any desire to build a complete" model of human behavior, even for the human factors domain, is surely a futile e ort. The eld is too broad, the literature immense, and the theory largely empirical. There appear to be two directions out of this dilemma. The rst would be the construction of a computational database of all the known, or at least useful, data. Various e orts have been undertaken to assemble such material, for example, the NASA sourcebooks NAS78, NAS87 and the Engineering Data Compendium BKT86, BL88 . The other way is to build a sophisticated computational human model and use it as a subject in simulated virtual environment tests. The model will utilize an ever-expanding human factors data set to dictate its performance. Upon some re ection, it appears that database direction may 6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND start out as the smoother road, but it quickly divides into numerous sinuous paths pot-holed with data gaps, empirical data collection limitations, and population-speci c dependencies. The alternative direction using a computational model underlying any data may be harder to construct at rst, and may have many detours for awhile, but gradually it leads to more destinations with better roads. This metaphor carries a philosophy for animating human movement that derives from a computer science rather than an empirical point of view. We cannot do without the e orts of the human factors community, but we cannot use their work per se as the starting point for human gure modeling. Computer scientists seek computationally general yet e cient solutions to problems. Human factors engineers often analyze a succession of speci c tasks or situations. The role we play is transforming the speci c needs of the engineer or analyst into a generalized setting where some large percentage of situations may be successfully analyzed. There is su cient research required to solve general yet di cult problems to justify building suitable software in a computer science environment. The expectation is that in the long run a more speci c case-by-case implementation approach will be economically impractical or technologically infeasible. As we continue to interact with human factors specialists, we have come to appreciate the broad range of problems they must address: t, reach, visibility, comfort, access, strength, endurance, and fatigue, to mention only some of the non-cognitive ones. Our approach is not a denial of their perception and analysis, rather it is an alternative view of the problem as modeling. Broadly speaking, modeling is the embodiment within computer databases or programs of worldly phenomena. Models can be of many types: Mathematical formulations: physical equations of motion, limb strength in tables of empirical data, evaluation formulas measuring workload or fatigue. Geometric and topological models: structures representing workplace objects, human body segments, paths to follow, joints and joint limits, spaces that can be reached, attachments, and constraints. Conceptual models: names for things, attributes such as color, exibility, and material, relationships between objects, functional properties. Of course, modeling especially of the rst sort is a signi cant and fundamental part of many studies in the human factors domain, but it has been di cult to balance the needs of the engineer against the complexity of the modeling software. Often, the model is elaborated in only a few dimensions to study some problem while no global integration of models is attempted. Clearly the broadest interpretation of modeling draws not only from many areas of computer science such as arti cial intelligence, computer graphics, simulation, and robotics, but also from the inherently relevant elds of biomechanics, anthropometry, physiology, and ergonomics. 1.2. HISTORICAL ROOTS 7 The challenge to embed a reasonable set of capabilities in an integrated system has provided dramatic incentives to study issues and solutions in threedimensional interaction methodologies, multiple goal positioning, visual eld assessment, reach space generation, and strength guided motion, to name a few. The empirical data behind these processes is either determined from reliable published reports or supplied by the system user. By leaving the actual data open to the user, the results are as valid as the user wishes to believe. While this is not a very pleasant situation, the inherent variability in human capability data makes some error unavoidable. Better, we think, to let the user know or control the source data than to hide it. This attitude toward validation is not the only plausible one, but it does permit exibility and generality for the computer and allows nal judgment to be vested in the user. Lest there be concern that we have pared the problem down so far that little of interest remains, we change tactics for awhile and present an historical view of e orts to model humans and their movements. By doing so, we should demonstrate that the human factors domain mirrors problems which arise in other contexts such as dance, sports, or gestural communication. The criteria for success in these elds may be more stringent, so understanding the role and scope of human movement in them can only serve to strengthen our understanding of more mundane actions. 1.2 Historical Roots Interactive computer graphics systems to support human gure modeling, manipulation, and animation have existed since the early seventies. We trace relevant developments with a sense more of history and evolution rather than of exhaustive survey. There are numerous side branches that lead to interesting topics, but we will sketch only a few of those here. Three-dimensional human gure models apparently arose independently from at least six di erent applications. 1. Crash simulation. Automobile and aircraft safety issues led to the development of sophisticated codes for linked mass deceleration studies. These programs generally ran in batch mode for long hours on mainframe computers. The results were tabulated, and in some cases converted to a form that could animate a simple 3D mannequin model Fet82, Wil82, BOT79 . The application was characterized by noninteractive positioning and force-based motion computations with analysis of impact forces to a ected body regions and subsequent injury assessment. 2. Motion analysis. Athletes, patients with psychomotor disabilities, actors, or animals were photographed in motion by one or more xed, calibrated cameras. The two-dimensional information was correlated between views and reconstructed as timed 3D data points RA90 . This 8 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND data could be ltered and di erentiated to compute velocities, accelerations, torques and forces. Visualization of the original data validated the data collection process, but required human gure models. Often just wire-frames, they served in a support role for athletic performance improvement, biomechanical analysis, cartoon motion TJ81 , and training or physical therapy Win90 . Related e orts substituted direct or active sensing devices for photographic processing CCP80 . Presently, active motion sensing is used not only for performance analysis but gestural input for virtual environments for example, FMHR87, BBH+ 90 and many others. 3. Workplace assessment. The earliest system with widespread use was SAMMIE KSC81 . This problem domain is characterized by interactive body positioning requirements and analyses based on visual inspection of 3D computer graphics models. Fast interaction with wire-frame displays provided dynamic feedback to the workplace evaluator. Other modeling tools were developed, such as CAR II HBD80 , Combiman BEK+ 81 , and Crew Chief MKK+ 88, EI91 to provide validated anthropometric or capability data for real populations. 4. Dance or movement notation. The speci cation of self-generated, purposive, aesthetically-pleasing, human movement has been the subject of numerous notational systems Hut84 . Dance notations were considered as a viable, compact, computationally tractable mode of expression for human movement due to their re nement as symbolic motion descriptions BS79 . An animation was to be the debugging tool to validate the correctness of a given notated score. The direct creation of movement through a notational or numeric interface was also considered CCP80, CCP82, HE78 . 5. Entertainment. People or at least animate creatures are the favorite subject of cartoons and movies. Two-dimensional animation techniques were the most widely used Cat72, BW76, Lev77, Cat78 . In an effort to avoid rotoscoping live actors, early 3D modeling and animation techniques were developed at the University of Utah, Ohio State University, and the New York Institute of Technology Wes73, Hac77, Stu84, Gom84, HS85a . 6. Motion understanding. There are deep connections between human motion and natural language. One of these attempted to produce a sort of narration of observed synthetic movement by characterizing changes in spatial location or orientation descriptions over time Bad75 . More recently, the inverse direction has been more challenging, namely, producing motion from natural language descriptions or instructions BWKE91, TST87 . Our earliest e orts were directed at language descriptions of object motion. Speci cally, we created representations of 3D object motion and directional 1.2. HISTORICAL ROOTS 9 adverbials in such a way that image sequences of moving objects could be analyzed to produce English sentence motion descriptions Bad75, Bad76 . We then extended the model to articulated gures, concentrating on graphically valid human gure models to aid the image understanding process BOT79 . This e ort led to the work of Joseph O'Rourke, who attempted model-driven analysis of human motion OB80 using novel 3D constraint propagation and goal-directed image understanding. To improve the motion understanding component we focused on motion representations specially designed for human movement WSB78, BS79 . An in-depth study of several human movement notation systems such as Labanotation Hut70 and Eshkol-Wachmann Hut84  fostered our appreciation for the breadth and complexity of human activities. Our early attempts to re-formulate Labanotation in computational models re ected a need to cover at least the space of human skeletal motion. We investigated input systems for Labanotation BS76, Hir77 , although later they were discarded as a generally accessible means of conveying human movement information from animator to computer gure: there was simply too much overhead in learning the nuances and symbology of the notational system. Moreover, concurrent developments in three-dimensional interactive computer graphics o ered more natural position and motion speci cation alternatives. The nal blow to using Labanotation was its lack of dynamic information other than timing and crude accent" and phrasing marks. The movement representations that we developed from Labanotation, however, retained one critically important feature: goal-directedness for e cient motion speci cation. Given goals, processes had to be developed to satisfy them. A simulation paradigm was adopted and some of the special problems of human movement simulation were investigated BSOW78, BOK80, KB82 . Others studied locomotion CCP82, Zel82, GM85, Gir87, Bru88, BC89 , while we concentrated on inverse kinematics for reach goals KB82, Kor85 . We were especially anxious to manage multiple reach and motion goals that mutually a ected many parts of the body. Solving this problem in particular led to later re-examination of constraint-based positioning and more general and robust algorithms to achieve multiple simultaneous goals BMW87, ZB89 . Chapter 4 will discuss our current approach in detail. Our study of movement notations also led to an appreciation of certain fundamental limitations most of them possessed: they were good at describing the changes or end results of a movement what should be done, but were coarse or even non-speci c when it came to indicating how a movement ought to be performed. The notator's justi cation was that the performer for example, a dancer was an expert system who knew from experience and training just how to do the notated motion. The transformation from notation into smooth, natural, expressive movements was part of the art. The exception to the nearly universal failure of notational systems to capture nuances of behavior was E ort-Shape notation Del70, BwDL80 . We began a study of possible computational analogues to the purely descriptive semantics of that system. By 1986 a model of human movement emerged which integrated the 10 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND kinematic and inverse kinematic approach with a dynamic, force-based model Bad89 . Major contributions to dynamics-based animation were made by others, notably AG85, AGL87, WB85, Wil86, Wil87, IC87, HH87, Hah88 . Recently we combined some of the characteristics of the dynamics approach the use of physical torques at the body joints with goal-directed behavior to achieve strength guided motion  LWZB90 and Chapter 5. While we were actively engaged in the study of motion representations, concurrent developments in interactive systems for the graphical manipulation of a computerized gure were being actively implemented at the University of Pennsylvania. Implementation and development has been a strong experimental component of our research, from the early positioning language based on Labanotation concepts WSB78 , to the next generation frame bu erbased system called TEMPUS Kor85, BKK+ 85 , to the direct manipulation of the gure with a 6-axis digitizer BMB86 , and nally to our present Silicon Graphics workstation-based system Jack TM1 PB88, PZB90 Chapters 2 and 4. As our experience with interactive graphical manipulation of a gure matured, we returned to the connections between language and motion we had begun in the mid-1970's. The manipulation of the gure for task analysis begged for more e cient means of specifying the task. So we began to investigate natural language control for task animation Gan85, BG86, Kar87, Kar88, Kal90, KB90, KB91 . New representations for motion verbs and techniques for de ning and especially executing their semantics were investigated. A simple domain of panel-type objects and their motions were studied by Je Gangel. Robin Karlin extended the semantics to certain temporal adverbials such as repetitions and culminations in a domain of kitchen-objects. Our present e ort is exempli ed here by the work of Jugal Kalita and Libby Levison. Kalita studied verbs of physical manipulation and used constraints in a fundamental fashion to determine generalized verb semantics. Levison makes explicit connections between a verb's semantic representation and the sorts of primitive behaviors and constraints known to be directly simulatable by the Jack animation system Chapter 6. Given that natural language or some other arti cial language was to be used to describe tasks or processes, a suitable simulation methodology had to be adopted. In his HIRES system, Paul Fishwick investigated task and process simulation for human animation Fis86, Fis88 . Output was produced by selecting from among pre-de ned key postures. For example, an animation of the famous Dining Philosophers" problem using ve human gure models was produced by simulation of the petri net solution in the HIRES simulator. By 1989 we replaced HIRES by a new simulation system, YAPS, which incorporated temporal planning with imprecise speci cations KKB88 , task interruption, and task time estimation based on human performance models EBJ89, EB90, BWKE91 Chapter 6. This brings us to the present Jack system structure designed to accommo1 Jack is a registered trademark of the University of Pennsylvania. 1.3. WHAT IS CURRENTLY POSSIBLE? 11 date as many of the historical applications as possible within an integrated and consistent software foundation. To begin to describe that, we need to review what human modeling capabilities are needed and what problem implementation choices we might make. 1.3 What is Currently Possible? Since we wish to animate synthetic human gures primarily in the human factors engineering domain, we should decide what features are essential, desirable, optional, or unnecessary. Only by prioritizing the e ort can such a large-scale undertaking be managed. Given priorities, implementation techniques and trade-o s may be investigated. Though we may often draw on existing knowledge and algorithms, there are many fundamental features which we may have to invent or evolve due to the speci c structure of the human gure, characteristics of human behavior, timing demands of real-time interaction, or limitations of the display hardware. Accordingly, a variety of human gure modeling issues will be examined here to introduce and justify the choices we have made in our broad yet integrated e ort. The embodiment of our choices for human modeling is a software system called Jack. Designed to run on Silicon Graphics 4D workstations, Jack is used for the de nition, manipulation, animation, and human factors performance analysis of virtual human gures. Built on a powerful representation for articulated gures, Jack o ers the interactive user a simple, intuitive, and yet extremely capable interface into any three dimensional world. Jack incorporates sophisticated yet highly usable algorithms for anthropometric human gure generation, a exible torso, multiple limb positioning under constraints, view assessment, reach space generation, and strength guided performance simulation of human gures. Of particular importance is a simulation level which allows access to Jack by high level task control, various knowledge bases, task de nitions and natural language instructions. Thus human activities can be visualized from high level task understanding and planning as well as by interactive speci cation. One can think of Jack as an experimental environment in which a number of useful general variables may be readily created, adjusted, or controlled: the workplace, the task, the human agents and some responses of the workplace to internally or externally controlled actions. The results of speci c instances of these input parameters are reported through computer graphics displays, textual information, and animations. Thus the eld of view of a 50th percentile male while leaning over backwards in a tractor seat as far a possible may be directly visualized through the graphic display. If the gure is supposed to watch the corner of the bulldozer blade as it moves through its allowed motion, the human gure's gaze will follow in direct animation of the view. In the following subsections, several desiderata are presented for human models. Under each, we summarize the major features with justi cations and bene ts of the Jack software. The detailed discussions of these features 12 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND and their implementation constitute the bulk of the remaining chapters. 1.3.1 A Human Model must be Structured Like the Human Skeletal System To build a biomechanically reasonable gure, the skeletal structure should resemble but need not copy that of humans. We can bu er the complexity of actual bone shapes, joint types and joint contact surfaces with requirements for interactive use and external motion approximations. For example, rotational joints are usually assumed to have a virtual center about which the adjacent body segments move. While such simpli cations would not be appropriate for, say, knee prosthesis design, there appears to be little harm in variations on the order of a centimeter or so. Of course, there are situations where small departures from reality could a ect the verisimilitude of the gure; accordingly we have concentrated on rather accurate models for the torso and shoulder complex. Many other software systems or manual methods presume a xed shoulder joint but it is obvious that this is not true as the arm is elevated. 1. Jack has a fully linked body model including a 17 segment exible torso with vertebral joint limits. In general, individual joints may have one, two, or three degrees of freedom DOFs. Related groups of joints, such as the spine or the shoulder complex, may be manipulated as a unit. The result is reasonable biomechanical realism with only modest computational overhead. 2. The Jack shoulder mass joint center is posture-dependent. Accurate shoulder motion is modeled through an explicit dependency between arm position and clavicle rotation. The gure therefore presents appropriate shoulder and clavicle motions during positioning. The shoulder joint has spherical globographic EP87  limits for improved motion range accuracy. 3. All joint rotations are subject to limits. During manipulation, rotations propagate when joint limits would be exceeded. 4. A fully articulated hand model is attached. 5. The foot is articulated enough to provide toe and heel exibility. If more DOFs were required, they could be easily added. 1.3.2 A Human Model should Move or Respond Like a Human Ideally, the motions presented by a simulated gure will be biomechanically valid. They should not only appear human-like," but they should be validated against empirical data for real subjects under similar conditions. This 1.3. WHAT IS CURRENTLY POSSIBLE? 13 goal is desirable but di cult to reach in a generalized motion model precisely because such a model must allow interpolation and extrapolation to situations other than those originally measured. Models are needed to provide reasonable interpretations of data that by necessity must be sampled rather coarsely, in speci c situations, and with a collection of speci c subjects. The closest we can get to the ideal is to provide generic mechanisms that incorporate whenever possible empirical data that a user believes to be valid up to the degree of error permitted for the task. Rather than hide such data, Jack takes the view of an open database where reasonable default human anthropometric, strength or performance data is provided, but user customizing is the rule rather than the exception. 1. Jack permits multiple gures to simultaneously inhabit an environment. Multi-person environments and operator interactions may be studied for interference, view, and coordinated tasks. 2. A number of active behaviors are de ned for the gure and may be selected or disabled by the user. Among the most interesting is constraining the center of mass of the entire gure during manipulation. This allows automatic balance and weight-shifting while other tasks such as reaching, viewing, bending over, etc. are being performed. Spare cycles on the workstation are used inbetween human operator inputs to constantly monitor the active constraints and move the body joints towards their satisfaction. 3. People usually move in ways that conserve resources except when they are deliberately trying to achieve optimum performance. If strength information as a function of body posture and joint position is available, that data may be used to predict certain end-e ector motion paths under speci ed comfort" conditions. Thus the exact motions involved in, say, lifting a weight are subservient to the strength model, comfort and fatigue parameters, and heuristics for selecting among various movement strategies. By avoiding canned" or arbitrary for example, straight line motion paths, great exibility in executing tasks is provided. 4. The Jack hand model has an automatic grip. This feature saves the user from the independent manipulation of large numbers of joints and DOFs. The user speci es a grip type and an optional site on the object to be grasped. When possible, the hand itself chooses a suitable approach direction. Though frictional forces are not modeled, the positioning task is greatly aided by the hand's skill. Once gripped, the object stays attached to the hand and moves along with it until explicitly freed by the user. 14 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1.3.3 A Human Model should be Sized According to Permissible Human Dimensions E ectively, there is no such thing as a average" human. Statistically one must always prescribe a target population when talking about percentiles of size, weight, or stature. A person may be 50th percentile in stature, 75th percentile in weight, but 40th percentile in lower leg length. Human dimensional variability is enormous but not arbitrary. Within a given population, for example, 5th percentile legs might never be found on anybody with 95th percentile arms, even though the population allows such sizes individually. Moreover, dimensions are not just limited to lengths, stature, and weight, but include joint limits, moments of inertia for each body segment, muscle strengths, fatigue rates, and so on. For proper behaviors, one must be able to instantiate a properly sized gure with appropriately scaled attributes, preferably from a known population suitable for the required task analysis. 1. The Jack anthropometric database is not proprietary. All data is readily available and accessible. Consequently, it is easily customized to new populations or sets of individuals. Some databases are available, such as NASA astronaut trainees, Army soldiers, and Society of Automotive Engineers standard people." 2. A database may consist of either population statistics or individuals. If populations, then percentile data points are expected in order to dene body dimensions. If individuals, then explicit information for each person in the collection is separately stored. For example, the NASA astronaut trainees constitute an explicit list of individuals, while the Army soldier data is statistically derived. 3. Enough information about a human gure must be stored to permit body sizing, display, and motion. We use overall segment dimensions length, width, thickness, joint limits, mass, moment of inertia, and strength. Geometric properties are used during graphical manipulation; physical properties aid active behaviors balance, dynamic simulation, and strength guided motion. 4. With so many DOFs in a body and many useful physical attributes, there must be a convenient way of accessing, selecting, and modifying any data. Jack uses a spreadsheet-like interface to access anthropometry data. This paradigm permits simple access and data interdependencies: for example, changing leg length should change stature; changing population percentile should change mass distribution. 5. Seeing the results of changing body dimensions is important to understanding how di erent bodies t, reach, and see in the same workplace. Jack allows interactive body sizing while the body itself is under active constraints. Changing a gure seated in a cockpit from 95th percentile to 1.3. WHAT IS CURRENTLY POSSIBLE? 15 5th percentile, for example, creates interesting changes in foot position, arm postures and view. 1.3.4 A Human Model should have a Human-Like Appearance As we argued earlier, a human model's appearance has a lot to do with our perception of acceptable behavior. The more accurate the model, the better the motions ought to be. Providing a selection of body models is a convenient way to handle a spectrum of interactive analysis and animation requirements. For quick assessments, a human model with simpli ed appearance might be ne. If the skin surface is not totally realistic, the designer can move the view around to check for su cient clearances, for example. When the completed analysis is shown to the boss, however, an accurate skin model might be used so that the robotic nature of the simpler model does not obscure the message. Looking better is often associated in computer graphics with being better. 1. The standard" or default body model in Jack strikes a balance between detail and interactive manipulation speed. It appears solid, has a 17 segment exible torso, has a reasonable shoulder clavicle mass, has a full hand, and has a generic face. A hat is added to avoid modeling hairstyles. The gure is modeled by surface polygons to take advantage of the available workstation display capabilities. 2. There are times when more accurate skin surface models are needed. For that, computerized models of real people are used. These are derived from a database of biostereometrically-scanned bodies. 3. For extra realism, clothing is added to body segments by expanding and coloring the existing segment geometry. Besides the inherent desirability of having a virtual gure in a work environment appear to be dressed, clothing will also a ect task performance if adjustments are made to joint limits or if collision tests are performed. 4. Facial features may be provided by graphical texture maps. By showing a speci c face a particular individual may be installed in the scene, the gure may be uniquely identi ed throughout an animation, or generic gender may be conveyed. Moreover, if the face is animated, an entire communication channel is enabled. 1.3.5 A Human Model must Exist, Work, Act and React Within a 3D Virtual Environment We do not live in Flatland Abb53 and neither should virtual gures. Threedimensional environment modeling is the hallmark of contemporary computeraided design CAD systems. The workplace will frequently be constructed electronically for design, analysis, and manufacturing reasons; we merely add 16 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND human factors analysis to the list. Design importation facilitates up-front analyses before commitment to production hardware. Since geometric models are readily constructed, we must be sure that our body models and interactive software are compatible with the vast majority of CAD modeling schemes so the two can work together in the same virtual space. 1. Since Jack manipulates surface polygon geometry, simple features are provided to interactively construct and edit the geometry of the virtual workplace. Jack is not intended as a substitute for a good CAD system, but CAD features are provided for convenience. For example, if a designer nds a problem with the imported workplace, the o ending region can be immediately edited in Jack. When the changes prove acceptable, the designer can use the data values from Jack to modify the real" model in the external CAD system. While not optimal, this avoids any tendency to migrate the working model into Jack and bypass the more generalized CAD features provided by most CAD systems. 2. Standardized geometric data transfer to and from Jack would be highly desirable, but the state of standards in geometric modeling still leaves some important gaps. For example, few CAD systems adequately model articulated objects. Currently, Jack imports models from several common CAD vendors through a less satisfactory scheme of explicit translators from external geometry les. This situation will change to a standard as soon as possible. 1.3.6 Use the Computer to Analyze Synthetic Behaviors What would a real person do in a real environment? How can we get a virtual human to behave appropriately and report similar experiences? People are constantly managing multiple simultaneous constraints or tasks, for example, staying balanced while reaching to lift a box, or walking while carrying a cup of co ee. The essential parallelism of human motion demands an approach to behavior animation that does not just cope with parallelism but exploits it. We will be interested mostly in psychomotor and viewing behaviors; clearly auditory and cognitive tasks are worthy of inclusion but are not dealt with here. 1. Jack allows the user to specify, and the system maintains, multiple simultaneous position and orientation goals. For instance, a typical posture might involve reaching with two hands while looking at a target and staying balanced. There are constraints on the positions of the hands and the orientation of the eyes dictated by the task, and balance constraints required by gravity. Additionally, we might want the torso to remain upright or, if seated, for the pelvis to tilt to a more relaxed posture. There are too many possible human body con gurations to manage every combination by specialized rules; our approach is to 1.3. WHAT IS CURRENTLY POSSIBLE? 2. 3. 4. 5. 17 use a global solution technique, inverse kinematics, to satisfy the given constraints subject to the inherent joint limits of the body. While in a posture, the strength requirements of the gure may be displayed on screen. This interactive strength data display shows all torque loads along any selected chain of body segments. If a load is attached to an end-e ector, for example, it permits the easy visualization of the distribution of that additional weight on the body. What the gure is looking at is often a critical question in human factors analysis. In Jack, the direction of eye gaze is controlled through constraints to some environmental location or object site. If that site moves, the gaze will follow. Since eye movement will a ect head orientation, the e ect of gaze direction can propagate because of joint limits to the neck and torso and hence in uence overall body posture. In Jack, the user can see what the gure sees from an internal or external perspective. Internally, a separate graphics window may be opened which shows the view from the selected eye. The image appears naturally shaded and it moves as the gure's gaze is adjusted by direct manipulation or constraints. Concurrent changes to the environment and visible parts of the gure's own self" are displayed in the view window. If eld of view is critical, a retinal projection may be used where a polar projection displays workplace features based on their angle from the fovea. Although the image thereby appears distorted, the actual eld of view may be superimposed to assess the range of foveal or peripheral perception. For the external perspective, a selected eld of view is displayed as a translucent pair of view cones, one for each eye. The cones move with the eyes. Objects in view are shadowed by the translucent cones. Any overlapped region is clearly in the area of binocular vision. It is not yet feasible to do real-time collision detection between all the moving objects in a complex environment. By various simpli cations, however, su cient capabilities may be presented. On fast displays with real-time viewing rotation such as the Silicon Graphics workstations, the ability to rapidly change the view means that the user can quickly move about to check clearances. Another method used in Jack is to optionally project three orthogonal views of a gure and other selected objects onto back, side, and bottom planes. These three additional views give simultaneous contact and interference information and are used during interactive manipulations. Often, users will work with shaded images and detect collisions by noting when one object visually passes into another. The alternative to visual collision detection is direct object object interference computation. Usually limited to a selected body segment and a convex object, this method is slower but guarantees to detect a collision even if it would be di cult to see. 18 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 6. Sometimes it is valuable to visualize the entire reachable space of an end-e ector of the gure. Empirical data is sometimes available in the literature NAS78, NAS87 , but it is collected on speci c subjects and does not readily extend to gures with di ering anthropometry or joint limits. By constructing the reach space for a given gure in a given posture as a geometric object, the reach space may be viewed and objects may be readily classi ed as in or out of the reach space. 1.3.7 An Interactive Software Tool must be Designed for Usability A system to build, move, and analyze virtual humans should be usable by mere mortals with a modest training period. Isolating the potential user community by requiring unusual artistic skills would be counter-productive to our wider purposes of aiding design engineers. Existing interaction paradigms such as pop-up menus or command line completions should be followed when they are the most e cacious for a particular task, but new techniques will be needed to manage and control three-dimensional articulated structures with standard graphical input tools. The interface should be simple yet powerful, comprehensive but easy to learn. 1. The Jack user interface is designed for fast response to multiple constraint situations. Real-time end-e ector interactive dragging through arbitrary length joint chains means that the user can watch the gure respond to reach or movement tasks. The paradigm of manipulating one joint angle at a time is possible, but almost useless. The goal-directed behaviors provide an enormous bene t to the user in allowing the speci cation of what is to be done while constraint satisfaction handles the how through positioning interdependencies of the entire body structure. Dragging also permits quick experimentation with and manual optimization of postures. 2. By taking advantage of the Silicon Graphics display hardware, Jack shows the user shaded or wireframe displays during interaction for natural images and easy real-time visualization. 3. For the highest quality images, Jack provides its own multi-featured ray-tracing and radiosity programs. 4. Besides direct user input, Jack may be controlled through scripted commands in the Jack command language built in the course of interactive manipulation. This saves time and trouble in setting up complex situations, establishing a body posture, or trying a series of actions. 5. Jack also allows external control through operating system sockets" to other programs, simulations, or real sensors, providing hooks into external data sources for virtual environments or networked remote systems 1.4. MANIPULATION, ANIMATION, AND SIMULATION 19 sharing a common virtual dataspace. Jack itself can share an environment with other Jack's on the network. This could be used for novel cooperative workgroup applications. 6. The standard Jack user interface consists of just a three button mouse and keyboard. It is simple to learn and no special hardware devices are required unless a virtual environment setup is desired. The interaction paradigms in Jack include menu-driven or typed commands, on-line help, and command completion. It is easy to use after only a day or so of training. 7. The direct manipulation interface into three dimensions implemented in Jack is both highly e cient and natural to use. Depending only on the mouse and keyboard, it o ers a friendly, kinesthetic correspondence between manually comfortable hand motions, on-screen displays, and three-dimensional consequences. Three dimensional cursors, rotation wheels, and orthogonal projections of the principal view provide excellent visual feedback to the user. 8. Jack provides multiple windows with independent camera views for complex analyses, multiple points of view, and internal and external eye views. 1.4 Manipulation, Animation, and Simulation There are important distinctions between manipulation, animation, and simulation. Geometric manipulation is the process of interactive scene composition, or the interactive speci cation of positions and postures for geometric gures, usually on a trial and error basis. Manipulation usually involves movement of the gures, but the movement serves to assist in the control process and is generally not worth saving as a memorable motion sequence. Rather, the purpose of manipulation is to get the gures into a desired static posture, although the posture need not remain static afterwards. Manipulation is inherently real-time: objects move as a direct response to the actions of the user. In short, interactive manipulation is not necessarily choreography. Animation, on the other hand, is choreography. In computer animation, the goal is to describe motion, and the animator usually imagines the desired motion before beginning the animation process. Of course, experimentation may lead to revisions, like an illustrator who erases lines in a drawing, but the computer does not serve so much to answer questions as to obey orders. Animators measure the success of a computer animation system in terms of how well it serves as a medium for expressing ideas. Simulation is automated animation, and the concern is again with motion. The system generates the motion based on some kind of input from the user ahead of time. The input usually consists of objectives and rules for making decisions, and it is generally less speci c than with animation. The user knows 20 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Figure 1.1: Is it the Motion or the Posture? less about what motion should result. The job of the simulator is to predict what would happen under certain circumstances and inform the user of the results. Sometimes simulation can generate animation, as in the case of the animation of physics and natural phenomena. Simulation of human gures generally implies some modeling of human capabilities to deliberately o -load some of the low-level positioning overhead from the animator. Animation and simulation have been studied extensively, but manipulation of articulated gures has not received the attention it deserves. Volumes of research discuss animation techniques and simulation algorithms, but most research directed at interactive manipulation deals either with the low-level input mechanisms of describing 3D translations and rotations, or with the numerical issues of real-time dynamics. For example, consider the task of bending a gure over to touch its toes Fig. 1.1. Is the bending motion important, or is it just the nal posture that is critical? In animation, it's the motion: the motion must look realistic. In simulation, the motion must be realistic. In manipulation, the ner points of the posture are critical. Is the gure balanced? Are the knees bent? Where is the head pointed? How are the feet oriented? The motion through which the manipulation system positions the gure is not important in itself. It serves only to assist the user in arriving at the posture. 1.5 What Did We Leave Out? It is only fair that in this exposition we are clear about what our existing software does not do. There are choices to be made in any implementation, but 1.5. WHAT DID WE LEAVE OUT? 21 the vastness of the human performance problem demands scope boundaries as well. There are fascinating problems remaining that we have not touched. Some of these problems are being examined now, but the early results are too premature to report. The activity in this eld is amazing, and there will surely be advances in modeling, animation, and performance simulation reported each year. A glance at the Engineering Data Compendium BL88 , for example, will quickly show how much information has been collected on human factors and simultaneously how little is available interactively on a computer. But even without much thought, we can place some bounds on this study. We have ignored auditory information processing, environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, vibration sensitivity, and so on. While critical for harsh environments, we seek useful approximations to rst order geometric problems to see if a gure can do the task in the absence of external signals, distress, or threats. The probable degradation of task performance may be established from intelligent manual search through existing publications. While it would be attractive to include such data, we have not begun to acquire or use it yet. We have bypassed super-accurate skin models because the en eshment of a gure is so dependent on individual physiology, muscle tone, muscle fat ratio, and gender. For the kinds of analyses done with whole body models, errors of a centimeter or so in skin surfaces are subordinate to anthropometric errors in locating true joint centers and joint geometry. We have avoided injury assessment, as that is another whole eld developed from anatomy, crash studies, or national exertion standards. Of course, Jack could be used in conjunction with such systems, but we have not tried to connect them yet. Because we have taken a generalized view of human factors and restricted analyses to reach, t, view, and strength, we have necessarily avoided any workplace-speci c performance data. For example, action timings will be most accurate when measured with real subjects in a real environment. We have concentrated on measurements in environments prior to physical construction to save cost and possible personnel dangers. We have only touched on perceptual, reactive and cognitive issues. Many workers are engaged in control-theoretic activities: sensing the environment and reacting to maintain some desired state. We see this capability eventually driving the gure through the simulation interface, but at the present we have not modeled such situations. Instead we are investigating natural language instructions which generate an animation of the simulated agent's arti cial intelligence" understanding of the situation. 22 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Finally, we are leaving issues of learning for later study. There is much to be said for an agent who not only follows instructions but who also learns how to do similar but not identical actions in comparable situations in the future. Learning might rst occur at the psychomotor level, for example, to gure out the best way to lift a heavy weight. Later, learning can extend to the task level: to repeat a variant of a previously successful plan when the overall goals are encountered again. These issues are exciting, but we need to start with the basics and describe what exists today. Chapter 2 Body Modeling In order to manipulate and animate a human gure with computer graphics, a suitable gure must be modeled. This entails constructing a satisfactory surface skin for the overall human body shape, de ning a skeletal structure which admits proper joint motions, adding clothing to improve the verisimilitude of analyses as well as providing an appropriate measure of modesty, sizing body dimensions according to some target individual or population, and providing visualization tools to show physically-relevant body attributes such as torque loads and strength. 2.1 Geometric Body Modeling In computer graphics, the designer gets a wide choice of representations for the surfaces or volumes of objects. We will brie y review current geometric modeling schemes with an emphasis on their relevance to human gures. We classify geometric models into two broad categories: boundary schemes and volumetric schemes. In a boundary representation the surface of the object is approximated by or partitioned into non-overlapping 0-, 1-, or 2dimensional primitives. We will examine in turn those representations relevant to human modeling: points and lines, polygons, and curved surface patches. In a volumetric representation the 3D volume of the object is decomposed into possibly overlapping primitive volumes. Under volumetric schemes we discuss voxels, constructive solid geometry, ellipsoids, cylinders, spheres, and potential functions. 2.1.1 Surface and Boundary Models The simplest surface model is just a collection of 3D points or lines. Surfaces represented by points require a fairly dense distribution of points for accurate modeling. Clouds of points with depth shading were used until the early 1980's for human models on vector graphics displays. They took advantage of 23 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING 24 the display's speed and hierarchical transformations to produce the perceptual depth e ect triggered by moving points Joh76 for example, GM86 . A related technique to retain display speed while o ering more shape information is to use parallel rings or strips of points. This technique is used in LifeFormsTM 1 Lif91, Cal91 . Artistically positioned sketch lines" were used in one of the earliest human gure models Fet82 and subsequently in a Mick Jagger music video, Hard Woman" from Digital Productions. Polygons Polygonal polyhedral models are one of the most commonly encountered representations in computer graphics. The models are de ned as networks of polygons forming 3D polyhedra. Each polygon primitive consists of some connected vertex, edge, and face structure. The polygons are sized, shaped, and positioned so that they completely tile the required surface at some resolution. Polygon models are relatively simple to de ne, manipulate, and display. They are the most common models processed by workstation hardware and commercial graphics software. In general, polygons are best at modeling objects meant to have at surfaces, though with a large enough number of polygons quite intricate and complex objects can be represented. Large enough" may mean hundreds of thousands of polygons! All viable interactive human gure models are done with polygons, primarily because the polygon is the primitive easiest to manage for a modern workstation such as the Silicon Graphics machines. With real-time smooth shading, polygon models of moderate complexity several hundred polygons can look acceptably human-like; accurate skin models require thousands. A realistic face alone may require two or three thousand polygons if it is to be animated and if the polygons are the only source of detail. Polygon models are too numerous to cite extensively. Ones with an interesting level of detail have been used in Mannequin software from Biomechanics Corporation of America Pot91 , various movies such as Tony de Peltrie" from the University of Montreal Emm85 , and detailed synthetic actor models of Marilyn Monroe and Humphrey Bogart from Daniel Thalmann and Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann MTT90, MTT91b . They even model details of skin deformation by applying physical forces to polygon meshs GMTT89, MTT91b . The polygon models used in Jack are polygonal with two di erent levels of detail. The normal models have a few hundred polygons. More accurate models obtained from actual scans of real bodies have several thousand polygons. See Section 2.1.3. Curved Surfaces Since polygons are good at representing at surfaces, considerable e ort has been expended determining mathematical formulations for true curved surfaces. Most curved surface object models are formed by one or more para1 LifeForms is a registered trademark of Kinetic E ects, Inc. 2.1. GEOMETRIC BODY MODELING 25 metric functions of two variables bivariate functions. Each curved surface is called a patch; patches may be joined along their boundary edges into more complex surfaces. Usually patches are de ned by low order polynomials typically cubics giving the patch easily computed mathematical properties such as well-de ned surface normals and tangents, and computable continuity conditions between edge-adjacent patches. The shape of a patch is derived from control points or tangent vectors; there are both approximating and interpolating types. The former take the approximate shape of the control vertices; the latter must pass through them. There are numerous formulations of curved surfaces, including: Bezier, Hermite, bi-cubic, B-spline, Beta-spline, and rational polynomial Far88, BBB87 . Various human gure models have been constructed from curved patches, but display algorithm constraints make these gures awkward for real-time manipulation. They are excellent for animation. provided that su cient care is taken to model joint connections. This is a good example of where increased realism in the body segments demands additional e ort in smoothing and bending joint areas properly. Curved surface models were used in a gymnastic piece NHK86 and the Academy Award-winning Tin Toy" GP88 . 2.1.2 Volume and CSG Models The volume and CSG models divide the world into three-dimensional chunks. The models may be composed of non-intersecting elements within a spatial partition, such as voxels or oct-trees, or created from possibly overlapping combinations of inherently 3D primitive volumes. Voxel Models The rst volumetric model we examine is the voxel model. Here space is completely lled by a tessellation of cubes or parallelopipeds called voxels volume elements. Usually there is a density or other numerical value associated with each voxel. Storing a high resolution tessellation is expensive in space but simple in data structure just a large 3D array of values. Usually some storage optimization schemes are required for detailed work 1K x 1K x 1K spaces. Special techniques are needed to compute surface normals and shading to suppress the boxiness of the raw voxel primitive. Voxel data is commonly obtained in the medical domain; it is highly regarded for diagnostic purposes as the 3D model does not speculate on additional data say by surface tting nor suppress any of the original data however convoluted. Voxel models are the basis for much of the scienti c visualization work in biomedical imaging FLP89 . The possible detail for human models is only limited by the resolution of the sensor. Accurate bone joint shapes may be visualized, as well as the details of internal and external physiological features. These methods have not yet found direct application in the human factors domain, since biomechanical rather than anatomical issues are usually addressed. Real-time display of voxel images is also di cult, requiring either 26 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING low resolution image sets or special hardware GRB+ 85 . Constructive Solid Geometry One of the most e cient and powerful modeling techniques is constructive solid geometry CSG. Unlike the voxel models, there is no requirement to regularly tessellate the entire space. Moreover, the primitive objects are not limited to uniform cubes; rather there are any number of simple primitives such as cube, sphere, cylinder, cone, half-space, etc. Each primitive is transformed or deformed and positioned in space. Combinations of primitives or of previously combined objects are created by the Boolean operations. An object therefore exists as a tree structure which is evaluated" during rendering or measurement. CSG has been used to great advantage in modeling machined parts, but has not been seriously used for human body modeling. Besides the mechanical look created, real-time display is not possible unless the CSG primitives are polygonized into surfaces. When the set of primitives is restricted in one way or other, however, some useful or interesting human models have been built. Single Primitive Systems The generality of the constructive solid geometry method with its multiplicity of primitive objects and expensive and slow ray-tracing display method is frequently reduced to gain e ciency in model construction, avoid Boolean combinations other than union, and increase display speed. The idea is to restrict primitives to one type then design manipulation and display algorithms to take advantage of the uniformity of the representation. Voxels might be considered such a special case, where the primitives are all coordinate axis aligned and integrally positioned cubes. Other schemes are possible, for example, using ellipsoids, cylinders, superquadrics, or spheres. Ellipsoids have been used to model cartoon-like gures HE78, HE82 . They are good for elongated, symmetric, rounded objects. Unfortunately, the shaded display algorithm is nearly the same as the general ray-tracing process. Cylinders have also been used to model elongated, symmetric objects. Elliptic cylinders were used in an early human modeling system Wil82 . These primitives su er from joint connection problems and rather poor representations of actual body segment cross-sections. Superquadrics are a mathematical generalization of spheres which include an interesting class of shapes within a single framework: spheres, ellipsoids, and objects which arbitrarily closely look like prisms, cylinders, and stars. Simple parameters control the shape so that deformations through members of the class are simple and natural. Superquadrics are primarily used to model man-made objects, but when overlapped can give the appearance of faces and gures Pen86 . Spheres as a single primitive form an intriguing class. Spheres have a simplicity of geometry that rivals that of simple points: just add a radius. 2.1. GEOMETRIC BODY MODELING 27 There are two methods of rendering spheres. Normally they are drawn as regular 3D objects. A human modeled this way tends to look like a large bumpy molecule. Alternatively, spheres may be treated like scales" on the modeled object; in this case a sphere is rendered as a at shaded disk. With su cient density of overlapping spheres, the result is a smoothly shaded solid which models curved volumes rather well. A naturalistic human gure was done this way in our earlier TEMPUS system BB78, BKK+ 85, SEL84 . We stopped using this method as we could not adequately control the sphere disk overlaps during animation and newer workstation display technology favored polygons. Potential Functions An interesting generalization of spheres which solves some major modeling problems is to consider the volume as a potential function with a center and a eld function that decreases monotonically by an exponential or polynomial function from the center outward. There is no radius" or size of the potential function; rather, the size or surface is determined by setting a threshold value for the eld. What makes this more interesting is that potential functions act like energy sources: adjacent potential functions have overlapping elds and the resultant value at a point in space is in fact the sum of the elds active at that point. Thus adjacent elds blend smoothly, unlike the creases" that are obtained with xed radius spheres Bli82 . Recently, directional dependence and selective eld summation across models have been added to create soft" models that blend with themselves but not with other modeled objects in the environment WMW86, NHK+ 85 . Potential functions were originally used to model molecules, since atoms exhibit exactly this form of eld behavior, but the models have an amazing naturalistic look" and have been used to great e ect in modeling organic forms including human and animal gures NHK+ 85, BS91 . The principal disadvantages to potential functions lie in properly generating the numerous overlapping functions and very slow display times. They remain an interesting possibility for highly realistic models in the future. 2.1.3 The Principal Body Models Used 2 The default polyhedral human gure in Jack is composed of 69 segments, 68 joints, 136 DOFs, and 1183 polygons including cap and glasses. The appearance is a compromise between realism and display speed. No one is likely to mistake the gure for a real person; on the other hand, the movements and speed of control are good enough to convey a suitably responsive attitude. The stylized face, hat, and glasses lend a bit of character and actually assist in the perception of the forward-facing direction. For more accurate human bodies, we have adapted a database of actual body scans of 89 subjects 31 males and 58 females supplied by Kathleen 2 Pei-Hwa Ho. 28 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING Robinette of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and used with her permission. The original data came in contours, that is, slices of the body in the transverse plane GQO+ 89 . Each body segment was supplied as a separate set of contours. A polygon tiling program was used to transform the contours of each body segment into a surface representation. In order to represent the human body as an articulated gure we needed to rst compute the proper joint centers to connect the segments together. Joint center locations were computed through the coordinates of anthropometric landmarks provided with the contour data. Real humans are not symmetrical around the sagittal plane: our left half is not identical to our right half. This was the case with the contour data. For consistency, rather than accuracy, we used the right half of the body data to construct a left half and then put them together. We also sliced the upper torso to take advantage of the seventeen segment spine model Section 2.3. The resulting human body model has thirty-nine segments and about 18,700 polygons compared to the 290 slices in the original data. 2.2 Representing Articulated Figures Underneath the skin of a human body model is a representation of the skeleton. This skeletal representation serves to de ne the moving parts of the gure. Although it is possible to model each of the bones in the human body and encode in the model how they move relative to each other, for most types of geometric analyses it is su cient to model the body segments in terms of their lengths and dimensions, and the joints in terms of simple rotations. There are some more complex joint groups such as the shoulder and spine where inherent dependencies across several joints require more careful and sophisticated modeling. The increasing interest in recent years in object-oriented systems is largely due to the realization that the design of a system must begin with a deep understanding of the objects it manipulates. This seems particularly true in a geometric modeling system, where the word object" takes on many of its less abstract connotations. It has long been an adage in the user interface software community that a system with a poorly designed basic structure cannot be repaired by improving the interface, and likewise that a well designed system lends itself easily to an elegant interface. This section describes Peabody, which represents articulated gures composed of segments connected by joints. The Peabody data structure has a companion language and an interactive interface in Jack for specifying and creating articulated gures. The data structure itself maintains geometric information about segment dimensions and joint angles, but it also provides a highly e cient mechanism for computing, storing, and accessing various kinds of geometric information. One of the principal tasks requested of Peabody is to map segment dimensions and joint angles into global coordinates for end e ectors. 2.2. REPRESENTING ARTICULATED FIGURES 29 Peabody was designed with several criteria in mind: It should be general purpose. It should be able to represent many types of gures of tree-structured topology. It should not be hard coded to represent a speci c type of gure, such as a human gure or a particular robot manipulator. It should have a well developed notion of articulation. Rather than concentrating on representations for primitive geometric shapes, Peabody addresses how such shapes can be connected together and how they behave relative to each other. It should represent tree-structured objects through a hierarchy. The inverse kinematics positioning algorithm can calculate and maintain the information necessary to simulate closed loops. It should be easy to use. The external user view of the gures should be logical, clear, and easy to understand. Understanding the gures should not require any knowledge of the internal implementation, and it should not require any advanced knowledge of robotics or mechanics. 2.2.1 Background Kinematic Notations in Robotics The most common kinematic representation in robotics is the notation of Denevit and Hartenberg Pau81, DH55 . This representation derives a set of parameters for describing a linkage based on measurements between the axes of a robot manipulator. The notation de nes four parameters that measure the o set between subsequent coordinate frames embedded in the links, or segments: 1 the angle of rotation for a rotational joint or distance of translation for a prismatic joint; 2 the length of the link, or the distance between the axes at each end of a link along the common normal; 3 the lateral o set of the link, or the distance along the length of the axis between subsequent common normals; and 4 the twist of the link, or the angle between neighboring axes. The notation prescribes a formal procedure for assigning the coordinate systems to the links in a unique way. The objective behind these kinematic notations in robotics is to develop a standard representation that all researchers can use in the analysis and description of manipulators. There are several types of manipulators that are extremely common in the robotics research community. The adoption of a standard representation would greatly simplify the process of analyzing and implementing robotics algorithms since so many algorithms are described in the literature using these manipulators. Animation Systems Computer graphics and animation literature seldom addresses syntactic, or even semantic, issues in representations for mechanisms, except as background 30 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING for some other discussion of an animation technique or system. Most interactive animation systems such as GRAMPS OO81 , TWIXT Gom84 , and BBOP Stu84, Ste83 , as well as commercial animation packages such as Alias Ali90 and Wavefront Wav89 only provide a mechanism of attaching one object to another. In this way, the user can construct hierarchies. When the user manipulates one object, its child objects follow, but there is no real notion of articulation. The attachments simply state that the origin of the child object is relative to the origin of the parent. Many animation systems are non-interactive and are based on scripts that provide a hierarchy only through a programming language interface. Examples of such systems are ANIMA-II Hac77 , ASAS Rey82 and MIRA-3D MTT85 . In this kind of system, the hierarchy is hard-coded into the script, possibly through an interaction loop. A hierarchy designed in this way is very limited, except in the hands of a talented programmer animator who can write into the animation a notion of behavior. Physically-Based Modeling Systems Physically based modeling systems such as that of Witkin, Fleisher, and Barr WFB87 and Barzel and Barr BB88 view the world as objects and constraints. Constraints connect objects together through desired geometric relationships or keep them in place. Otherwise, they oat in space under the appropriate laws of physics. There is no notion of articulation other than constraints. This forces the burden of maintaining object positions entirely to the algorithms that do the positioning. For simple objects, this is conceptually pleasing, although for complex objects it is computationally di cult. If a system represents joints like the elbow as a constraint, the constraint must have a very high weighting factor in order to ensure that it never separates, requiring very small time steps in the simulation. This may also complicate the user's view of objects such as robots or human gures, which are inherently articulated. We believe it is important to di erentiate the relationship between body segments at the elbow and the relationship between a hand and a steering wheel. 2.2.2 The Terminology of Peabody Peabody uses the term environment to refer to the entire world of geometric objects. The environment consists of individual gures, each of which is a collection of segments. The segments are the basic building blocks of the environment. Each segment has a geometry. It represents a single physical object or part, which has shape and mass but no movable components. The geometry of each segment is represented by a psurf, which is generally a polyhedron or a polygonal mesh but can be of a more general nature. The term gure applies not only to articulated, jointed gures such as a human body: any single object" is a gure. It need not have moving parts. A gure may have only a single segment, such as a co ee cup, or it may be 2.2. REPRESENTING ARTICULATED FIGURES 31 composed of several segments connected by joints, such as a robot. Sometimes the term object" denotes any part of the Peabody environment. Joints connect segments through attachment frames called sites. A site is a local coordinate frame relative to the coordinate frame of its segment. Each segment can have several sites. Joints connect sites on di erent segments within the same gure. Sites need not lie on the surface of a segment. A site is a coordinate frame that has an orientation as well as a position. Each site has a location that is the homogeneous transform that describes its placement relative to the base coordinate frame of its segment. Segments do not have speci c dimensions, such as the length, o set, and twist of Denevit and Hartenberg notation, because the origin can lie anywhere on the segment. The location of the axes of the joints that connect the segment are phrased in terms of this origin, rather than the other way around. The measurement of quantities such as length is complicated, because segments may have several joints connected to them, and none of these joints is designated in the de nition as the parent." Joints may have several DOFs, which are rotational and translational axes. Each axis and its corresponding angle form a single rotation or translation, and the product of the transform at each DOF de nes the transform across the joint, de ning the placement of the sites, and thus the segments, that the joint connects. The directionality of a joint is important because it de nes the order in which the DOF transforms are concatenated. Because these transforms are not commutative, it is essential that the order is well-de ned. This is an especially important feature of Peabody, since it is sometimes convenient to de ne the direction of the joint in a way di erent from the way the joint occurs in the gure hierarchy. An example of this is the human knee. Although it may be useful to structure the hierarchy of a human body with the root at the foot, it is also appealing to have the joints at both knees de ned in the same manner. 2.2.3 The Peabody Hierarchy Peabody avoids imposing a prede ned hierarchy on the gures by encour- aging the user to think of gures as collections of segments and joints, none with special importance. However, there must exist an underlying hierarchy because Peabody is not equipped to handle closed-loop mechanisms. Closed loop structures are managed through the constraint satisfaction mechanism. The structure of the Peabody tree is de ned by designating one site on the gure as the root. The root site roughly corresponds to the origin of the gure, and it provides a handle by which to specify the location of the gure. Viewing the gure as a tree, the root of the gure is the root of the tree. The root site of a gure may change from time to time, depending upon the desired behavior of the gure. This means there are two representations for the hierarchy, one internal and one external. There are many advantages to having a dual representation 32 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING of the hierarchy. First, it allows the hierarchy to be inverted on the y. Most models have a natural order to their hierarchy, emanating from a logical origin, but this hierarchy and origin may or may not correspond to how a model is placed in the environment and used. The choice of the gure root is particularly important to the inverse kinematics algorithm, since the algorithm operates on chains of joints within the gure. At least one point on the gure must remain xed in space. Because the internal representation of the hierarchy is separate, the user maintains a consistent view of the transform across a joint, regardless of how the gure is rooted. The example below illustrates the Peabody hierarchy. Each segment has its base coordinate frame in the middle and an arc leading to each of its sites. The transform along this arc is the site's location. Each site may have several joints branching out from it, connecting it downwards in the tree to sites on other segments. figure table segment leg psurf = "leg.pss"; attribute = plum; site base- location = trans0.00cm,0.00cm,0.00cm; site top- location = trans5.00cm,75.00cm,5.00cm; segment leg0 psurf = "leg.pss"; attribute = springgreen; site base- location = trans0.00cm,0.00cm,0.00cm; site top- location = trans5.00cm,75.00cm,5.00cm; segment leg1 psurf = "leg.pss"; attribute = darkslategray; site base- location = trans0.00cm,0.00cm,0.00cm; site top- location = trans5.00cm,75.00cm,5.00cm; segment leg2 psurf = "leg.pss"; attribute = darkfirebrick; site base- location = trans0.00cm,0.00cm,0.00cm; site top- location = trans5.00cm,75.00cm,5.00cm; segment top psurf = "cube.pss" * scale1.00,0.10,2.00; site base- location = trans0.00cm,0.00cm,0.00cm; site leg0- location = trans95.00cm,0.00cm,5.00cm; site leg2- location = trans5.00cm,0.00cm,5.00cm; 2.2. REPRESENTING ARTICULATED FIGURES 33 site leg3- location = trans95.00cm,0.00cm,195.00cm; site leg4- location = trans5.00cm,0.00cm,195.00cm; joint leg1 connect top.leg3 to; type = Rz; joint leg2 connect top.leg2 to; type = Rz; joint leg3 connect top.leg4 to; type = Rz; joint leg4 connect top.leg0 to; type = Rz; root = top.base; location = trans0.00cm,75.00cm,0.00cm; 2.2.4 Computing Global Coordinate Transforms The root site for the gure is the one at the top of the tree, and its global location is taken as given, that is, not dependent on any other element of the environment. The root, the site locations, and the joint displacements uniquely determine the global location of every site and segment in the tree in terms of a product of transforms from the root downward. The computation of the coordinate transforms for each segment and site in the downward traversal of the tree requires inverting the site locations that connect the segment to other segments lower in the tree. It may also require inverting joint displacements if the joint is oriented upwards in the tree. Computationally, this is not expensive because the inverse of a homogeneous transform is easy to compute, through a transpose and a dot product. 2.2.5 Dependent Joints 3 The human gure can be abstracted as an object which is to be instantiated into a certain pose by any speci cation of all the joint angles. While any pose can be represented by a set of joint angles, it is not always possible to supply a full and reasonable set of angles. Often, for example, there is a 3 Jianmin Zhao. CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING 34 natural grouping of joints such as the torso or shoulder mass that typically work together. Arbitrary admissible joint angles for the joints in the group may not represent a legitimate posture: they are functionally dependent on each other. Conceptually, these dependencies compromise the notion of the joint and joint angle and blur the boundary of the object de nition. It seems that not all joints are created equal. Rather than have a system which tries to cope with every joint the same way, we take a more practical approach. We use a joint group concept in Peabody to accommodate joint dependency so that the relationship is coded into the object de nition rather than the application program. A joint group is a set of joints which are controlled as one entity. Internal joint angles are not visible outside of the group: they are driven by the group driver. The driver is nothing but a mapping from a number of parameters counterparts of joint angles of the independent joint to joint angles of its constituent joints. Those independent parameters will be called group angles. Similar to the joint angles of the independent joint, the group angles of the joint group are subject to linear constraints of the form n X ai i  bi 2:1 i=1 where 's are group angles and n is the number of 's, or number of DOFs of the joint group. There may be many such constraints for each group. There can be many applications of the joint group. Forearm pronation and supination change the segment geometry, so one way to manage that within the geometry constraints of psurfs is to divide the forearm into a number of nearly cylindrical sub-segments. As the wrist moves, its rotation is transmitted to the forearm segments such that distal sub-segments rotate more than proximal ones. The segment adjacent to the elbow does not pronate or supinate at all. Fingers could be managed in a similar fashion by distributing the desired orientation of the ngertip over the three joints in the nger chain. The most interesting examples, though, involve the torso and the shoulder. We address these cases in the next sections. 2.3 A Flexible Torso Model 4 Human gure models have been studied in computer graphics almost since the introduction of the medium. Through the last dozen years or so, the structure, exibility, and delity of human models has increased dramatically: from the wire-frame stick gure, through simple polyhedral models, to curved surfaces, and even nite element models. Computer graphics modelers have tried to maximize detail and realism while maintaining a reasonable overall display cost. The same issue pertains to control: improving motion realism 4 Gary Monheit. 2.3. A FLEXIBLE TORSO MODEL 35 requires a great number of DOFs in the body linkage, and such redundancy strains e ective and intuitively useful control methods. We can either simplify control by simplifying the model, thereby risking unrealistic movements; or complicate control with a complex model and hope the resulting motions appear more natural. The recent history of computer animation of human gures is focused on the quest to move the technology from the former situation towards the latter while simultaneously forcing the control complexity into algorithms rather than skilled manual manipulation. This point of view motivates our e orts in human gure modeling and animation, as well as those of several other groups. Though notable algorithms for greater animation power have addressed kinematics, dynamics, inverse kinematics, available torque, global optimization, locomotion, deformation, and gestural and directional control, the human models themselves tended to be rather simpli ed versions of real human exibility. In the early 1980's we warned that increased realism in the models would demand ever more accurate and complicated motion control; now that the control regimes are improving, we must return to the human models and ask if we must re-evaluate their structure to take advantage of algorithmic improvements. When we considered this question, we determined that a more accurate model of the human spine and torso would be essential to further realism in human motion. Although many models have appeared to have a exible torso, they have been computer constructions of the surface shape manipulated by skilled animators Emm85 . We needed a torso that was suitable for animation, but also satis ed our requirements for anthropometric scalability. Thus a single model of xed proportions is unacceptable as human body types manifest considerable di erences. A similar type of exible gure is found in snakes Mil88, Mil91 , but the anthropometry issues do not arise. Moreover, this snake animation is dynamics-based; humans do not need to locomote by wiggling their torsos and so a kinematics model was deemed adequate. Zeltzer and Stredney's George" skeleton model has a detailed vertebral column, but it is not articulated nor is it bent during kinematic animation Zel82 . Limited neck vertebral motion in the saggital plane was simulated by Willmert Wil82 . Various body models attempt a spine with a 3D curve but shape and control it in a ad hoc fashion. If the spine were realistically modeled, then the torso, a vessel connected and totally dependent on the spine, could then be viewed and manipulated interactively. So we undertook the development of a far more satisfactory and highly exible vertebral model of the spine and its associated torso shape. The conceptual model of the spinal column is derived from medical data and heuristics related to human kinesiology. The spine is a collection of vertebrae connected by ligaments, small muscles, vertebral joints called processes, and intervertebral discs BBA88 . Nature has designed the spine for support of the body's weight, stability of the torso, exibility of motion, and protection of the spinal cord AM71, Hol82 . The spine moves as a column of vertebrae connected by dependent joints, meaning that it is impossible to isolate movement of one vertebral joint from CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING 36 the surrounding vertebrae Lou83 . Muscle groups of the head, neck, abdomen and back initiate the movement of the spine, and the interconnecting ligaments allow the movement of neighboring vertebrae BBA88, Wel71 . 2.3.1 Motion of the Spine Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Disc The spinal column consists of 33 vertebrae organized into 5 regions BBA88 : cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx. The vertebrae are labeled by medical convention in vertical descending order: C1 C7, T1 T12, L1 L5, and S1 S5. Which regions should be considered part of the torso? The cervical spine lies within the neck. The sacrum and coccyx contain vertebrae that are xed through fusion AM71 . Since the mobile part of the torso includes the 12 thoracic and 5 lumbar vertebrae, all together 17 vertebrae and 18 joints of movement are included in the torso model. Each vertebra is uniquely sized and shaped, but all vertebrae contain a columnar body and an arch. The body is relatively large and cylindrical, supporting most of the weight of the entire spine. The vertebral bodies increase gradually in size from the cervical to the lumbar region AM71 . The arch supports seven processes: four articular, two transverse, and one spinous AM71 . The processes are bony protrusions on the vertebra that aid and limit the vertebral motion. The transverse and spinous processes serve as levers for both muscles and ligaments BBA88 . The articular processes provide a joint facet for the joint between successive vertebral arches. These processes, due to their geometry, cause the vertebrae to rotate with 3 DOFs. Ligaments and small muscles span successive vertebral processes. They give the spinal column its stability. Because of this strong interconnectivity, spinal movement is modeled as interdependent movements of neighboring joints. Vertebrae are each separated by intervertebral discs. The disc has 3 parts Lou83 : nucleus pulposus - the sphere in the center, consisting of 85 water annulus brosus - the bers running as concentric cylinders around the nucleus cartilaginous plates - a thin wall separating the disc from the vertebral body. The disc changes shape as the neighboring vertebrae bend. But, since the nucleus is 85 water, there is very little compression. The disc can bulge out spherically, as force is applied to the columnar body above or below. Therefore, overall the disc does not function as a spring, but as a deformable cylindrical separation between vertebrae, supporting the theory that the vertebrae do not slide, but rotate around an axis Lou83 . 2.3. A FLEXIBLE TORSO MODEL 37 Range of Movement of Each Vertebra Vertebral movement is limited by the relative size of the disks, the attached ligaments, and the shape and slant of the processes and facet joints. Statistics for joint limits between each successive vertebra have been recorded and compiled Lou83 . Also, the spine has a natural shape at rest position. The initial joint position of each vertebra is input to the model. The range of movement of each region of the spine is di erent. For instance, the optimum movement of the lumbar region is exion or extension. The thoracic area easily moves laterally, while exion extension in the sagittal plane is limited. The cervical area is very exible for both axial twisting and lateral bending. The joint limits for each region a ect how much that joint is able to participate in any given movement. The posture of the torso is a result of the specialization of the spinal regions Wil75 . E ect of the Surrounding Ligaments and Muscles The vertebrae are interconnected by a complex web of ligaments and muscles. If the force initiated by a muscle group is applied at one joint, the joint moves and the neighboring joints also move to a lesser degree. Some joints farther away might not be a ected by the initiator joint's movement. It is possible to deactivate joints that are not initiating the movement. This action is achieved by simultaneous contractions of extensor and exor muscles around the spinal column Wil75 . Depending on the force of these resisting muscles, the joints on or near the joint closest to the resistor will move less than they would if the resisting force had not been applied. The nal position of the spine is a function of the initiator force, the resisting muscle, and the amount of resistance. 2.3.2 Input Parameters The spine is modeled as a black box with an initial state, input parameters, and an output state MB91 . To initiate movement of the spine, several input parameters are introduced. These parameters are: joint range FROM and TO: Within the total number of joints in the spine, any non-empty contiguous subset of vertebral joints may be speci ed by two joint indices. These joints indicate which part of the spine is active in movement. For example, the user speci es movement in the range between T5 and T10. All other joints are frozen in the movement. initiator joint: The joint where movement begins, usually the joint with greatest motion. resistor joint: The joint that resists the movement. This may be equated to a muscle that contracts and tries to keep part of the spine immobile. resistance: The amount of resistance provided by the resistor joint. CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING 38 spine target position: This is a 3D vector describing the target position after rotation around the x, y, and z axis. The target position is the sum of all joint position vectors in the spine after movement succeeds. zero interpolation: A value of yes" indicates that movement is interpolated through the joint rest position. A value of no" indicates that only the joint limits are used to interpolate movement. 2.3.3 Spine Target Position The joint between each vertebra has three degrees of rotation. The spine will move toward the target position by rotating around the three possible axes Lou83 : ROTATION OF THE SPINE exion extension Forward backward bending axial rotation Twisting lateral bending Side bending Rotation around x axis Rotation around y axis Rotation around z axis The position of the exion rotational axis for each vertebral joint has been measured from cadavers, and is not equidistant to the two adjacent vertebrae, but is closer to the bottom vertebra Lou83 . The origin of the axis of movement determines how the vertebrae move. When the torso is modeled on the spine, the axis also directly determines how the torso changes shape. Elongation and compression are absent from the model. The hydrophilic intervertebral disc, when submitted to prolonged compression induces a slight decrease in height due to uid leakage. Conversely, after a long period of rest or zero-gravity, the spine elongates by maximum lling of the nucleus pulposus at the center of the disc Lou83 . Dehydration during a day's activity can result in a loss of height of 2 cm in an adult person. In any short duration of movement the disc is essentially incompressible, and therefore elongation is imperceptible Hol81 . Shearing or sliding translational movements of the vertebrae would lead to variation in the intervertebral separation. This would not be allowed by the mechanics of the intervertebral disc Lou83 . Therefore, the assumption is made that for normal activities the three degrees of rotational movement are the only ones possible for each vertebral joint. 2.3.4 Spine Database Any human gure can have a wide variety of torso shapes. Also, each person has a di erent degree of exibility and range of movement. In order to model the position and shape changes of an individual's spine, a database has been designed for creating a unique set of features for the spine and torso. Medical data is the source of the database elements of an average person Lou83 . The database consists of the size of each vertebra in the x; y; z dimension, 2.4. SHOULDER COMPLEX 39 Figure 2.1: Spherical Trajectory of the Shoulder. the intervertebral disc size, the joint limits 3 rotations with 2 limits per rotation, and the joint rest initial position. In Section 4.2.3 we will see how spine movement is realized. 2.4 Shoulder Complex 5 It is well known that the movement of the humerus the upper arm is not a matter of simple articulation as most computer graphics models would have it. The movement is caused by articulations of several joints glenohumeral joint, claviscapular joint and sternoclavicular joint. Collectively, they are called the shoulder complex EP87, ET89 . In Jack, the shoulder complex is simpli ed with two joints one connecting the sternum to the clavicle and the other connecting the clavicle to the humerus GQO+ 89 . We call the former joint the clavicle joint and the latter the shoulder joint. This simpli cation implies that the rotational center of the humerus lies on a spatial sphere when the upper arm moves. It turns out that it is very close to empirical data collected with a 6-D sensor attached to the external midpoint between the dorsal and ventral side of the right upper arm Mau91 . The z -axis of the sensor was along the longitudinal axis of the upper arm with the positive z axis direction pointing proximally, and the negative y-axis pointing into the upper arm. The sensor was placed 10 inches from the shoulder the extremal point of the humerus. From the experimental data the trajectory of the shoulder can be easily computed. We tted the trajectory by the sphere which yields minimum average residual error. The result is quite satisfactory: the radius of the sphere is 6.05cm, and the average error the distance from the trajectory point to the sphere is 0.16cm. Figure 2.1. Notice that the radius of the 5 Jianmin Zhao. 40 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING Figure 2.2: A Neutral Human Figure. sphere is not the same as the dimension of the clavicle. This is due to the fact that the shoulder complex has indeed three joints instead of two. The net result can be modeled by two joints, however, if we put the center of the clavicle joint inbetween the two clavicle extremes. In our applications we feel that two joints are adequate to model the shoulder complex. So, we modeled the shoulder complex by grouping these two joints into a joint group. Now we need to de ne the group angles and the way they drive the internal joint angles. 2.4.1 Primitive Arm Motions It will be convenient to have the group angles of the shoulder complex describe the arm's motion in a natural way. To focus on this motion, we assume that the elbow, the wrist and all joints down to ngers are xed. What are the arm's primitive motions? Mathematically, any three independent arm's motions will su ce. But careful selection will pay o in positioning ease. The arm's motion can be decomposed into two parts: spherical and twisting motions. The motion which moves the vector from the proximal end to the distal end of the upper arm is called spherical motion, and the motion which leaves this vector unchanged is called twisting. In a neutral body stance, consider a coordinate system where the z axis points vertically downward, the x axis points towards the front, and the y axis points to the right. If we place the starting end of the vector from the proximal end to the distal end of the upper arm at the origin of the coordinate system, the terminating end will stay on a sphere with the center at the origin when the arm moves. The spherical motion can be further decomposed into two motions: one which moves the arm vector along the longitude of the sphere elevation, and another which moves the vector along 2.4. SHOULDER COMPLEX 41 the latitude abduction. To describe the current status of the arm vector, we need a convention for zero elevation or abduction. Let us de ne the amount of elevation as the unsigned angle between z axis and the arm vector and, for the left arm, the amount of abduction as the signed angle between the ,y axis and the projection of the arm vector on the xy plane. The positive abduction is de ned when the absolute angle from ,y to the projection is less than 180 . Joint limits can be speci ed in terms of these spherical or globographic" limiting angles EP87 . 2.4.2 Allocation of Elevation and Abduction Naturally, the joint group shoulder complex will have elevation, abduction and twist as its group angles. They will be realized by internal joints | the clavicle and the shoulder joints. The amounts of elevation and abduction of the arm are allocated to the shoulder joint and the clavicle joint, while the twist is allocated to the shoulder joint alone. According to clinical data, Otani gave a formula for distributing elevation and abduction to the shoulder and clavicle Ota89 : 2.2 c = cos  1 + 1 , cos  2 , 90 c = 0:2 2.3 ,c 2.4 s= s = , c 2.5 where and are total elevation and abduction of the shoulder complex, subscripts c" and s" stand for the portions carried by the clavicle and shoulder joints, respectively, and 0:2514 + 91:076 for 0   131:4 2.6 1= ,0:035 + 128:7 for 131:4 0:21066 + 92:348 for 0   130:0 : 2.7 2= 120:0 for 130:0 2.4.3 Implementation of Shoulder Complex In Peabody, Rx; y; z  2:8 is used to denote a generic rotation about the axis x; y; z . Since we need rotations about some coordinate axis, let Rx ! 2:9 represent the rotation about x axis by ! degrees. Analogous notation will be used for the y and z axes. Peabody uses row vector convention. So a string of rotations, when read from the right, can be interpreted as applying the rst rotation the rightmost 42 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING one, then applying the next one about the rotated reference frame, and so on. When read from the left, it should be interpreted as applying successive rotations about the xed starting frame. With respect to the standing reference frame the spherical motion can be described as R1; 0; 0  R0; 0; 1; 2:10 that is, to achieve elevation and abduction of amounts and , the arm can rotate about the x axis by , followed by rotating about the unrotated y axis by . This is just spherical coordinates which designate a point on a sphere. The rst problem we shall encounter is the singularity inherent to the spherical coordinate system. Dealing with Singularities of Spherical Coordinates As is known, the spherical coordinates have two singularities: when the elevation is 0 or 180 , it represents the pole south pole for 0 or north pole for 180 no matter what the longitude abduction amount is. To see how this would a ect the description of the spherical motion of the arm, let us do a small experiment. Starting with your left arm hanging down at your side, elevate your arm by 90 , then abduct by 90 , and nally elevate by ,90 . Now see where your hand is. You will nd that your hand comes back but with an axial twist. Where does this twist come from? It means that the pair of so de ned elevation and abduction motions are not independent from twist. As long as elevation is zero, the arm vector would not change. This is nothing but a twist, as our decomposition of spherical motion and twisting motion intended. The nal coordinates are 0, 90, since the last elevation cancels the rst one and leaves the abduction" there. To compensate for this unwanted twist, we untwist the arm by the amount that the abduction" would induce before the shoulder leaves the zero elevation. Therefore, we need a joint of three cascaded rotations as follows, R0; 0; 1  R1; 0; 0  R0; 0; 1 2:11 Let , and be desired twist, elevation and abduction, respectively. Then the joint angles or displacement, in Peabody language should be  , ; ; : 2:12 The values in 2.12 are the amount of rotation about each of the corresponding axes in 2.11. The minus term in the rst joint angle is to compensate for the unwanted twist induced by the abduction so realized. As a matter of fact, the amount of twist is a relative quantity. It is meaningful only if we have zero twist assumed for any direction of the arm. So 2.12 should be  0 + , ; ; ; 2:13 2.4. SHOULDER COMPLEX 43 where 0 is a function of  , , which de nes the zero twist for each  , . Function 0 should be such that 2:14 0 0;  = constant; since 0;  denotes the same direction of the arm regardless of the value of . Now elevation by 90 , followed by abduction of 90 , and then elevation of ,90 would wind up with  0 , 90; 0; 90: Since Rx0 = identity matrix, the nal matrix Rz  0 , 90  Rx 0  Rz 90 would be equal to Rz  0 , which is exactly the starting con guration without twisting. Now let us take care of the other singular point, that is, when = 180 . At this point, Rx180 6= identity. But we have Rx180  Rz   = Rz ,   Rx 180: To deal with this singularity, we require that 2:15 0180;  = 2 + constant to compensate for unwanted twist induced by abduction" . When = 180 , Rz  0 180;  + ,   Rx 180  Rz   2:16 = Rz  0 180;  + ,   Rz ,   Rx180 = Rz  0 180;  + , 2   Rx180: 2.15 guarantees that that the nal con guration is independent of the abduction by . Combining 2.14 with 2.15, a possible choice of 0 could be 0  ;  = 90 : 2:17 This is the choice in our current implementation. To achieve more natural zero twist de nition, we need to ne tune 0. One possibility is shown in Section 4.1.2 based on Hut70 and BOK80 . But 2.14 and 2.15 are required to deal with the singularity due to the spherical coordinate system. Dealing with Hierarchical Nature of Connection So far, we have focused on the shoulder joint. However, as we argued, the shoulder complex will consist of two joints shoulder and clavicle joints. The total amount of elevation and abduction will be distributed to shoulder and clavicle joint according to the formula in Section 2.4.2. In the Jack human gure model, the clavicle joint has the form R1; 0; 0  R0; 1; 0; 2:18 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING 44 sterno-clavicle junction HH  HH  Hz j H x    Shoulder Front y ? sternum Y H yH H HH H Shoulder   x    Front z ? Figure 2.3: Site Orientations at Clavicle and Shoulder Joints. Shoulder  A  A Sternum  XXXXA  y  XX   A XXX   y A A A A Az U A ? z' Elevation due to the clavicle joint Figure 2.4: Tilted Shoulder Frame. since the site orientation at the clavicle joint is a little bit di erent from that at the shoulder joint Figure 2.3. We do not need to worry about the singularity problem here as we did with the shoulder joint because the arm, which the shoulder complex drives, is not aligned with the center of this joint. The amount of elevation and abduction of the clavicle is given in 2.2  2.5. The clavicle is closer to the normal root of the human gure than the shoulder. This means that the global relative to the neutral torso orientation of the site at the shoulder joint will be altered by the movement of the clavicle: the z axis of the site at the shoulder would no longer point vertically downward. This causes the trajectory of the hand drawn by abduction" to no longer be on the horizontal plane. Notice that the x axis will always be horizontal, and hence the meaning of elevation is not challenged. To protect abduction" against this alteration, we need to do a transformation of the site coordinates. After some movement of the clavicle, the shoulder reference frame is tilted as shown in Figure 2.4. The Figure displays only the plane x = 0. The x axis 2.5. CLOTHING MODELS 45 does not show up in the Figure, but should be understood by the right-hand principle. The tilted abduction is due to the tilted z axis. The correct" abduction should be the rotation about the dotted z 0 axis. This axis is not constant due to variable clavicle elevation, but the Peabody language requires a constant axis. To circumvent this restriction, we can perform a transformation of coordinates. The rotation axis described in x; y0; z 0  is simply R0; 0; 1. The matrix representation of a rotation in a di erent coordinate system is just a similarity transformation of the coordinate transformation matrix. Let vectors in x; y0 ; z 0 be primed. The transformation of coordinates is v = Rx  v 0 2:19 where is the amount of elevation allocated to the clavicle joint. The rotation about z 0 axis by ! represented in x; y0 ; z 0  is Rz ! but, when represented in the old coordinate frame x; y; z , it would be Rx Rz !Rx , : 2:20 Substituting this for the second R0; 0; 1 in the shoulder joint cascaded rotations 2.11, we get R0; 0; 1  R1; 0; 0  R1; 0; 0  R0; 0; 1  R1; 0; 0: We do not need to substitute for the rst R0; 0; 1 in 2.11, because it is there for twist and to compensate for unwanted twist caused by the abduction allocated to the shoulder joint. Two contiguous rotations about the x axis can be combined into one. The nal form of the shoulder joint becomes R0; 0; 1  R1; 0; 0  R0; 0; 1  R1; 0; 0: 2:21 Let be the amount of twist and the notations of elevation and abduction be as in Section 2.4.2. The joint angles for the clavicle take values  c ; c  2:22 with respect to 2.18, and the joint angles for the shoulder take values 0 2:23  +  90 , 1 s ; ; s; , c: with regard to 2.21. It is not di cult to verify that the hand orientation does not depend on the abduction allocated to the shoulder joint, s , when the total elevation, , is 0 or 180 . 2.5 Clothing Models 6 In most workplace environments we have encountered, clothed gures are the norm and would be expected by the designer. Adding clothing to a human 6 Eunyoung Koh. 46 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING gure improves its graphical appearance and realism. Clothes modeling can be done in many ways ranging from very simple to more realistic but complicated. The simplest clothing technique is to change the attributes of certain segments of the body gure; for example, by modifying the colors of the pelvis and upper leg segments we get the e ect of a body wearing short pants. This is not quite as silly as it sounds, because the body segment geometry can be created with a clothed rather than bare-skinned shape. The best but more complicated approach is to drape and attach clothing over a body to simulate the intricate properties of garments. Besides improving realism, there is a practical human factors aspect to clothing. Clothing constrains movement by restricting the joint angle limits. Preliminary attempts to analyze this problem use collision detection over a geometric clothes model. 2.5.1 Geometric Modeling of Clothes Rigid clothing models are created by designing special segment psurfs. Thus a shirt or jacket would have, say, ve parts: one for the torso, and two for each limb segment. Clothing exists independently of a given gure model as a library of objects which can be selectively placed on a model at user determined sites. This database is modi able through typical geometric editing commands. A clothing item is positioned by matching key points on the clothing to key points on the body segments. A global deformation algorithm SP86 can be used to t the clothing piece correctly on the segment. One apparent problem with geometrically modeled clothing occurs when the human gure moves joints. Since the clothing model is not deformable, there are gaps between segments. This is in fact true even without clothing if the gure is modeled with polyhedral meshes. As the geometry is carried on the segment, it inherits the geometric transformation without any compensation for the interaction of material, esh or clothes, at the joint. Extra work is necessary to alleviate the joint gap problem. A gap lling algorithm has been developed to make up these gaps when animating. It connects the boundaries of two adjacent segments by generating spline surfaces using the tangent information of the two segments at the boundaries. As an initial attempt to develop geometric models of clothes, a sweatshirt and pants were designed Plate 2. Each segment of a clothing item is a psurf whose geometry and position are closely related to a corresponding body segment. The following is a step by step procedure for geometric clothes design. 2.5. CLOTHING MODELS 47 1. Determine the size of clothes: In conventional clothing design, circumferences are measured at certain positions of the body in order to determine the clothing size. In our approach, the maximum segment breadth in two orthogonal directions are measured instead of circumferences. The following list shows the positions at which the maximum breadths are measured and lists their corresponding slices from the accurate biostereometric bodies Section 2.1.3. For trousers waist the 6th slice of lower torso hip the 9th slice of hip ap upper leg the rst slice of upper leg lower leg the last 24th slice of lower leg For a sweatshirt neck chest breast waist upper arm lower arm the rst slice of upper torso the 6th slice of upper torso the 12th slice of upper torso the rst slice of lower torso the 8th slice of upper arm the last 16th slice of lower arm Also, a measure of the length from the neck to the bottom of the shirt is provided to determine the length of the shirt. These sizes are speci ed in advance for each article of clothing. 2. Create psurfs: The geometry of each segment is determined by a set of body slices. A new set of slices for clothing is constructed by sculpturing the body slices depending on the shape of the segment and the speci ed sizes in the previous step. The fundamental idea in the construction is to pick a few thick slices and duplicate them appropriately along the segment after scaling. Scaling is done by linear interpolation so that the scaled slices may match with the speci ed maximum breadth sizes at the positions designated. The completed surface de nition of a clothes segment can be obtained by tiling the slices. Tiling is performed by generating rectangles from the data points which de ne two adjacent slices. 3. Attach clothes segments to human body: Each clothes segment can be attached to the corresponding body segment by a joint which is located at the upper part of that segment. 48 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING The clothing shape can be easily modi ed by changing the slice de nition of the clothes. For example, folded sleeves, short sleeves, and short pants can be simulated by simple modi cation or deletion of slices. 2.5.2 Draping Model The most realistic clothing can be created by simulating the support and draping of pattern pieces of arbitrary shape. Wrinkling, folding, and the effects of gravity are displayed through a relaxation method or a nite element method. Pattern pieces may also be stitched at seams and draped simultaneously. Pattern pieces of di erent lengths may be sewn together, resulting in an oversewing e ect. The draping of the pattern pieces is done on a gure in a static posture. Interference testing is done in the draping algorithm to make sure that the pattern pieces slide over the surface of the gure without penetrating the surface Plate 3. There are several methods to simulate the draping of a square piece of cloth, isolated from other cloth, which are based on a relaxation method. Feynman Fey86 uses a formula which minimizes the energy of a cloth and tries to simulate the shape of thin exible membranes under the in uence of force elds and rigid bodies. The local minimum of the cloth is found by moving each of the grid points in turn toward a position which decreases the energy of the cloth. The energy expression of a cloth is described as: Etotal S  = kssS  , kbbS  , kg gS  where sS ; bS ; gS  represent the e ects of strain, bending, and gravity. The parameters ks; kb; kg control the relative strengths of these three e ects: a large ks means the cloth is di cult to stretch; a large kb means the cloth is sti and resists bending; and a large kg means the cloth is heavy. Relaxing a single point is the process of moving it so that the energy of the cloth of which it is a part is decreased. The method used to relax a single point rst nds the direction in which the point would most like to move: the direction of the negative gradient of the energy as a function of position. Then it moves the single point in that direction so that its energy is minimized. Feynman suggests using a multigrid method to speed up the relaxation sweeping process. However, it must be used carefully to avoid distortion. He also introduces xed points in order to forbid the cloth to move into a solid. Weil Wei86 considered the problem of hanging a piece of cloth by xing some constraint locations of the cloth. The cloth is represented as a rectangular grid u; v of 3D coordinates x; y; z . His method is a two phase algorithm. The rst part approximates the surface within the convex hull in u; v space of the constraint points; that is, all the interior points are placed on catenaries. The second phase uses an iterative relaxation process to minimize maximum displacement of all the points in the grid up to a given tolerance. Terzopoulos, Platt, Barr and Fleisher TPBF87 use elasticity theory to describe the behavior of a deformable object. The model responds in a natural 2.6. THE ANTHROPOMETRY DATABASE 49 way to applied forces, constraints, and impenetrable obstacles. The equations of motion governing the dynamics of the deformable bodies under the in uence of applied forces is given by @  @r  + @r + E r = f r; t; @t @t @t r where ra; t is the position of the particle a at time t, a is the mass density of the body at a, a is the damping density, and f r; t represents the net externally applied forces. E r is a functional which measures the net instantaneous potential energy of the elastic deformation of the body. To create animation with this model, the motion equation is solved numerically, integrating through time. This model is active in the sense that it responds to forces and interacts with objects. 2.6 The Anthropometry Database 7 While animation research may be content with demonstrating action on a convincing human form, there is often only a single carefully structured gure involved. Its body dimensions may be estimated or obtained by measurement of a speci c individual. In contrast, engineering human factors applications have long been concerned with construction of valid ranges of human forms based on empirically measured populations such as aircraft pilots, ight attendants, or astronaut trainees. These engineering applications recognized the need for a variety of accurately scaled body dimensions to facilitate reach and t analysis Fet82, HBD80, KSC81, Doo82 . Unfortunately, most of these systems are either proprietary, hard-wired to some particular population, noninteractive, or otherwise di cult to use with contemporary graphical systems. Jack, however, permits an open and accessible database for human dimensional data. Interactive access is provided through a novel spreadsheet-like interface. 2.6.1 Anthropometry Issues Anthropometry, the science of human body measurement, has been an area of interest throughout history LRM88 : In his authoritative book A History of the Study of Human Growth," Professor Tanner writes that the ancient Greeks, as well as sculptors and painters of the Renaissance, measured the human body to estimate body proportions and, thus, reproduce life like images of varying sizes. Interest in absolute size developed later in the 17th and 18th centuries out of military concerns. The European armies preferred taller soldiers, and recruiting o cers became anthropometrists. Interest in scienti c study of growth and in the 7 Marc Grosso, Susanna Wei. 50 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING relative importance of nature versus nurture in explaining human variability has been pronounced since the 19th century. The vast majority of work in modern" anthropometry has been done by anthropologists who were studying the e ects of some environmental factor on some population. While there are studies dating back to the mid to late 1800's, more recent studies covering groups of adults i.e. populations from around the world are summarized in the Anthropometry Source Book NAS78 . Its two volumes have become one of the foundation sources for contemporary anthropometry. Anthropometric studies di er greatly in the number and kind of measurements selected. They all report a statistical analysis of the values of each measurement, giving at least a median with standard deviation and the maximum and minimum values. The studies typically report the above values along with intermediate values at selected percentiles of the population, typically 1st, 5th , 25th , 50th, 75th , 95th and 99th, since body size data does not vary linearly with percentile. Some of the data found in these studies was used in the NASA Man Systems Integration Manual NAS87 , as the basis for the estimated measurements for male and female astronauts in the year 2000, using the body dimensions of American males and Japanese females. It is felt that these populations provide the maximum range in body sizes in the developed world today since the American male is among the largest of males and the Japanese female is the smallest of females. There is a growth rate factor which is used to adjust the values for projection to the year 2000. The measurements selected for inclusion in the NASA Man Systems Integration Manual were chosen to meet the various needs of NASA and were not intended to be a complete set of measurements for all purposes or for all possible users. These measurements were publicly available, however, and detailed enough to satisfy many ergonomic analysis requirements. They served as the basis for the human gure model we developed but are are not complete enough to totally describe it GQO+ 89, GQB89 . Some needed measurements and data are missing; though most of the missing values can be found in the Anthropometry Source Book, there were a number of measurements required for our model which were not easy to track down. Where this occurred, intelligent estimates have been made based upon data values from closely related measurements possibly from a di erent population or by calculating the values from other measurements. In no case were the unde ned values set arbitrarily. 2.6.2 Implementation of Anthropometric Scaling Each body segment or structure having associated geometry contains length, width, and depth or thickness attributes8 . Therefore, we require a minimum 8 We presently ignore segment shape changes though we realize their importance for realistic animation. 2.6. THE ANTHROPOMETRY DATABASE 51 of seventy two 72 measurements to describe the physical dimensions of our human gure. Psurfs describe the shape of each segment. Anthropometric scaling modies the segment dimensions as well as any associated psurfs. It is very simple to change to alternative polygon models, e.g. to the detailed contour bodies, to vary detail in the segment while preserving the correct anthropometric scale. Each psurf for the various segments is stored in a normalized format where the z length dimension ranges from 0 to +1, and the x depth and y width dimensions range from ,1 to +1. In order to display these psurfs, using either real measurements for a person or percentile measurements for some speci ed population, the psurfs must be scaled. Body de nition les containing the desired values can be created or modied by manually entering the body part names and their values in the proper format, but this is clumsy and rarely used. A superior approach uses the Spreadsheet Anthropometry Scaling System SASS which will be discussed in detail in Section 2.7. 2.6.3 Joints and Joint Limits There are three di erent types of human body joints TA75 : Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial. Of these three we are only concerned with the synovial joints joints with joint cavities. The synovial joints are categorized based upon the shape of the articulating surface of the joint. There are seven sub types of synovial joints found in the human body MB77, TA75 . These subtypes are: Monaxial or uni axial joints 1 DOF a. Hinge joints. A convex surface of one bone ts in a concave surface of another bone. This joint allows movement in only one plane, usually extension and exion, similar to that of a door hinge. Examples are the elbow joint, knee joint, ankle joint, and interphalangeal joints joints in the toes and ngers. b. Pivot joint. A rounded, pointed, or conical surface of one bone articulates with a shallow depression in another bone. The primary motion of this joint sub type is rotation. Examples are shown by the supination and pronation of the palms, atlas axis joint Alanto Axial joints located at the very top of the spine, and radioulnar joint between radius and ulna in forearm. Bi axial joints 2 DOFs a. Condyloid joints. These are the joints like those at the heads of the metacarpals hand bones, i.e. the knuckles, which is the best example of this type of joint. 52 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING b. Ellipsoidal joints. The oval shaped condyle end of one bone ts into the elliptical cavity of another bone. This type of joint permits side to side and back and forth movements in the principal axes of the ellipse. Examples are shown by the exion and extension and abduction and adduction of the wrist radiocarpal joint. Tri axial or multi axial joints 3 DOFs a. Saddle joint. Both bones in this joint are saddle shaped, that is convex in one direction and concave in the other. This type of joint is essentially a modi ed ellipsoidal joint and has more freedom of movement. Saddle joints allow side to side and back and forth movements as well as rotation. An example is the joint between the trapezium and metacarpal bones of the thumb carpometacarpal joint of the thumb. b. Ball and socket joints. A ball like surface of one bone ts into a cup like depression of another bone. These joints permit exion extension, abduction adduction, and rotation. Examples are the hip and shoulder joints. c. Gliding or plane joints. Bones involved have at or nearly at articulating surfaces. Movement can occur in almost any plane, with side to side and back and forth movements the most common. The movements are always slight. Examples of this type of joint can be found between the carpal wrist bones intercarpal joints, between the tarsal bones foot ankle intertarsal joints, between the sacrum lower end of the spine and ilium a hip bone the sacro iliac joint, between the sternum breast bone and clavicle collar bone, between the scapula shoulder blade and clavicle, between the individual vertebral arches, at the heads and at the tubercles of the ribs, and at the front ends of the costal rib cartilages. Each joint in the human body has a range of motion over which it will allow movement to occur. A joint's range of motion is determined by a number of factors including joint type, muscle size at the joint, muscle tension tonus for the muscles at the joint i.e. tness of the person, ligament stretchability or give, amount of fatigue, and training adaptations for the joint. The term exibility is frequently used to describe the in uence that each of the components listed above has on joint movement. Joint range of motion, described in terms of angles, is measured in degrees for each DOF, that is, each plane in which movement is allowed at a joint. When a joint has more than one DOF, the range of motion at the joint for each DOF may be variable because one DOF may in uence the others. Also, for joints which are in uenced by muscles crossing two joints as in some muscles of the thigh, for example there may be a two joint dependency on the joint limit. 2.6. THE ANTHROPOMETRY DATABASE 53 Jack incorporates upper and lower joint limits for every single DOF joint. For two DOF joints, independent limits for each DOF are used. But the shoulder is treated as a three DOF system with spherical joint limits and a function that relates the default upper arm orientation to the upper arm position Section 2.4. Jack respects these joint limits during both interactive positioning and inverse kinematic reaching. 2.6.4 Mass As dynamic simulations achieve ever more realistic animation, mass information becomes essential. Fortunately, along with stature, mass is among the most common body measures taken. There have been a number of studies which have determined that each of the various body segments contributes a certain percentage of the total body mass; this percentage determines the mass of each individual segment. The mass percentages used are average percentile values for a t male population as would be found in the NASA male crewmember trainees. The distribution may very well di er for the average general population or a population which is skewed toward either the small light weight like horse racing jockeys or large heavy weight like American Football lineman. The segment mass percentages are also likely to be di erent for female subjects. 2.6.5 Moment of Inertia The concept of moment of inertia is important when attempting to describe the dynamic behavior of a human gure. These values are needed when determining the motion of a gure under the in uence of forces both external and internal, moments, and instantaneous transfers of momentum i.e. collisions. When considering human gure modeling the common forces and moments e ecting the human gure include: 1. gravity: a force acting at the center of mass of each segment with a magnitude proportional to the segment's mass. 2. internal forces generated by muscles: forces actually acting at some insertion point along the length of the segment but modeled as a driving moment applied at the joint. 3. reaction forces generated by the gure's surroundings: for example, the normal forces and friction forces applied to the gure's hand by the surface it is leaning on. 4. external forces: for example, weights lifted by the gure, levers the gure attempts to pull, etc. 5. collisions: usually approximated as an instantaneous change in velocity of the point on the gure being struck. CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING 54 2.6.6 Strength Human strength capabilities have been found crucial for more realistic and natural human motions Section 5.3. Human strength maximum torques is de ned as muscle group strengths and is stored on a joint DOF basis. Modeling strength this way allows di erent people to possess di erent capacities in di erent muscle groups. Thus, the strength di erences between two people such as a dancer and a pianist can be readily modeled and illustrated. Each DOF of a joint has two joint movements which are associated with two di erent muscle groups. For example, an elbow joint is modeled to have one DOF because it can only rotate around one axis. Its rotational movements are exion and extension, corresponding to the exor and extensor muscle groups. Therefore, strength data of exion and extension are stored for an elbow joint. Each muscle group strength is modeled as a function of body position, anthropometry, gender, handedness, fatigue, and other strength parameters AHN62, Lau76, NAS78, AGR+ 81, AGR+82, Imr83, CA84, HJER86, MS86, NAS87 . In terms of body position, we choose a more generalized model that takes the e ects of adjacent joint angles into consideration Sch72 . For example, the muscle group strengths of a shoulder joint are modeled to be functions not only of the shoulder angles but also of the elbow angle. 2.7 The Anthropometry Spreadsheet 9 Given the large number of data items needed for anthropometric body sizing, a spreadsheet like format was a natural choice for the user interface. We called it SASS: the Spreadsheet Anthropometry Scaling System. SASS was originally developed with one idea in mind, i.e., generating the dimensions of each segment of a human gure based upon population supplied as input. The human model used by the current version of SASS consists of thirty-one segments body structures, of which twenty-four have a geometrical representation. For each of those twenty-four segments, there are three dimensions which are required, namely, length, width, and thickness. This means that at least these seventy-two measurements should be available. The psurf geometry of each segment must be scaled by real measurements for a person, or percentile measurements for some speci able population. SASS generates gure les with the appropriate description of the segment dimensions and joint limits, so that Jack can display the resulting gure. SASS uses population statistic data to create generic human gures. Alternately, SASS has a built-in database that stores anthropometric data for real individuals and provides an interactive query system for database access. SASS allows exible interactive access to all variables needed to size a human gure described structurally by a Peabody body le. The SASS screens, as shown in Fig. 2.5 and more diagrammatically in Fig. 2.6, are 9 Richard Quach, Francisco Azuola, Welton Becket, Susanna Wei. 2.7. THE ANTHROPOMETRY SPREADSHEET 55 Figure 2.5: Sample Display From SASS. divided into di erent sections including anthropometric group selection, global data, command menu, local data. Data that may be accessed is organized into anthropometric groups". The current version can handle four groups: segment girth, joint limits, segment center of mass, and strength. The global data section of the spreadsheet is intended to allow a whole body" view of the current gure parameters. Currently, the six items considered for any human gure are: population, sex, gure type, mass, stature, and overall percentile. It is important to realize that since SASS is a relational spreadsheet, modifying any data in this section will a ect the values of the individual segments. For example, changing the gure's percentile will cause the data to be scaled in other appropriate segments contributing to stature. The data section is used for the display of individual segment data and their corresponding percentiles. The leftmost column is reserved for the segment names, while the other six columns are used for the data and percentile display. The segment name column cannot be modi ed. The data is read in from the selected population input le. CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING 56 Anthropometric Group Global data Command Menu Local Data Section Command Message line Figure 2.6: SASS Screen Layout. Data and its corresponding percentile is modi ed by simply moving the locator device to the desired cell and pressing on a button. Changing any segment percentile will change its corresponding dimension. SASS keeps a current measurement unit type for each group in, cm, deg, rad. Unit conversion is performed when necessary. 2.7.1 Interactive Access Anthropometric Database An anthropometric database stores attribute data for a speci c set of individuals rather than a population. Each person has associated groups of anthropometric data: girth segment dimensions, joint limit, center of mass, and strength. Each group of anthropometric data is stored in a separate relation. In the application of a task simulation, it is very important to nd an individual with the requisite anthropometric characteristics such as body dimensions, joint limits, and strength. SASS provides a query system using pop-up menus to allow the user to select the people with the desired characteristics from the anthropometric database. Therefore, the user does not need to know the database structure nor its query language. The user can query on di erent anthropometric characteristics separately or in combination using operations and, or, greater than, equal to, less than, etc. For example, the user can inquire about people with the desired strength capabilities alone, or query about individuals with the required strength capabilities, body dimensions, joint limits, and center of masses together. The individuals that satisfy the query and their global data are stored in a list called the query list. After examining the global information in the query list, the user can choose all or some of these individuals and store them in the selected list. The detailed anthropometric data of each individual in the selected list can be displayed on the anthropometric spreadsheet. If desired, the user can also create the Peabody structure les for those selected individuals by using the SASS command Create Figure. 2.7. THE ANTHROPOMETRY SPREADSHEET 57 2.7.2 SASS and the Body Hierarchy Our rst version of SASS handled segments by gathering them in a simple list. This was good enough to represent any number of segments, but presented some inconveniences in de ning relations among the segments. In a substantial modi cation, the structure was changed to a hierarchical tree. At the bottom of the tree the leaves correspond to the segments. The internal nodes correspond to conceptual body parts composed of sets of actual body segments, for example, the arm" consists of the upper arm, lower arm, and hand segments. Thus concepts such as the length of the arm" can be wellde ned. A gure can be de ned as a collection of body parts, joined together by joints. Each body part, in turn, can be de ned as a collection of body segments connected by joints. 2.7.3 The Rule System for Segment Scaling The introduction of the body part hierarchy permits SASS to determine and use attributes of body parts as well as individual segments. For example, SASS de nes a rule for computing the height of an individual as the sum of the segments' lengths in a path that goes from head to feet. For those segments in the path, the rule allows varying their lengths if the stature changes and, vice versa, to change the stature if the length of any of the segments in the path changes. There is an alternate rule that keeps the stature xed and adjusts the segments' lengths accordingly, if the length of one of them varies. Another rule includes changing the mass according to the stature and, conversely, changing the stature according to a speci c mass value. The underlying criterion for doing the stature changes is a linear one. The segments in the stature path are head, neck, upper torso, center torso, lower torso, upper leg, lower leg, and feet. The length of each of these segments, except for the feet, is computed as the length in the z coordinate. For the feet, the length is the y coordinate since for the feet, the z coordinate is the longitudinal dimension. The thickness and width of the segments are not a ected by these changes, for there is no rule to decide the e ects of stature changes in these parameters. The updating process must be done carefully, for it might happen that modifying the length of a given segment violates the range of possible stature values admitted by the current population or conversely, if the stature is changed, it might not be satis able by variations in the segment lengths. The other case considers xed stature. The idea is to adjust the segments' lengths along the stature path if the length of one of them varies, such that the global length stature remains constant. While this might appear easy to do at rst, it is not a trivial matter. Recall that segment dimensions are based on population percentile data suitably interpolated and are therefore restricted to legitimate ranges. Furthermore, the stature itself is restricted by a real" set of values for each of the percentiles. When the user speci es a particular change in the length or other dimension of a given segment, the underlying 58 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING rule attempts to satisfy the constraint of xed stature, that is, it tries to keep the stature value constant. For example, assume the length of the head has decreased. To keep the stature xed, the lengths of the other segments in the stature path must vary in the opposite way. Currently, the modi cation is done in a linear fashion since there are no rules to de ne this otherwise. But it might be the case that in the updating process one of the segment's dimensions length cannot be satis ed, that is, the resulting dimension is out of the range established by the 5 , 95th percentile values. In this situation, the rule sets the length to its closest limit 5th or 95th percentile value and tries to satisfy the requirement of xed stature by modifying the remaining segments in the path. Notice that there is a possibility that the stature cannot be kept constant. There is one more step involved in the updating process for xed stature: if the stature is varied by the user the segments change correspondingly if possible. It is important to understand the back and forth process that goes on between body parts and segments. If the overall body is supposed to be 50th percentile, the body parts need not all be 50th percentile. In fact, we do not have a rule yet to specify the percentile of the body parts segment-wise for a given global body percentile. That information must come from multi-variate analysis of population data. So we must be able to change dimensions of the body parts or segments to comply with all the possible valid compositions of a 50th percentile body. If the stature is modi ed, then a new global percentile is computed. For that new global percentile, we have a speci c rule telling us what the possible compositions are. Unfortunately, the compositions are not unique since they depend on the population data used. To illustrate this, suppose we have the following partial composition set percentiles: feet 30, legs 45, torso 60, head 40,... for a 50th percentile body. Then suppose we want to change the stature in such a way that the resulting body percentile is 60th percentile, and the analogous partial composition set is feet 40, legs 56, torso 50, head 40,.... Then we scale the objects in the stature path which are those listed in the composition sets to comply with this second composition set. But we must be sure that there is no con ict in doing so; for instance, the feet might be able only to grow from 30 to a 40 under the given population. In general, di erent populations will have di erent compositions. In this example, the compositions were stated at the body part level. There must be an equivalent composition at the segment level: the segment version of the composition for the 50th percentile gure is, for instance, upper leg 45, lower leg 60 assuming legs decompose in two pieces. But what if the compositions, even though being based on a particular population data, are not available for all the possible percentiles? We would have to use a xed composition or else interpolate compositions if it is sound to do that and make sure a given segment's length is not violated according to its percentile range when trying to go from a composition for the 50th percentile gure to that of the 60th. Anthropometrists who argue against the cavalier usage of percentiles in 2.7. THE ANTHROPOMETRY SPREADSHEET 59 characterizing body size distributions would seem to be on pretty safe ground. Since the only obvious alternative involving enumerating all the individuals in a database we are stuck with the population statistics available. As multivariate population dimension distribution data becomes available, SASS will be ready to utilize it for proper gure creation. 2.7.4 Figure Creation SASS can produce a le containing the scaling of a gure which Jack then interprets to create the gure le. Scaling les o er a particular bene t over direct creation of the gure in SASS. Consider the situation in which the Jack user wants to determine the percentile ranges of a gure that can satisfy a given task, that is, the problem of nding the speci c gure percentile or range that can t in a particular workplace. One can attempt to read each of the possible gure les out of Jack libraries and try to keep the gure in the desired position. The other, more sensible, option is not to load di erent gure les, but instead, to load di erent scaling les. Then the same gure can be scaled using all these di erent les to nd the one that best suits the given environment. This is faster and more appealing to the user. 2.7.5 Figure Scaling The scales in the gure scaling le are obtained directly from the dimensions of the body segments or parts. Thus, this scaling le represents the dimensions speci ed in the population's girth le, for a given gure percentile. If there were only one scale factor for each dimension of a segment, there would be some scaling mismatches towards the ends of the segments. This is in fact a major problem, especially for the low resolution polyhedral body model. For instance, the scaled upper leg appears to be too thick and too wide, in comparison to the lower leg. The same problem occurs with the upper arm and the lower arm. The scaling of the pelvis of the simple polyhedral body seems to be too wide and thick, while the torso appears to be too narrow and short. There are various solutions to these problems. The simplest one is to adapt the data to the model by modifying the scaling factors to obtain a good looking gure scaling. There are no strict rules for this, though. The rule we use is to consider body lines as second order continuous curves. There are no abrupt changes from one body part to the next one assuming no deformations. Thus we approximate in a rather arbitrary way the scaling factors to achieve this continuity. The largest discrepancies are the ones mentioned above. Other minor ones are the scaled neck being too wide and hands being too narrow. In general, the scaling factors are not changed by more than 10 in the simple polyhedral Jack gure. The scaling factors generated by SASS are mapped into the contour body with almost no modi cations necessary for the contour gure case, adjustments are done to the torso, legs, arms, and hands. These adjustments do not go over 5 of the actual values. Again, one must keep in mind that even CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING 60 though the contour model is a more accurate representation of the human body, it is not a perfect one. Moreover, we must remember that the SASS scaling factors le is created based on a given population and the gure resulting from that scaling might not completely match a real human being for suppose that the population's average torso length is greater than the torso length of a given individual and the population's average leg length is smaller than that of the same individual, then we end up with a not so real scaling for the contour model. Thus, even though we have assumed some adjustments are required, it is still necessary to prove if this is the right way to proceed. So far, the criterion that prevails is to display a good-looking well proportioned human gure. 2.8 Strength and Torque Display 10Human strength information has applications in a variety of elds. In phys- ical education, it can be used to classify participants for speci c activities or to search for a body position or motion which will improve an athlete's performance; in medicine, it can be used as an indicator for a muscular injury or disease; and in ergonomics and human factors, it can be used to guide the design of workspace or equipment to reduce work related injuries, and to help in personnel selections to increase work e ciency MKK+ 88, McD89, Eva88, CA84 . Human strength information can also be used in a human task simulation environment to de ne the load or exertion capabilities of each agent and, hence, decide whether a given task can be completed in a task simulation EBJ89 . To convey the multi-dimensional characteristics of strength data, we use special data display methods that use human gures together with two or three dimensional graphics. Various forms of strength box and strength bar displays allow visualization of strength parameters, give a dynamic changing view of the e ects of parameters on strength, and show safe and forbidden regions in terms of di erent strength capabilities of individuals or populations WB92 . We de ne strength maximumtorque to be the maximumachievable joint torque. It is modeled as muscle group strength and is stored on a joint DOF basis in the human gure model. Each DOF of a joint has two joint movements which are associated with two di erent muscle groups. For example, an elbow is modeled to have one DOF. It can only rotate around one axis; its rotational movements are exion and extension which correspond to the exor and extensor muscle groups. Therefore, strength information of exion and extension is stored for an elbow joint. Each muscle group strength is modeled as a function of body position, anthropometry, gender, handedness, fatigue, and other strength parameters AHN62, AGR+ 81, NAS87, HJER86, Imr83, Lau76, NAS78 . 10 Susanna Wei 2.8. STRENGTH AND TORQUE DISPLAY 61 2.8.1 Goals of Strength Data Display Strength depends on a set of parameters. To properly display these parameters, one should use a multi-parameter system that can convey the meaning of these parameters as well as their values. Unfortunately, existing multidimensional display methods And60, Ber83, GFS71, Har75, And72, Che73, KH81 are unsuitable in presenting the human body-speci c semantics of strength parameters. They are also visually ine ective in displaying strength data because they fail to tie the parameters to the body properties they describe. We prefer to de ne multi-dimensional graphing methods which use the body itself as a context for the parameter display. Strength data displays show the current force and torque capabilities of a gure in a given posture or motion. A good strength data display should show the direction and magnitude of forces and torques. Since strength depends on many parameters, for example, body posture, body size, gender, fatigue, training, and handedness, it is useful to observe interactively how the change of each parameter a ects strength. Finally, a strength data display should show the comparative capabilities of di erent individuals or populations. 2.8.2 Design of Strength Data Displays An e ective strength data display conveys the meaning of the parameters and their values Eva85, CBR, EC86, EPE88, MKK+ 88 . To design displays that can portray the multi-dimensional nature of strength e ectively, we use the human gure as a context Wei90 . The Jack strength data display system evaluates the strength elds in the current gure's body de nition le. The strength data for the people who are related in the database sense to the given gure displayed on the screen can be obtained by querying the strength database. For example, suppose Fred is a NASA crewman. The required joint strength data for Fred can be calculated from the equations stored in the strength elds of Fred's body de nition le. However, any strength data for other people in the NASA crewmen population must be queried from the strength database. If end e ector forces are not stored in the strength database, they can be calculated. Strength Box Display Six orthogonally intersecting rods are used to show the end e ector forces in di erent directions at a given body posture. They can also be used to show muscle group strengths of a three DOFs joint at a given body con guration. The direction of the given force or strength is shown by the position and the orientation of the rod. It is also indicated by the text at the side of rods. The length of each strength rod shows the magnitude of the force strength value at a given direction of movement. As the body con guration changes, the rod lengths are changed to re ect changing strength. The strength rods in Figure 2.7 show the hand forces at up, down, left, right, push, and pull directions of the displayed human gure at the cur- 62 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING rently displayed body con guration. The internal box represents average female strength while the outer box represents average male strength given the same posture. The length of the interior segment of the rod represents the average strength value of females and the length of the exterior segment of the rod indicates the di erence between the female and male average strengths. Thus, the average male strength is represented by the length of the whole rod. The box itself is used to show the boundary of the maximum forces of the range of motions in six di erent directions. The length of the red line attached to the end of each rod shows the di erence between the maximum force and the force of the current body position shown on the screen at a given direction. The resulting display of the strength rods and the box is called the strength box display. The user can nd the body con guration associated with the maximum force for the entire range of motions at a given direction by interactively adjusting the body posture until the end of the given rod touches the corresponding edge of the box. This strength box display can be modi ed in many ways to show other strength or force data. For example, it can be changed to display data for a one or two DOF joint or to show the e ects of di erent parameters: Two collinear rods can be used to display the strength data for a one DOF joint, and four coplanar rods can be used to display the strength data of a two DOF joint. Each rod can be divided into one or more segments by using two di erent colors to show the comparative muscle group strength of a strength parameter that has one or more values, respectively. This is shown for a male female comparison in Figure 2.7. Strengths corresponding to dominant and nondominant hands can also be shown in this fashion. A three-segment rod can be used to show strengths of three di erent percentiles of a population. A two-segment rod can be modi ed to show the maximum strength and required torque of a joint. For a given load applied at an end e ector, we can calculate the required torque via static force analysis at each joint in the active joint chain. A trace can be incorporated in the strength display to show the movement path of an end e ector. Two di erent trace colors can be used to show the safe region where the maximum strength of all joints is greater than the required torque green, and the forbidden region where the maximum strength of at least one joint is less than the required torque red. Figure 2.8. The number 20 lbs." written on the cube at the end e ector is a reminder of the current load. The strength box display is mainly designed to show the strengths for a single" joint or the forces of one" end e ector. Although it can also be used to display strengths for more than one joint by showing them in two or 2.8. STRENGTH AND TORQUE DISPLAY 63 Figure 2.7: Strength Box Display of Hand Forces for Males and Females of a Population. more strength box displays, it may not be easy to compare the values across di erent boxes. To e ectively display strengths for more than one joint or end e ector, we use the strength bar display. Strength Bar Display The strength bar display is used to show forces of end e ectors or strengths of joints in a given body chain. Figure 2.8 illustrates a strength bar display that shows the maximum muscle group strengths and required torques of joints in the highlighted body chain when the hand is holding a load of 20 lbs. If the maximum muscle group strength is greater than the corresponding required torque, the interior segment of a bar shows the required torque in red. Otherwise, the interior segment of a bar shows the maximum muscle group strength in green. The exterior segment of a bar is always used to show the di erence between the maximum strength and the required torque. If the maximum strength is greater than the required torque, the exterior segment is shown in green, otherwise it is shown in red. The bar joint with the required torque exceeding the maximum strength can be indicated by 64 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING Figure 2.8: Strength Bar Display for Maximum Strengths and Required Torques. highlighting. A one-segment bar in green indicates that the required torque is zero; the length of the green bar shows the value of the maximum strength. Similarly, a one-segment bar in purple indicates that the required torque is equal to the maximum strength. The strength bar display can also be modi ed to show strength or force data in di erent applications. We list some simple extensions in the following. Similar to a rod in the strength box display, each bar in the display can also be divided into a number of segments by using various colors to show strengths corresponding to di erent values of a parameter. Multiple viewports can be used to display the strengths associated with di erent values of a parameter. For example, we can use two viewports to show the strength bar displays for the dominant and non-dominant hand of a given individual. Comparing strength values from di erent strength bar displays is as easy as comparing strength values within a strength bar display because the 2D screen location of the display does not a ect the visual length of each bar. 2.8. STRENGTH AND TORQUE DISPLAY 65 Figure 2.9: Torques Computed by Static Analysis. The strength bar display can be used to show strengths of any number of joints in a body chain. It gives a very clear view of the simultaneous e ects of the body con guration on several muscle group strengths. It also shows the safe and forbidden regions of each joint in a body chain. This display method does not depend on a particular strength model: it only shows whatever data is currently available for the gure. Whole body strength and torque display 11Using static analysis, torques throughout the body may be computed given any posture and any loading condition. The strength bar display can show the individual joint torques Figure 2.9. If suitable strength data for each muscle group is available, then whole body loading may be assessed. Of course, with so many joints the interpretation of multiple graphs becomes di cult. To alleviate this problem we map the strength or torque data directly onto the contour body Figure 2.1012. The mapping interpolates a given value at a joint onto the adjacent contour body polygon vertices. A parameter controls how far from the joint the mapped color will propagate. A typical color scale is based on mapping zero torque load to white and maximum strength to blue. Reacted torques exceeding the joint's maximum strength are colored red. Since only one attribute can be selected for 11 12 Hyeongseok Ko, Susanna Wei, Michael Kwon This will also work for the simpler polyhedral body but is much less interesting. 66 CHAPTER 2. BODY MODELING Figure 2.10: Contour Body with Color Coded Segments Representing Torque Load. a joint, the maximum load at multiple DOFs is used to select the color. As the mapping and color interpolation across each polygon take advantage of the Silicon Graphics workstation display speed, the visualization may even be interactively observed as the posture and loads change. Chapter 3 Spatial Interaction This chapter describes the basic architecture of the Jack interactive system. The primary tools available to the Jack user involve direct manipulation of the displayed objects and gures on the screen. With articulated gures, movement of one part will naturally a ect the position of other parts. Constraints are used to specify these relationships, and an inverse kinematics algorithm is used to achieve constraint satisfaction. As a consequence of user actions, certain global postural manipulations of the entire human gure are performed by the system. This chapter presents the direct spatial manipulations o ered in Jack and shows how constraints are de ned and maintained. One particular application of the body constraints is included: the generation of the reachable workspace of a chain of joints. 3.1 Direct Manipulation 3D direct manipulation is a technique for controlling positions and orientations of geometric objects in a 3D environment in a non-numerical, visual way. It uses the visual structure as a handle on a geometric object. Direct manipulation techniques derive their input from pointing devices and provide a good correspondence between the movement of the physical device and the resulting movement of the object that the device controls. This is kinesthetic correspondence. Much research demonstrates the value of kinesthetically appropriate feedback Bie87, BLP78, Sch83 . An example of this correspondence in a mouse-based translation operation is that if the user moves the mouse to the left, the object moves in such a way that its image on the screen moves to the left as well. The lack of kinesthetic feedback can make a manipulation system very di cult to use, akin to drawing while looking at your hand through a set of inverting mirrors. Providing this correspondence in two dimensions is fairly straightforward, but in three dimensions it is considerably more complicated. The advantage of the direct manipulation paradigm is that it is intuitive: 67 68 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION it should always be clear to the user how to move the input device to cause the object to move in a desired direction. It focuses the user's attention on the object, and gives the user the impression of manipulating the object itself. 3.1.1 Translation Several techniques have been developed for describing three dimensional transformations with a two dimensional input device such as a mouse or tablet. Nielson and Olson NO87 describe a technique for mapping the motion of a two dimensional mouse cursor to three dimensional translations based on the orientation of the projection of a world space coordinate triad onto the screen. This technique uses a one-button mouse, and it compares the 2D displacement of the mouse cursor to the screen projection of the six world coordinate axes and causes a di erential movement in world space along the axis whose projection is closest to the mouse movement. For example, if the view is positioned such that the world coordinate x axis points left, then moving the mouse to the left will cause a +x translation. This provides good kinesthetic correspondence, but it has problems if two of the axes project onto the screen close to one another, since it will not be able to distinguish between the two. In other words, it is highly dependent on the view. 3.1.2 Rotation Rotations are considerably more complex, but several techniques have been developed with varying degrees of success. The most naive technique is to simply use horizontal and vertical mouse movements to control the world space euler angles that de ne the orientation of an object. This technique provides little kinesthetic feedback because there is no natural correspondence between the movements of the mouse and the rotation of the object. A better approach, described by Chen et al CMS88 , is to make the rotation angles either parallel or perpendicular to the viewing direction. This makes the object rotate relative to the graphics window, providing much greater kinesthetic feedback. The problem with screen-space transformations is that it is impossible to make movements around either the global or local axes. In an integrated geometric environment, it is more common to move objects relative to either the global or local coordinate frame, rather than along axes aligned with the screen. For example, the simple task of raising an object vertically requires translating along the global y axis. Unless the view in the graphics window is perfectly horizontal, the vertical direction in screen coordinates is not exactly vertical. As another example, the task of moving a hand forward may require moving along an axis aligned with the body, not the screen. Evans, Tanner, and Wein ETW81 describe a rotation technique that suggests a turntable on which objects sit. Movements of the mouse in circles around the origin of the turntable cause the turntable, and thus the object, 3.1. DIRECT MANIPULATION 69 to rotate. There must also be a way of positioning the turntable underneath the object. Chen, Mountford, and Sellen CMS88 also describe a technique originally developed by Evans, Tanner, and Wein ETW81 known commonly as the virtual sphere. This technique simulates the e ect of a trackball centered around the object's origin. You grab" the trackball with the mouse and rotate it much as you would rotate a physical trackball with a single nger. The virtual sphere is an e cient technique for certain operations, as Chen et al verify experimentally. However, since the rotation is not con ned to a speci c axis, it can be di cult to rotate around a particular axis. It is nearly impossible to make precise rotations around global coordinate axes. Chen et al describe an experimental comparison between several techniques for 3D rotation. The subjects were asked to rotate a geometric object, in the shape of a house, to align it with a similar object in a random orientation. They were measured for both speed and accuracy. The techniques evaluated included several angle-based rotations with and without kinesthetic correspondence, and the virtual sphere. The studies generally showed that the virtual sphere was the best, out-performing the others in both precision and speed. The virtual sphere is good at tumbling" objects, when the path of their rotation is not important. This may be the case for objects oating in space. However, in an integrated modeling environment, the technique has some limitations because it does not allow constrained movement. Because of its free-form nature, it is very di cult to rotate an object around a single axis at a time, global or local, which is often required. For example, to turn around a human being standing on the oor requires rotating only around the vertical axis. With the virtual sphere, it is nearly impossible to rotate precisely around only one axis at a time. An improvement over the virtual sphere is proposed by Shoemake Sho92 . His ArcBall" approach uses the visual correspondence between arcs on a hemisphere and 3D quaternions to de ne simultaneously both a rotation angle and axis. Any 2D screen point input has a well-de ned rotational value. The ArcBall appears best for tumbling objects, but a constrained axis formulation is essentially similar to the Jack local rotation operation described below. 3.1.3 Integrated Systems Bier's snap-dragging technique Bie86, Bie87, Bie90 simulates gravity between objects and takes advantage of surface geometry to constrain and control object movements. The user rst positions jacks in space using a 3D cursor called the skitter. The jacks are coordinate frames that serve as anchors for other operations. The skitter slides along faces and edges, controlled by the mouse or through dials. The technique determines the position and orientation of the visible surface beneath the mouse in order to control the position and orientation of the skitter. Jacks can be placed with the skitter and then used to specify rotation axes or end-points for angles. 70 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION ? Read mouse coordinates and button status ? Convert to manipulation transform ? Apply manipulation transform to the environment ? Redraw graphics windows Figure 3.1: The manipulation loop. This technique exploits the geometric structure of the objects, but it provides little help for manipulating positions and orientations in the absence of geometry. This means that the technique does not work especially well for manipulating points in open space as is often required. 3.1.4 The Jack Direct Manipulation Operator The 3D direct manipulation mechanism in Jack interactively describes a global homogeneous transform. Internally, this is called the manipulation transform. There are many di erent commands in Jack that require the user to enter three-dimensional translational and rotational quantities. Each command may interpret the transform in its own way, possibly mapping it to a local coordinate system. The user manipulates this transform through the 3-button mouse, together with the SHIFT and CONTROL keys on the keyboard. The keys alter the interpretation of the mouse buttons. Each mouse button corresponds to an axis in space, using a mapping scheme described below. The direct manipulation mechanism can alter the manipulation transform based on the selected axis by rotating around it, translating along it, or translating in a plane perpendicular to the axis. This characterizes the three primitive types of direct manipulation: linear translation, planar translation, and rotation PB88 . The manipulation procedure is a loop, shown in Figure 3.1, that continues until the user terminates it. The Jack user interface is modal: each manipulation command places Jack in a mode where the mouse buttons and keyboard keys are interpreted 3.1. DIRECT MANIPULATION SHIFT CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL mouse buttons left middle right left and middle left and right middle and right left middle right left middle right left and middle left and right middle and right left middle right 71 action linear transl along global x axis linear transl along global y axis linear transl along global y axis planar transl in global xy plane planar transl in global xz plane planar transl in global yz plane rotation around global y axis rotation around global y axis rotation around global z axis linear transl along local x axis linear transl along local y axis linear transl along local y axis planar transl in local xy plane planar transl in local xz plane planar transl in local yz plane rotation around local y axis rotation around local y axis rotation around local z axis Table 3.1: Axis mappings for manipulation. as instructions to move the transform in question. How the movement is interpreted depends upon the command. This mode is terminated by hitting the ESCAPE key. While in the manipulation mode, the mouse buttons and keys behave as described below. The user interface for the manipulation operation encodes by default the left, middle, and right mouse buttons to control translations along the x, y, and z axes, respectively, of the global coordinate frame. When the user presses down any mouse button, it enables translation along that axis. When the user presses two mouse buttons, translation is enabled in the plane spanned by those two axes. With this technique, it is not possible to translate along three axes simultaneously, so pressing three buttons at once has no e ect. Rotation is signi ed by holding down the CONTROL key. In this case, the mouse buttons are interpreted as rotations around the x, y, and z axes of the global coordinate. Only one rotation button may be selected at once. The user can change the axes of translation and rotation to the local coordinate frame of the manipulation transform by holding down the SHIFT key. The CONTROL key still signi es rotation, but the rotational axes are local to the manipulation transform instead of the global axes. Table 3.1 summarizes how the state of the keys and mouse buttons translates into the transform axis. Jack relies on a set of graphical icons to inform the user about the axes of 72 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION translation and rotation. The manipulation transform is drawn as a labeled six-axis coordinate frame. The translation icon is a transparent arrow. The rotation icon is a spoked wheel. Each icon is overlaid against the objects themselves, but since they are transparent, they do not intrude too severely. The Mouse Line The translation and rotation of the manipulation transform is determined interactively by the ray in the world coordinates that is cast through the location on the screen where the mouse cursor lies. This line in space is referred to internally as the mouse line, and it can be easily computed by an inversion of the viewing transform. The mouse line serves as a probe into the environment with which to move the manipulation transform. This notion of a probe is useful in describing the implementation, although it is not one that is visible to the user. The user has the feel of moving the object itself. Linear and angular displacements are computed by intersecting the mouse line with lines and planes de ned by the origin of the manipulation transform and the translation or rotation axis using a scheme described below. Linear Translation As described above, linear translation takes place when the user presses one mouse button. The mouse may move anywhere on the screen, but the translation is restricted to the particular axis, determined by which mouse button was pressed. This axis projects to a line on the screen. The translation icon illustrates this line, and it also instructs the user to move the mouse in that direction on the screen. Ideally, the user moves the mouse exactly along this line, but in practice the mouse will not follow the line precisely. The position of the manipulation transform is the point along the translational axis that is nearest to the mouse line. Figure 3.2 shows the translation icon. Planar Translation Planar translation is actually somewhat simpler than linear translation because its two DOFs more closely match those of the mouse. The plane of translation passes through the origin of the manipulation transform, and is spanned by the two axes de ned by the selected mouse buttons. The technique is to intersect the mouse line with the plane of translation and supply the point of intersection as the origin of the manipulation transform. This means that the object automatically goes to the location in the plane that lies underneath the mouse cursor. Figure 3.3 shows the planar translation icon. The user can translate in the global or local xy, xz , or yz planes, but in practice the linear and planar translation techniques provide a comfortable pattern of use involving only planar translation in the xz plane. This is the horizontal plane, and it is the most intuitive to visualize. The user can comfortably translate objects in the horizontal plane using planar translation, and then raise and lower them using linear translation along the y axis. 3.1. DIRECT MANIPULATION Figure 3.2: Linear translation. Figure 3.3: Planar translation. 73 74 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION Figure 3.4: Rotation. Rotation The user interface for rotation requires the user to move the mouse around in circles on its pad. This is similar in some ways to the turntable technique of ETW81 described earlier, except that the turntable used a rotation angle in screen coordinates, not world coordinates, making the angular displacement independent of the viewing direction. The Jack operator provides a more direct feel over the rotation because it gives the sense of actually holding on to the wheel. The three mouse buttons are encoded as rotation around the x, y, and z axes. When the user presses down on a button, a wheel is displayed at the origin of the manipulation transform describing the rotational axis. This wheel lies in the plane in which the rotation is to take place, with the origin of the wheel at the rotational axis. Then a vector is drawn from the current intersection point between the plane and the mouse line. This vector forms an extended spoke of the wheel, and as the user moves the mouse around in this plane, Jack computes a new spoke and then measures the angular distance between it and the original spoke. This determines the angle of rotation. The sensation that the user gets is one of twisting a crank by moving the mouse around in circles on the screen. Figure 3.4 shows the rotation wheel icon. If the rotation involves a Peabody joint with joint limits, the inadmissible sector of the rotation wheel is colored red. Mouse movements will cause the wheel to rotate beyond its limits, but the rotated segment will not move past the limit. Thus the semantics of the user's interaction are consistent with the 3.2. MANIPULATION WITH CONSTRAINTS 75 free rotation case, yet object behavior is natural. 3.2 Manipulation with Constraints The term constraint" has many meanings and applications. Some researchers use it to mean a very low level concept. Isaacs and Cohen IC87 use the term to mean essentially any kinematic control over a joint or group of joints during dynamic simulation. The constraint removes DOFs from the system in a straightforward way. Witkin and Kass WK88 and Girard Gir91 use the term to mean a global optimization criterion, such as minimum expended energy. Sometimes, the term means an desired relationship, which in computer graphics usually implies a geometric one. This is the case of Nelson's Juno system Nel85 . Many researchers use the term to mean speci cally a desired spatial relationship, that is, goals for reference points. This is usually the meaning in physically based modeling, as in the dynamic constraints of Barzel and Barr BB88 . Constraints that mean geometric goals may be interpreted with an additional temporal component. Most constraint-based systems like those just mentioned feature the ability to vary the e ect of constraints over time. Given this, it is rather nebulous whether the temporal component is a part of the constraint de nition. We feel that it is better to view a constraint instantaneously as a static entity, although its parameters can be changed over time by some means external to the constraint itself. 3.2.1 Postural Control using Constraints Most formulations of positioning algorithms in robotics and computer animation are principally concerned with motion | smooth motion. In robotics, this is necessary because jerky motion could damage a manipulator. In animation, jerky motion looks bad. For postural control the motion is not as important because the static posture is the principal objective. This means that for interactive postural control, it may be possible to entertain options which are not available to robotics and animation. In particular, the requirements for postural control are, rst, that the technique accommodate massively redundant gures, and second, that it perform fast enough for interactive manipulation, even with complex, highly constrained gures. The third concern is that it generate smooth movement. The interactive postural control process consists of placing the gure in a sequence of postures closely spaced in time and space, giving the illusion of motion for purposes of assisting in the postural speci cation process. We use inverse kinematics for posture determination ZB89 . It dispenses with physical interpretations and solves a minimization problem for pure functions using a nonlinear programming algorithm. The approach uses a variablemetric optimization technique. The function it minimizes is a de ned through a linear combination of kinematic constraints as de ned below. The objective 76 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION function describes positions, not velocities. This approach essentially treats the gure a purely geometric entity rather than a physical one. It does not take into account overtly the gure's mass and inertia, though we will see that it can be used to control the center of mass. Our implementation of inverse kinematics is highly e cient and is capable of controlling a complex gure model with large numbers of constraints. The approach that we advocate for de ning postures is somewhat similar to the energy constraints of Witkin, Fleischer, and Barr WFB87 , although there are some important distinctions. Their approach models connections between objects using energy functions. The energy functions do not measure mechanical energy, but are simply constructed to have zeros at the proper locations and have smooth gradients so that the object can follow the gradient towards the solution. This provides the animation of the solution process. The user interface of Witkin, Fleischer, and Barr's system allows the user to specify these energy functions and turn them on. This causes a sudden increase in energy and thus causes the model to begin descending in the direction of the gradient of the energy function. One drawback of this approach is that the timestep of the iterative process must be su ciently small to ensure convergence. This is particularly a problem in the case of articulated gures. Witkin, Fleischer, and Barr's formulation of the gradient descent algorithm does not permit jointed mechanisms, so they must model joints as constraints. The joints must have a very steep energy function to ensure that they never come apart. This means that the timestep must be very small, making the system of equations very sti . Another problem with Witkin, Fleischer, and Barr's approach, from a higher level point of view, is that the user's notion of time is embedded in the algorithm. The energy function de nes the path of the end e ectors towards their ultimate destinations because the gradient of the energy function determines the direction of movement. We remove the notion of time from the numerical process and put it in a higher level control scheme. This control scheme decides on discrete locations for the goals for end e ector reference points, closely spaced in space and time | the user's notion of time. The inverse kinematics algorithm solves an instantaneous positioning problem. The control scheme has two components, the interactive manipulation previously discussed and the behaviors described in Chapter 4. The inverse kinematics procedure itself has no notion of time. It uses the joint angles of the Peabody gures as the variables of optimization. This means that the search step can be signi cantly larger, and thus the convergence is faster. The control scheme guides the movement in cartesian space, rather than in the space of the energy function. It is still convenient to interpret the positioning criteria as a potential energy function, but the control scheme ensures that the gure is always very near a state of equilibrium. Using the example of a human arm reaching for a switch, the technique of Witkin, Fleischer, and Barr would model the reach by de ning an energy function with a zero when the hand is on the switch, that is, a constraint for the hand to lie at the switch. If the arm begins by the side of the body, 3.2. MANIPULATION WITH CONSTRAINTS 77 the arm would see a sudden increase in energy when the constraint becomes active and would immediately begin to move in a way to minimize the energy. This would cause the hand to begin to move towards the switch. The velocity would be controlled through the intensity of the potential energy function. Using inverse kinematics, the higher level control scheme computes successive locations for the hand, starting at its current location and progressing towards the switch. The number of steps and the spacing between them is not the domain of the inverse kinematics algorithm but of the control scheme. A kinematic constraint describes the position of the hand and the algorithm's parameters at each time step. The inverse kinematics algorithm is invoked at each time step to place the hand at the desired location. 3.2.2 Constraints for Inverse Kinematics The Jack notion of a kinematic constraint de nes a goal coordinate frame, an end e ector coordinate frame, a set of joints which control the end e ector, and an objective function which measures the distance between the goal and the end e ector. The set of joints is usually de ned in terms of a starting joint, and the joint set then consists of the chain of joints between the starting joint and the end e ector. We can think of individual constraints as de ning a potential energy, measured by the objective function, much like that of Witkin, Fleischer, and Barr. The constraint is satis ed when the objective function is minimized, although the function need not be zero. The potential energy of several constraints is a weighted sum of the energies from the individual constraints. The objective function of a constraint has separate position and orientation components. The potential energy of the constraint is a weighted combination of the two, according to the constraint's position orientation weight. The weight may specify one or the other, or a blending of the two. Our inverse kinematics procedure provides the following objective types ZB89 : point The point-to-point distance between the end e ector and the goal. line The point-to-line distance between the end e ector and a line de ned in the goal coordinate frame. plane The point-to-plane distance between the end e ector and a plane de ned in the goal coordinate frame. frame The orientational di erence between the end e ector frame and the goal frame. This measures all three orientational DOFs. direction The orientational di erence between a vector de ned in the end e ector frame and a vector de ned in the coordinate frame of the goal. aim A combined position orientation function designed to aim" a reference vector in the coordinate frame of the end e ector 78 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION towards the position of the goal. This is used mostly for eye and camera positioning, but it could also be used, for example, to point a gun. This should never be done in the presence of multiple human gures, of course, particularly children. 3.2.3 Features of Constraints Each constraint in Jack has its own set of joint variables, so the control of each constraint can be localized to particular parts of the gure. Since the joint angles are the variables of optimization, this means that the algorithm operates on chains of joints, ultimately terminated at the root of the gure hierarchy. This implies that the root of the gure remains xed during the positioning process. This makes the placement of the gure root particularly important. One of the major components of Peabody is that the actual de nition of a gure does not include the gure root. Instead, the root is a dynamic property which can be changed from time to time. Since the inverse kinematics algorithm operates on chains emanating from the root, the inverse kinematics algorithm cannot change the location of the root. Our inverse kinematics algorithm works very well provided that it doesn't have to search too far for a solution, although it will converge from any starting point. The farther it has to search, the more likely it is to produce large changes in the joint angles. In geometric terms, this means that the goals should never be too far away from their end e ectors, lest the interior segments of the joint chains move too far. This also relieves the problem of getting trapped in a local minimumbecause hopefully the higher level control strategy which is specifying the goal positions will do so in a way to lead the gure away from such conditions. The elegance of the potential energy approach, like that of Witkin, Fleischer, and Barr, is that the constraints can be overlapped. This means that it is acceptable to over-constrain the gure. The posture which the algorithm achieves in this case yields the minimum energy state according to the weighting factors between the constraints. This provides a way of resolving the redundancies in a massively redundant gure: use lots of constraints, and don't worry too much about whether the constraints specify con icting information. 3.2.4 Inverse Kinematics and the Center of Mass The center of mass of an object is one of its most important landmarks because it de nes the focal point for forces and torques acting on it. The center of mass of an articulated gure such as a human gure is particularly signi cant because its location relative to the feet de nes the state of balance. This is critical for human gures, because so many aspects of the movement of a human gure are dictated by the need to maintain balance. The center of mass of is, of course, a dynamic property, but it is possible to manipulate it 3.2. MANIPULATION WITH CONSTRAINTS 79 in a purely kinematic way and thus produce some of the e ects of dynamic simulation without the extra cost. Methods of Maintaining Balance One approach to maintaining balance of an articulated gure is to root the gure through its center of mass. The center of mass is a dynamic feature of a gure, so rooting the gure through the center of mass means that each time the gure moves, the center of mass must be recomputed and the gure's location updated so that the center of mass remains at the same global location. This approach works, but it does not give good control over the elevation of the center of mass, since the center of mass is e ectively constrained to a constant elevation as well as location in the horizontal plane. The gure appears to dangle as if suspended from its waist with its feet reaching out for the oor. This is particularly true during an operation in which the center of mass normally goes down, such as bending over. In order for the balance behavior to function naturally, the elevation of the center of mass must be allowed to oat up and down as required by the movement of the feet. This is more appropriately handled through a constraint. Kinematic Constraints on the Center of Mass Balancing a gure is achieved by constraining the center of mass to remain directly above a point in the support polygon. The constraint designates a single point as the balance point rather than using the entire support polygon because this gives control over the placement of the point within the polygon. This allows the gure's weight to shift side to side or forward and backward, without moving the feet. Jack associates the center of mass logically with the lower torso region of the human gure, and it uses this as the end e ector of the constraint, with the ankle, knee, and hip joints of the dominant leg as the constraint variables. During the constraint satisfaction process at each interactive iteration, the center of mass is not recomputed. Since the center of mass belongs logically to the lower torso, its position relative to the torso remains xed as the inverse kinematics algorithm positions the ankle, knee, and hip so that the previously computed center of mass point lies above the balance point. There are generally other constraints active at the same time, along with other postural adjustments, so that several parts of the gure assume di erent postures during the process. After the constraints are solved, Jack recomputes the center of mass. It will generally lie in a di erent location because of the postural adjustments, indicating that the gure is not balanced as it should be. Therefore, the constraints must be solved again, and the the process repeated until the balance condition is satis ed. In this case the structure of the human gure helps. Most of the postural adjustments take place on the rst iteration, so on sub- 80 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION sequent iterations the changes in the center of mass relative to the rest of the body are quite minor. Jack measures the distance that the center of mass changes from one iteration to the next, and it accepts the posture when the change is below a certain threshold. Although it is di cult to guarantee the convergence theoretically, in practice it seldom takes more than two iterations to achieve balance. 3.2.5 Interactive Methodology There are several possibilities for overcoming the problems with redundancies and local minima. One is to incorporate more information into the objective function, modeling such factors as strength, comfort, and agent preference Section 5.3. This is an important addition, although it adds signi cantly to the computational complexity of the constraint solving procedure. Jack's technique is to provide the positional input to the inverse kinematics algorithm with the 3D direct manipulation system. Jack allows the user to interactively drag" goal positions and have the end e ector follow PZB90 . In this case, the geometric information obtained by the mouse at each iteration of the manipulation process is applied to the goal position of a constraint, and the inverse kinematics algorithm is called to solve the constraints before the graphics windows are redrawn. Alternatively, the user can move a gure which has end e ectors constrained to other objects. Each case causes a relative displacement between the end e ector and the goal. Interactive Dragging This dragging mechanism is a modi ed version of the basic direct manipulation scheme described in Section 3.1. After selecting the parameters of the constraint, the manipulation procedure works as shown in Figure 3.5. The inverse kinematics procedure is invoked at every iteration during the interactive manipulation. This is a very e ective and e cient tool for manipulation for several reasons. Because of the incremental nature of the interactive manipulation process, the goals never move very far from one iteration to the next, as necessary. The algorithm still su ers from problems of local minima, but since the user can drag the end e ector around in space in a well-de ned and easy to control way, it is relatively easy to overcome these problems by stretching the gure into temporary intermediate con gurations to get one part of the gure positioned correctly, and then dragging the end e ector itself into the nal desired position. This takes advantage of the user's abilities, because local minima can be easy for the user to see but di cult for the system to detect and avoid. A common example of this dragging technique involves the elbow. The user may initially position the hand at the proper place in space but then nd that the elbow is too high. If this is the case, the user can extend the hand outwards to drag the elbow into the correct general region and then drag the hand back to the proper location. 3.2. MANIPULATION WITH CONSTRAINTS 81 ? Read mouse coordinates and button status ? Convert to manipulation transform ? Apply manipulation transform to goal ? Invoke inverse kinematics algorithm ? Redraw graphics windows Figure 3.5: Interactive Dragging. Interactive Twisting Another e ective feature of the direct manipulation interface is the use of orientation constraints, particularly the weighted combination of position and orientation. In this case, the orientation of the goal is signi cant as well as the position, so the user may manipulate segments in the interior of the joint chain by twisting the orientation of the goal and thus the end e ector. This is especially helpful because of the di culty the user encounters in visualizing and numerically describing rotations which will achieve a desired orientation. The above example of the elbow position may be handled this way, too. By twisting the desired orientation of the hand, the interior of the arm can be rotated up and down while the hand remains in the same location. This achieves in real-time a generalization of the elbow circle" positioning scheme implemented by Korein Kor85 . This raises an interface issue concerning the relationship between the actual orientation of the end e ector coordinate frame and the manipulation transform. The manipulation technique described in Section 3.1 allows the user to translate and rotate a 6D quantity which now guides the position and orientation of the end e ector. We noted, however, that this technique is not so good at choreographing smooth movements through space. The movement trajectory generated by the technique consists of intermittent seg- 82 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION Figure 3.6: The Orientation Constraint Icon. ments of straight-line translations and rotations. As the user translates the manipulation transform, its orientation remains xed, and vice versa. Is this appropriate behavior for the end e ector as well? If the end e ector is sensitive to orientation, then translating the manipulation transform means that the end e ector will translate but will try keep the same global orientation. Typically, the user can quickly arrive at a goal position for the end e ector which is not achievable. Positional di erences are easy to visualize; orientational di erences are not. It is easy to manipulate a positional goal which is outside of the reachable space of the end e ector. We can intuitively think of a spring or rubber band pulling the end e ector towards the goal. Orientational di erences are much harder to visualize. Even though it may be easy to conceptualize rotational springs," in practice is it very di cult to apply that intuition to the geometric model. If the goal is very far outside of the reachable space of the end e ector along angular dimensions, all correspondence between the orientation of the goal and the end e ector gets quickly lost. Jack illustrates orientational di erences through rotation fans, shown in Figure 3.6, which are icons to illustrate how an object must rotate to achieve a desired orientation, but no amount of graphical feedback can help when the di erences are large. Therefore, it is absolutely essential that the orientation of the goal the manipulation transform | not deviate too far from the end e ector. Jack solves this problem through an orientation o set to the goal which can be adjusted during the manipulation process. This o set is a relative transform which is applied to the manipulation transform to rotate it into the 3.3. INVERSE KINEMATIC POSITIONING 83 true orientation of the goal as supplied to the inverse kinematics algorithm. The end e ector dragging mechanism resets this o set each time a translation or rotation is completed during the manipulation process, that is, each time a mouse button comes up and the movement stops. This means that each time the user begins to rotate or translate the goal, the manipulation transform starts out from the current orientation of the end e ector. This prevents the user from getting lost in the orientation di erence. This simulates the e ect of a spring-loaded crank which applies a torque to an object, but only as long as the user holds down the mouse button. When the mouse button comes up, the torque disappears so that it doesn't continue to have a undesirable e ect. This lets the user control the goal through a ratcheting technique of applying short bursts of rotation. Manipulation with Constraints The nature of the 3D direct manipulation mechanism allows the user to interactively manipulate only a single element at a time, although most positioning tasks involve several parts of the gure, such as both feet, both hands, etc. In addition to interactively dragging a single end e ector, there may be any number of other kinematic constraints. These constraints are persistent relationships to be enforced as the gure is manipulated using any of the other manipulation tools. By rst de ning multiple constraints and then manipulating the gure, either directly or with the dragging mechanism, it is possible to control the gure's posture in a complex way. This mechanism involves another slight modi cation to the direct manipulation loop, shown in Figure 3.7. Step 4 may cause the end e ectors to move away from their goal positions. The inverse kinematics algorithm in step 5 repositions the joints so the goals are satis ed. 3.3 Inverse Kinematic Positioning Having modeled the articulated gure with segments and joints we need to deal with the issue of how to manipulate it. There are two basic problems: given all joint angles, how to compute the spatial con guration and, conversely, given a certain posture, what values should be assigned to joint angles. The rst problem, forward kinematics, is simply a matter of straightforward transformation matrix multiplication FvDFH90 . The second, inverse kinematic problem, is much harder to solve. Inverse kinematics is extremely important in computer animation, since the spatial appearance, rather than the joint angles, interest an animator. A good interactive manipulation environment such as Jack may simply hide the numerical values of the joint angles from the user. In such an environment, where the user is concerned only with spatial con guration, the joint angles can become merely an internal representation. The transformation from the 1 1 Jianmin Zhao. 84 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION ? Read mouse coordinates and button status ? Convert to manipulation transform ? Apply manipulation transform to environment ? Recompute global end e ector and goal transforms ? Invoke inverse kinematics algorithm ? Redraw graphics windows Figure 3.7: Manipulation with Constraints. spatial con guration into the joint angles is carried out by the inverse kinematic computation so an e cient implementation is most desirable. Inverse kinematics for determining mechanism motion is a common technique in mechanical engineering, particularly in robot research Pau81 . In robots, however, redundant DOFs are usually avoided. Moreover, the computation is usually carried out on particular linkage systems KH83, KTV+ 90 . In contrast, an interesting object in the computer animation domain the human body has many redundant DOFs when viewed as a kinematic mechanism. Therefore a means for specifying and solving underconstrained positioning of tree-like articulated gures is needed. We rst studied methods for kinematic chain positioning, especially in the context of joint limits and redundant DOFs KB82, Kor85 . Later we tried position constraints to specify spatial con gurations of articulated gures BMW87 . A simple recursive solver computed joint angles of articulated gures satisfying multiple point-to-point position constraints. About the same time, Girard and Maciejewski used the pseudo-inverse of 3.3. INVERSE KINEMATIC POSITIONING 85 the Jacobian matrix to solve spatial constraints GM85 . The main formula is  = J + r where  is the increment of the joint angle vector, r is the increment of the spatial vector and J + is the pseudo-inverse of the Jacobian @ r=@ . For a large step size the method is actually the well-known Newton-Raphson method, which is not globally convergent and often needs some special handling e.g., hybrid methods Pow70 . On the other hand, for a su ciently small step size, as Girard and Maciejewski suggested, excessive iterations are required. The inverse operation is normally very expensive; moreover, they did not deal with joint limits. Witkin et al used energy constraints for positioning WFB87 . The energy function they adopted is the sum of all constraints including ones for position and orientation. Constraints are satis ed if and only if the energy function is zero. Their method of solving the constraint is to integrate the di erential equation: d t=dt = ,rE   where is the parameter e.g., joint angle vector, E is the energy function of , and r is the gradient operator. Clearly, if t is the integral with some initial condition, E  t monotonically decreases with time t. This integral not only gives a nal con guration which satis es the constraint in terms of , but also a possible motion from the initial con guration which is driven by the conservative force derived from the gradient of the energy function. Instead of associating energy functions with constraints, Barzel and Barr introduced deviation functions such that a constraint is met if and only if the deviation function vanishes = 0 BB88 . They have presented various constraints, such as point-to-point, point-to-nail, etc., and their associated deviation functions. A set of dynamic di erential equations are constructed to control the way by which the deviations vanish e.g., exponentially in a certain amount of time. Constraint forces are solved which, along with other external forces, drive geometric models to achieve constraints. They dealt with rigid bodies which may be related by various constraints. Witkin and Welch WW90 used a dynamic method on nonrigid bodies. In all these approaches articulated gure joints would be considered as point-to-point constraints, which are added to the system as algebraic equations. It is not unusual to have several dozen joints in an highly articulated gure, which would add to the number of constraint equations appreciably. Besides, a joint is meant to be an absolute constraint. In another words, it should not compete with other constraints which relate a point in a segment of the gure with a point in the space. This competition often gives rise to numerical instability. So these methods seem inappropriate to the highly articulated gure. Although the energy or dynamics methods may be used to solve the spatial constraint problem, they are also concerned with computing plausible dynamically-valid paths. For articulated gure positioning, the additional work involved in path determination is not so critical. So, we rst focus on 86 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION a more elementary version of the problem | to position the articulated gure into desired pose | hoping that the solution can be found much faster and more robustly, and joint angles limits can be dealt with e ectively. We will see later in Chapter 5 how more natural motions may be generated by considering human strength models and collision avoidance. 3.3.1 Constraints as a Nonlinear Programming Problem A spatial constraint involves two parts. The part on the gure is called the end-e ector and its counterpart in the space is called the goal. A constraint is a demand that the end-e ector be placed at the goal. Since a goal always implies a related end-e ector, we may sometimes take goals as synonymous for constraints. As is done with energy constraints, we create a function with each goal such that its value, when applied to the end e ector, represents the distance" of the end-e ector from the goal. This distance need not be only Euclidean distance. Let us call this function potential," because it is a scalar function of spatial position or vectors. The vector eld generated by the negation of the gradient of the function could be interpreted as a force eld toward the goal. Depending on the goal types, an end-e ector on a segment can be a point, a vector, a set of two vectors, or a combination of them, in the local coordinate system of the segment. Let P denote the potential function associated with a goal and e the location" of the end-e ector. The constraint is satis ed if and only if P e vanishes. Clearly the end-e ector is a function of the vector of all joint angles. A single constraint may not be su cient to specify a pose. For example, in addition to the position of the hand, the placement of the elbow is often desired. In positioning two arms, we may need to keep the torso in some orientation. The function associated with these conjunctively combined goals is de ned as a weighted sum: m X G  = wiGi   3:1 i=1 where m is the number of goals combined, and Gi   = Pi ei  3:2 where the subscript i refers to the ith goal, and wis are weights on respective constraints. Sometimes, goals may need be combined disjunctively. In other words, the combined goal is achieved if and only if either constituent goal is achieved. For example, the interior of a convex polyhedron is the conjunction of inner half-spaces de ned by its surrounding faces, while the exterior is the disjunction of those opposite half-spaces. Obstacle avoidance is a situation where constraining an end-e ector to the outside of a volume is useful. The function 3.3. INVERSE KINEMATIC POSITIONING associated with the disjunctively combined goal is de ned as G  = i2fmin g Gi   1;:::m 87 3:3 By de nition of the function G, the overall constraint is met if and only if G vanishes. Due to the physical constraint of the gure and the redundancy of DOFs, there may not be such that G  = 0, or there may be many such 's. Therefore we attempt to nd a , subject to constraints on joint angles, which minimizes the function G. Although constraints on joint angles may be complicated, linear constraints su ce in most situations. Typical constraints are represented as a lower limit and an upper limit for each joint angle. Therefore we formulate our problem as a nonlinear programming problem subject to linear constraints, i.e., 8 min G  T 2 3:4 : s:t: aiT = bii ;; i = 1;+ ;1:; :l :; l 2; : : :; k a b i=l + i where ai ; i = 1; 2; : : :; k are column vectors whose dimension is the total number of DOFs. The equality constraints allow for linear relations among the joint angles. The lower limit li and upper limit ui on i , the ith joint angle, contribute to the set of inequality constraints on : , i  ,li i  ui . 3.3.2 Solving the Nonlinear Programming Problem There are many algorithms to solve problem 3.4. One e cient algorithm is based on Davidon's variable metric method with BFGS Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfarb, Shanno rank-two update formula Fle70, Gol70, Sha70 . Rosen's projection method is used to handle the linear constraints on variables Ros60, Gol69 . No matter what algorithm we choose, e ciency requires computation of the gradient as well as the value of the objective function when is given. So rst we develop an e cient way to compute the gradient of, as well as the value of, the objective function G  for gures with tree-like data structure and various sorts of goals. Single Constraints Since the human gure has a tree-like structure, an end-e ector of a constraint depends only on those joints which lie along the path from the root of the gure tree to the distal segment containing the end-e ector BMW87 . Call this path the constraint chain. The constraint chain is illustrated in Figure 3.8. For simplicity, we assume each joint in Figure 3.8 has only one DOF. A joint with multiple DOFs can be decomposed conceptually into several joints with each having one DOF, i.e., zero distance from one joint to another is allowed. CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION 88 2 q h A A q h 1  h q i,1 q h A A A q h  @ @ @ u HH HH n H  @ @ ri q h q h    v  r q end e ector segment i Figure 3.8: Constraint Chain. The length of the constraint chain is the total number of joints along the chain; in Figure 3.8, it is n. This module is to compute Gi , as de ned in equation 3.2 and its gradient for a single constraint chain and its corresponding goal. In this section, we only consider a single chain, so the subscript i is dropped. Notice that G  = P e  3:5 and g  = r G =  @ e T re P @ 3.6 where @ e is the Jacobian matrix of the vector function e , i.e., @ @e =  @e @e    @e  . @ 1 @ 2 @ n @ These expressions suggest that end-e ectors and goals can be abstracted as functions e and P  which, by pair, constitute constraints. The range of the function e depends on the type of the constraint, but it must be equal to the domain of its respective P function, which measures the distance of the current end-e ector to the goal. For the sake of numerical e ciency, we require that those functions be di erentiable. By virtue of equations 3.5 and 3.6, two sub-modules, end-e ector and goal modules, can be built separately. Note that the goal potential P does not depend on the gure model. Only the end-e ector function e does. End-e ectors This module is the only one which depends on the model of the articulated gure. It turns out that it is easy to compute e and @ e , under our assumption @ of rigidity of segments, for many useful types of constraint. 3.3. INVERSE KINEMATIC POSITIONING 89 We only consider constraints where end-e ectors are points for positions or vectors for orientations on distal segments. So e consists of either a position vector r, one or two unit vectors attached on the distal segment v's, or a combination of them see Figure 3.8. Because all the joints of the human body are revolute joints, we discuss here only revolute joints. Translational joints are simpler and can be treated similarly. Let the ith joint angle along the chain be i , the axis of this joint be u a unit vector, and the position vector of the ith joint be ri . The vectors r and v can be easily computed with cascaded multiplication of transformation matrices. The derivative can be computed as follows Whi72 : @ r = u  r , r  3.7 i @ i @v = u  v . 3.8 @ i These formulas are enough for the types of goals we have considered. The particular forms of e will be explained with particular goals, since they must match the arguments of the goal potential P . Goal Types We have implemented several useful, as well as simple, types of goals or constraints. Position Goal. The goal is a point p in 3D space. The end-e ector is, correspondingly, a point r which sits on the distal segment of the constraint chain, but it is not necessarily a leaf segment in the gure tree see Figure 3.8. The potential function is: P r = p , r2 3:9 where p is the parameter of the function, and the gradient is: rrP r = 2r , p . 3:10 Orientation Goal. The orientation in the space is determined by two or- thonormal vectors. So the goal is de ned by a pair of orthonormal vectors, say, fxg ; yg g . Accordingly, the end e ector is a pair of orthonormal vectors fxe ; ye g attached on the distal segment of the constraint chain. The potential function could be: P xe; ye  = xg , xe 2 + yg , ye 2 . 90 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION In combination with a positional goal, this function implies that one length unit is as important as about one radian in angle. To enforce one length unit compatible with d degrees in angle, we need to multiply the previous P by cd such that 1 = 2 d cd 360 i. e. , cd = 360=2d . 3:11 To be more general, our potential function is then P xe ; ye = c2 xg , xe 2 + c2 yg , ye 2 . 3:12 dx dy The gradient is rxe P xe ; ye = 2c2 xe , xg  3.13 dx rye P xe ; ye = 2c2 ye , yg  . 3.14 dy Any direction, such as y, could be suppressed by setting cdy to 0. This is useful, for example, to constrain a person holding a cup of water while attaining other constraints. Position Orientation Goals. Position and orientation goals can be treated separately, but sometimes it is convenient to combine them together as a single goal. The potential function for position orientation goal is just the weighted sum of respectively goals: P r; xe; ye  = wp p , r2 + wo c2 xg , xe 2 + wo c2 yg , ye 2 3:15 dx dy where wp and wo are weights put on position and orientation respectively such that wp + wo = 1 . The gradients rr P; rxe P and rye P are obvious from above. Aiming-at Goals. The goal is a point p in the space, but the end-e ector is a vector v attached to the distal segment at r see Figure 3.8. The goal is attained if the vector v points toward the point p. This is useful, for example, when we want to make the head face toward a certain point. The potential function is: P r; v = c2  kp , rk , v2 d p,r 3:16 where cd is de ned in 3.11 and k  k denotes the norm operation. The gradient is: 3 rrP r; v = 2c2 kp , rk2v , p , r  v p , r=kp , rk3.17 d rv P r; v = ,2c2  kp , rk , v . 3.18 d p,r 3.3. INVERSE KINEMATIC POSITIONING 91 Line Goals. The goal is a line and the end-e ector is a point r. The goal is to force the point to go along the line. Let the line be de ned by point p and unit vector  such that the parametric equation of the line is p + t . The potential function is: P r = p , r , p , r    2 3:19 rrP r = 2  p , r  , p , r . 3:20 and the gradient is: Plane Goals. The goal is a plane and the end-e ector is a point r. The point must be forced to lie on the plane. Let a point on the plane be p and the normal of the plane be  . The potential function is: P r = p , r   2 3:21 and the gradient is: rrP r = ,2  p , r  . 3:22 Half-space Goals. The goal is one side of a plane and the end-e ector is a point r. The point is constrained to lie to one side of the plane. Let a point on the plane be p and the normal of the plane be  which points to the half space the goal de nes. The potential function is: P r = 0 p , r   2 if p , r   0  otherwise and the gradient is: rr P r = 0 2  p , r  if p , r   . 0 , otherwise 3:23 3:24 As the number of joint angles n along the chain grows, the computational complexity of G and g is linear for the listed goal types, since the end-e ector module needs On time and the goal module needs O1 time. 3.3.3 Assembling Multiple Constraints In the single constraint module, we consider only those joint angles which lie on the constraint chain. To make our constraint system useful, multiple constraints would be combined to one constraint, as in equations 3.1 or 3.3. The arguments in these formulas, the vector , may involve joint angles along many paths in the gure tree. In other words, with respect to this 92 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION the gradient of Gi in 3.1 or 3.3 contains many zeros. For the sake of computational e ciency and program modularity, we choose not to pass the overall index of joint angles to the single constraint module. Suppose there are m constraints. The ith constraint involves ni joint angles, whereas the combined constraint involves n joint angles. Notice that this n is not simply the summation of ni s, since one joint angle may be involved in several chains. The relationship between the index used in the ith constraint chain and the overall index is represented by the mapping Mi : f1; 2; : : :; nig ,! f1; 2; : : :; ng ; 3:25 the j th joint angle in the ith constraint chain corresponds to the Mi j th joint angle in the overall index system. Let i denote the vector formed by the joint angles along the ith constraint chain. For disjunctively combined goals with G de ned in 3.3 , one can always focus on the goal with minimal Gi i  at each iteration. So this is nothing but a collection of goals. This module is designed for conjunctively combined goals with G de ned in 3.1. The evaluation of G is simply a summation of the individual Gi . To compute the overall gradient g =  g 1 g 2    g n T = r G  by using the outputs of the single constraint module gi  i  =  gi1 gi2    gini T = r i Gi  i  , we only need to do 1. gj  0, for j = 1; 2; : : :; n 2. For i = 1 to m do gMi j   gMi j  + wi gij , for j = 1; 2; : : :; ni . From above one can see that all the Gi and their gradients gi can be computed in parallel. We assumed in Section 3.3.2 that the constraint chain went from the root of the gure tree to the distal segment. It is possible and sometimes useful that the chain go from a speci ed joint which is nearer to the root than the distal segment is. Then we must take care of those joints which a ect an ende ector, but are not in the constraint chain. For example, suppose that the torso is the root of the gure, one constraint chain is from the right shoulder to the right hand, and the other is from the torso to the left hand. Although the torso is not assigned to the end-e ector right hand, it will a ect the right hand when it moves the left one. The system should add joints from the torso to the left shoulder to the constraint chain for the right hand BOK80 . 3.3. INVERSE KINEMATIC POSITIONING 93 Constraints may exist in a hierarchy. With multiple constraints, there may be one or more constraints which consists of several constraints disjunctively combined. In general, a logic formula which contains conjunctive and disjunctive connectors can be implemented. For example, the exterior of a convex polyhedron can be de ned as the union of the outside half-space of all of its surrounding faces. This can be used to avoid obstacles: we may want the hand to get somewhere while keeping the elbow away from the obstacle. This does not solve segment obstacle avoidance, however. Joints can be locked or added to the constraint chain for a particular task. 3.3.4 Sti ness of Individual Degrees of Freedom A nonlinear programming algorithm which utilizes gradient information has a property that, given the same termination tolerance, a variable would undergo more displacement if the value of the objective function changes more due to the unit increment of that variable. This property can be used to control the sti ness of each DOF by assigning a scaling factor to each joint angle. These scaling factors change the unit of each joint angle. For example, if the standard unit of joint angles is a radian, and 0.5 is assigned to a particular joint angle, which is to take half of the radian as the unit of that joint angle, then this joint angle will be more reluctant to move. One unit of change in this joint angle will have half of the e ect on the end-e ector as it would without that scaling factor. This makes the e ect of other joint angles more apparent. 3.3.5 An Example Jack contains an implementation of this multiple spatial constraint solver as a basic tool for the interactive manipulation of articulated gures. Constraints can be of any types listed above, or can be sets of simple constraints disjunctively combined. Users may create various constraints, any of which can be moved interactively, and the achieving con guration is solved and observed in real-time. The pose in Figure 3.9 is achieved by using 6 constraints. Two Position Orientation goals are used for two hands to hold the tube, where one direction of the orientation is suppressed so that only normals of the hand and the tube are aligned. Two Plane goals are used to constrain two elbows on two side planes. To have the person look down towards the end of the tube, we used two goals a Line goal was used to constrain the view point on the central axis of the tube; an Aiming-at goal was used to point the view vector towards the end of the tube. In all, 22 DOFs are involved. To encourage forward bending, we set the rigidities of the lateral bending and axial rotation of the torso to a mid-range 0.5 value. Starting from an upright neutral position and moving from the waist, the solution took only 2 seconds on a Silicon Graphics Personal Iris 4D-25TG, not one of the faster machines of its type. CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION 94 Figure 3.9: Looking Down Towards the End of the Tube. 3.4 Reachable Spaces The workspace is the volume or space encompassing all points that a reference point on the hand or the end e ector traces as all the joints move through their respective ranges of motion KW81 . An articulated chain is a series of links connected with either revolute or prismatic joints such as a robotic manipulator or a human limb. Visualizing the 3D workspace for articulated chains has applications in a variety of elds: in computer graphics and arti cial intelligence systems that generate plans for approaching and grasping an object in complex environments, in CAD systems to design the interior layout of cars, vehicles, or space shuttles, in the evolving areas of telerobots and parallel manipulators, in the coordination of di erent manipulators to perform certain tasks, and, nally, in ergonomic studies to help understanding the e ects of body size, joint limits, and limb length on the workspace volume. Previous workspace algorithms Kum80, Sug81, GR82, TS83, TS81, Tsa86, YL83, Vij85, Muj87 are only capable of displaying 2D workspace cross2 2 Tarek Alameldin. 3.4. REACHABLE SPACES 95 sections. This is not adequate for redundant more than 6 DOFs manipulators with joint limits. We describe how to compute the 3D workspace for redundant articulated chains with joint limits. The rst e orts to compute the manipulator workspace, based on its kinematic geometry, started in the mid 1970's Rot75, Sug81 . The rst result was that the extreme distance line between a chosen point on the rst joint axis and the center point of the hand end e ector extreme reach intersects all intermediate joint axes of rotation. This is not valid, however, if any joint has limits, any intermediate joint axis is parallel to the extreme distance line, or two joint axes intersect. Kumar and Waldron KW81 presented another algorithm for the manipulator's workspace. In their analysis, an imaginary force is applied to the reference point at the end e ector in order to achieve the maximum extension in the direction of the applied force. The manipulator reaches its maximum extension when the force's line of action intersects all joint axes of rotation since the moment of the force about each axis of rotation must be zero. Every joint of the manipulator can settle in either of two possible positions under the force action. Hence, this algorithm results in 2n,1 di erent sets of joint variables for a manipulator of n joints in the direction of the applied force. Each set of joint variables results in a point on the workspace boundary. The concept of stable and unstable equilibrium is used to select the set of joint variables that result in the maximum extension in the force direction. This algorithm is used to generate a shell of points which lie on the workspace boundary by varying the direction of the applied force over a unit sphere. This algorithm has exponential time complexity and deals only with those manipulators that have ideal revolute joints. Tsai and Soni TS83 developed another algorithm to plot the contour of the workspace on an arbitrarily speci ed plane for a manipulator with n revolute joints. The robot hand is moved to the speci ed plane, then the tip of the hand is moved on the plane until it hits the workspace boundary, and nally the workspace boundary is traced by moving the hand from one position to its neighbor. Each of these three subproblems is formulated as a linear programming problem with some constraints and bounded variables to account for the joint limits. Accordingly, this algorithm is just a 2D workspace cross-section computation and, moreover, has excessive computational cost. Yang YL83 and Lee LY83 presented algorithms to detect the existence of holes and voids in the manipulator's workspace. A workspace is said to have a hole if there exist at least one straight line which is surrounded by the workspace yet without making contact with it. The hole in a donut is a simple example for the above de nition. A workspace is said to have a void if there exist a closed region R, buried within the reachable workspace, such that all points inside the bounding surface of R are not reached by the manipulator. Gupta Gup86, GR82 classi ed voids into two di erent types. The rst one, called central, occurs around the rst axis of rotation and is like the core of an apple. The second type, called toroidal or noncentral, occurs within the reachable workspace and is like a hollow ring. He Gup86 also 96 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION presented qualitative reasoning about the transformation of holes to voids and vice versa. Both the qualitative method developed by Gupta Gup86 and the analytical one developed by Yang and Lee YL83, LY83 are based on mapping the workspace from the distal link to the proximal one and studying the relationship between the generated workspace and the new axis of rotation. Tsai Tsa86 presented another algorithm, based on the theory of reciprocal screws. In contrast to the above algorithms that only compute workspace points, this algorithm traces the 2D workspace boundary for a given manipulator. The use of reciprocal screw theory has made computing piecewise continuous boundary that consists of straight line segments and circular arcs possible. The manipulator's workspace is computed by performing the union operation on all the workspaces of the manipulator's aspects. An aspect of a robot is interpreted as a set of joint variables such that the manipulator can reach points inside the workspace at one con guration without hitting a joint limit Tsa86 . The computed workspace has interior surfaces which are the boundaries of aspects. This algorithm is limited to manipulators which do not have holes or voids in their workspaces. Korein Kor85 created conservative approximations to 3D reach volumes by taking polyhedral unions of reach polyhedra, working along an articulated chain from the distal joint inwards. The major drawbacks of his approach are the high computational cost and numerical sensitivity of the polyhedral unions which are very di cult to perform once they become many-sided. 3.4.1 Workspace Point Computation Module The purpose of this module is to compute a suitably dense set of workspace points. The inputs to this module are a chain of linkages with a proximal and distal end, the joint limits associated with each DOF and the desired resolutions in the x, y and z directions resx ; resy ; resz  for the end e ector position. We classify the algorithms that can be used to implement this module as follows: 1. Algorithms based on forward kinematics. The basic idea is to generate end e ector positions by cycling each DOF through some number of discrete angles if revolute or distances if prismatic. 2. Algorithms based on nonlinear programming. Here a collection of points in space is provided as targets for the end e ector and the linkage attempts to solve for a satisfying posture. 3. Algorithms based on force application at the end e ector. A series of force directions is used to pull the chain to its maximum extension. Each class is better than the others for some applications. Direct kinematics algorithms lend themselves easily to volume visualization applications since they require less time and space than the other algorithms. It is di cult, 3.4. REACHABLE SPACES 97 however, to determine the adequate density the number of points to be generated that would compute a workspace with the given resolution resx ; resy ; and resz  . Hence, direct kinematics based algorithms cannot be used alone to compute the workspace volume since they are not guaranteed to compute all the reachable points. The resolution values divide the space into cells of dimensions resx  resy  resz . A cell is marked with one if it contains a workspace point. A cell marked with zero does not necessarily mean that it is unreachable since the direct kinematics based algorithm might not have computed enough workspace points. This limitation is serious especially if the application requires surface visualization which use edge detection algorithm as will be described in the next section. On the other hand, algorithms based on nonlinear programming are more appropriate for applications that only require computing the envelope of the reachable workspace since these algorithms compute only points that lie on the workspace envelope. However, the cost of computing each point by the nonlinear programming based algorithms is higher than the cost using forward kinematics based algorithms. Finally, nonlinear programming based algorithms are more appropriate for applications that require partial surface computation in predetermined directions. They can also be used in volume visualization applications by dividing the space into voxels of dimension resx  resy  resz  and using the inverse kinematics algorithm to determine whether the cell is occupied or not. However, this operation is very costly and does not guarantee the correct result since the nonlinear programming algorithms do not necessarily return the global maximum or minimum they might stop at local ones. Algorithms that are based on force application are very costly since they require exponential time to compute each point. All these algorithms can be hybridized to compute better quality volumes or surfaces Ala91, ABS90 . 3.4.2 Workspace Visualization We believe that either surface based techniques or voxel based techniques can be used in workspace visualization depending on the application type. If the application goal is to compute the workspace boundary in order to nd the intersection with other psurf objects in the environment, surface based techniques can be used. On the other hand, binary voxel based techniques lend themselves easily to applications that require computing cut-away views, changing the view point, nding the union or the intersection with other objects that are represented by voxels, and trading o computation time against image quality. This module constructs a surface that encompasses the workspace points that were computed by the workspace point generation module. We have developed an algorithm that accepts the workspace contours computed by the direct kinematics algorithm. The algorithm can be summarized in four steps: 1. Region Filling. This step involves determining the number of regions in a given workspace contour. The number of holes and voids in the CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION 98 given workspace contour can be determined. Region lling algorithms are a common graphics utility and are widely used in paint programs Sha80, FB85, Fis90 . A region is a collection of pixels. There are two types of regions: 4-connected and 8-connected. A region is 4-connected if adjacent pixels share a horizontal or vertical edge. A region is 8connected if adjacent pixels share an edge or a corner. Region lling algorithms start with a given seed point x; y and set this pixel and all of its neighbors with the same pixel value to a new pixel value. A good region- lling algorithm is one that reads as few pixels as possible. The algorithm computes the number of regions in a given workspace crosssection contour. We search the contour for a reachable workspace cell marked with 1 and use it as a seed point. The set of all cells connected to the seed point comprise a reachable region. The region lling algorithm sets those cells to a new value that greater than 2. The region lling algorithm is called as many times as necessary in order to set di erent regions with unique values. 2. Boundary Detection. The purpose of this step is to compute the boundary of di erent regions in a workspace cross-section. This is done by testing the neighbors of each cell in the workspace cross-section. An array element of the workspace cross-section is considered a boundary cell if it has a di erent value from its neighbor. 3. Contour Tracing. This step computes the edges that connect the boundary points for a given region. 4. Triangulation. This step constructs the 3D workspace by tiling adjacent contours with triangles. We have used the Fuchs' algorithm FKU77 that interpolates the triangular faces between parallel slices in order to construct the 3D workspace surface from the di erent cross sections. 3.4.3 Criteria Selection This module interacts with the user and selects the most suitable point computation and visualization algorithms based on the application requirements. Those requirements parameters include: Surface volume. This parameter allows the user to select to either compute the workspace boundary envelope or compute the workspace volume based on the application requirements. Complete partial. This parameter allows the user to compute either the full 3D workspace or just the portion of interest. If the user selects a partial workspace, it then asks for either the bounding cube or sphere that limits the portion of interest. The criteria selection would call the nonlinear-programming based algorithms from the point computation module since they are most suitable for computing partial workspaces. 3.4. REACHABLE SPACES 99 Holes and voids. This parameter allows the user to select computing holes and voids based on the application requirements. Computing the workspace envelope without holes and voids is important for some applications. On the other hand, computing the holes and voids is often unnecessary and anyway requires more time and space. Resolution. This parameter allows the user to select between a simple plot and a complex image based on the application deadline. The criteria selection asks the user to enter values for the required resolution in x; y; and z directions. These parameters are denoted resx ; resy ; and resz respectively. The criteria selection passes those values to the point computation algorithms so that they can compute the right number of workspace points. If the user is interested in a quick response regardless of the image quality, low resolution values for the resx ; resy ; and resz parameters can be entered. We can now compute 3D workspaces for articulated chains with redundant DOFs and joint limits. The criteria selection module interacts with the user and selects the most suitable workspace computation and visualization algorithms based on the application requirements. The second module of that system computes workspace points for the given chain. The third module ts a 3D surface around the volume that encompasses the workspace points computed by the second module. An example of a 3D workspace for the left arm of a seated gure is illustrated in Plates 4 and 5. In Plate 4 the global shape of the workspace is visible as a translucent surface surrounding the body, while in Plate 5 we see what the gure can simultaneously reach with his left hand and see within the cockpit. 100 CHAPTER 3. SPATIAL INTERACTION Chapter 4 Behavioral Control The behaviors constitute a powerful vocabulary for postural control. The manipulation commands provide the stimuli; the behaviors determine the response. The rationale for using behavioral animation is its economy of description: a simple input from the user can generate very complex and realistic motion. By de ning a simple set of rules for how objects behave, the user can control the objects through a much more intuitive and e cient language because much of the motion is generated automatically. Several systems have used the notion of behaviors to describe and generate motion Zel91 . The most prominent of this work is by Craig Reynolds, who used the notion of behavior models to generate animations of ocks of birds and schools of sh Rey87 . The individual birds and sh operate using a simple set of rules which tell them how to react to the movement of the neighboring animals and the features of the environment. Some global parameters also guide the movement of the entire ock. William Reeves used the same basic idea but applied it very small inanimate objects, and he dubbed the result particle systems Ree83 . Behaviors have also been applied to articulated gures. McKenna and Zeltzer MPZ90 describe a computational environment for simulating virtual actors, principally designed to simulate an insect a cockroach in particular for animation purposes. Most of the action of the roach is in walking, and a gait controller generates the walking motion. Re exes can modify the basic gait patterns. The stepping re ex triggers a leg to step if its upper body rotates beyond a certain angle. The load bearing re ex inhibits stepping if the leg is supporting the body. The over-reach re ex triggers a leg to move if it becomes over-extended. The system uses inverse kinematics to position the legs. Jack controls bipedal locomotion in a similar fashion Section 5, but for now we focus on simpler though dramatically important postural behaviors. 101 102 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL ? Get info from mouse or keyboard - geometric movement? - command to execute? ? Execute Behavior Functions ? Evaluate Constraints ? Redraw Graphics Windows Figure 4.1: The Interactive System Architecture. 4.1 An Interactive System for Postural Control The human gure in its natural state has constraints on its toes, heels, knees, pelvis, center of mass, hands, elbows, head and eyes. They correspond loosely to the columns of the sta in Labanotation, which designate the di erent parts of the body. The heart of the interactive system is a control loop, shown in Figure 4.1. The system repeatedly evaluates the kinematic constraints and executes the behavior functions PB91 . It also polls the user for information, which can be geometric movements through the direct manipulation operator described in Section 3.1, or commands to execute which can change the state of the system or the parameters of the constraints. The behavior functions can also modify the state of the environment or the parameters of the constraints, as described below. Each iteration of the control loop is a time step in a simulated movement process, although this is an imaginary sense of time. There are four categories of controls for human gures, illustrated in Table 4.1. First, there are behavioral parameters. These are the parameters of the body constraints and govern things like whether the feet should remain planted on the oor or whether they should be allowed to twist as the body moves. Second, there are passive behaviors. These behaviors express relationships between di erent parts of the gure. These relationships are usually more complex than can be expressed through the behavioral parameters. An example of a passive behavior is the parametrization of the distribution of 4.1. AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR POSTURAL CONTROL 103 weight between the feet. Third, there are active behaviors. Active behaviors have a temporal component. They wait for events or conditions to occur and then re o a response which lasts for a speci ed duration. An example of an active behavior is the automatic stepping action the gure takes just before it loses its balance. Finally, there are manipulation primitives. These are the commands which allow the user to interactively drag or twist parts of a gure. These are the principal sources of input, the stimuli for the postural adjustments, although much of the movement during a postural adjustment usually comes from the response generated by the behavioral controls. Table 4.1 provides a summary of Jack's current vocabulary for postural control. 4.1.1 Behavioral Parameters The behavioral parameters are the properties of the constraints which model the posture. Mostly, these parameters describe the objective functions of the constraints, as in whether the constraint speci es position, orientation, or both. The parameters can include the goal values of the constraints as well. These are simple relationships which require no computation on the part of the system. The Jack behaviors provide control over the position and orientation of the feet, the elevation of the center of mass, the global orientation of the torso, the orientation of the pelvis, and the gaze direction of the head and eyes. There are additional non-spatial controls on the knees and elbows. These controls were originally designed for the human gure in a rather ad hoc fashion, although they correspond loosely to the columns of the sta in Labanotation. Most of Jack's current behavioral parameter commands, listed in Table 4.1, allow the user to instruct the gure to maintain the current posture of the part of the body that it controls, such as the position and orientation of feet or the elevation of the center of mass. This means that this property will be maintained whenever possible even as the other parts of the gure change posture. This works well in an interactive manipulation context: the user manipulates the body part into place, and it stays there. This is the what you see is what you get" approach. This also obviates the need for a complex syntax for describing positions and orientations grammatically, since the method of describing the location is graphical and interactive, through direct manipulation. The Position and Orientation of the Feet The foot behaviors are shown in Table 4.2. These are options to the set foot behavior command. The standard human gure model in Jack has a foot with two segments connected by a single toe joint, and two natural constraints, one on the toes and another on the heel. The toe constraint keeps the toes on the oor; the heel constraint can keep the heel on the oor or allow it to rise if necessary. For a standing gure, the pair of behaviors keep heel on oor and allow heel to rise control the height of the heel. The pivot behavior instructs 104 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL behavioral parameters set foot behavior pivot hold global location hold local location keep heel on oor allow heel to rise set torso behavior keep vertical hold global orientation set head behavior xate head xate eyes release head release eyes set hand behavior hands on hips hands on knees hold global location hold local location release hands hand on site grab object passive behaviors balance point follows feet foot orientation follows balance line pelvis follows feet orientation hands maintain consistent orientation root through center of mass active behaviors take step when losing balance take step when pelvis is twisted manipulation primitives move foot move center of mass bend torso rotate pelvis move hand move head move eyes Table 4.1: Behavioral Controls. 4.1. AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR POSTURAL CONTROL 105 set foot behavior pivot hold global location hold local location keep heel on oor allow heel to rise Table 4.2: Foot Behaviors. the toes to maintain the same position, and to maintain an orientation at on the oor while allowing them to rotate through a vertical axis. The hold global location behavior disables the pivot behavior and xes the toe orientation in space. This is the appropriate behavior when the foot is not on the oor. The hold local location behavior attaches the foot to an object such as a pedal. If the object moves, the foot will follow it and maintain the same relative displacement from it. If the gure is seated, then the heel behaviors and the pivot behavior have no e ect, and the hold behaviors control the position and orientation of the heel instead of the toes. The behavior of the feet is usually activated by the manipulation of some other part of the gure, such as the center of mass or the pelvis. A good example of the pivot behavior is when the center of mass is dragged towards one foot: should the other foot pivot in order to extend the leg, or should it remain planted and inhibit the movement of the center of mass? The behaviors say which should occur. The Elevation of the Center of Mass The horizontal location of the center of mass is a passive behavior which determines balance, as described below. The elevation of the center of mass is more straightforward. This concept has a direct analog in Labanotation: the level of support Hut70 . A middle level of support is a natural standing posture, a low level of support is a squat, and a high level of support is standing on the tip-toes. The hold current elevation behavior is an option of the set balance behavior command. It instructs the gure to maintain the current elevation of the center of mass. This behavior is o by default. This behavior is necessary because under normal circumstances, the center of mass of the gure is free to rise and fall as necessary to meet the requirements of the feet. After adjusting the center of mass to an appropriate level, if no control holds it there, it may rise or fall unintentionally. The Global Orientation of the Torso The torso behaviors are listed in Table 4.3. The default behavior is keep vertical, which causes the torso to maintain a vertical orientation. Biomechanics research tells us that one of the most constant elements in simple human 106 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL set torso behavior keep vertical hold global orientation Table 4.3: Torso Behaviors. locomotor tasks is the global orientation of the head. One theory explaining this suggests that the head is the principle sensor of stability BP88 . The keep vertical behavior mimics this nicely through a directional constraint on the chest to remain vertical, while not a ecting its vertical rotation. This means that as the pelvis of the gure rotates forward, backward, or side to side, the torso will automatically compensate to keep the head up. Since the constraint is on the upper torso, not the head, the neck is free to move in order for the gure to look at certain reference points, as described below with the head and eye behaviors. The hold global orientation behavior involves all three DOFs of the torso. This allows other parts of the body to be adjusted while the head and chest stay relatively xed. This is particularly important in making adjustments to the pelvis and legs after positioning the torso acceptably. This behavior does not involve position, because it is usually acceptable to have the position oat with the rest of the body. Movements of the spine are described in terms of total bending angles in the forward, lateral, and axial directions. The technique uses weighting factors that distribute the total bending angle to the individual vertebrae in such a way that respects the proper coupling between the joints. Di erent weight distributions generate bends of di erent avors, such as neck curls or bends con ned to the lower back. These parameters are options to the torso behavior controls through the set torso behavior command because they govern how the torso behaves as it bends to maintain the proper orientation. The user can select one of the standard curl from neck or bend from waist options, or alternatively input the range of motion of the spine by selecting a top and bottom joint, and initiator and resistor joints which control the weighting between the vertebrae. The Fixation Point for the Head and Eyes The head and eyes can be controlled by specifying a xation point, modeled through aiming constraints which orient them in the proper direction. The constraint on the head operates on a reference point between the eyes, oriented forwards of the head. The head constraint positions only the head, using the neck. The constraint on the eyes rotates only the eyeballs. The eyeballs rotate side to side and up and down in their sockets. The behavioral parameters control the head and eyes independently during postural adjustments. The active behaviors described below simulate the coupling between head and eye movement. 4.1. AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR POSTURAL CONTROL 107 set head behavior xate head xate eyes release head release eyes Table 4.4: Head Behaviors. set hand behavior hands on hips hands on knees hold global location hold local location release hands hand on site grab object Table 4.5: Hand Behaviors. The xate head behavior option of the set head behavior command allows the user to select a xation point for the head. The xate eyes behavior does the same for the eyes. When these behaviors are active, the head and eyes will automatically adjust to remain focused on the xation point as the body moves. The Position and Orientation of the Hands The principal control for the hands involves holding them at particular points in space as the body moves. Postural control of the arms and hands is usually a two step process. First, get the hands into position using the active manipulation facilities, and second, set a control to keep them there as some other part of the body moves. The hold global location and hold local location behaviors serve much the same for the hands as their counterparts for the feet. The desired geometric positions and orientations are either global or local to some other object. The set hand behavior command provides several standard postures. For a standing gure, a pleasing reference point is the gure's hips. The hands rest on the hips with the elbows out to the side, the arms akimbo posture. For a seated position, a pleasing reference point is the gure's knees. The site behavior moves the hand to a particular site, in both position and orientation. This simulates a reaching movement, but its real purpose is to hold the hand there once it reaches the site. The controls for the hands are invoked whenever the body moves or whenever an object to which the hand is constrained changes location. A good 108 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL analogy is holding onto an object such as a doorknob. If the door closes, the arm goes with it. Likewise, if the body bends over, the door stays xed and the arm adjusts accordingly. Jack also allows the converse relationship which is more suited to the way a person holds a screwdriver. A screwdriver is controlled completely by the hand and is not xed in space in the same sense as the door. If the body bends over, the screwdriver should move along with the arm, not remain in place like the doorknob. This type of a relationship comes from the grab object behavior. Grab" in this context does not mean grasp"; it doesn't mean the ngers will wrap around the object. Such an action is available as a type of motion Section 4.2.7. It actually means that the object will subsequently be attached to the gure's hand, as if the gure grabbed it. Once again, the process has two-steps: rst, position the hand and the object relative to each other, then specify the grab behavior to hold it there. The constraints on the hands are logically separate from the other constraints on the body. Jack evaluates the hand constraints after the other constraints, not simultaneously. The reasons for structuring the arm behaviors this way are partly practical and partly philosophical. In practice, the inverse kinematics algorithm does not perform well when the hand constraint is considered collectively with the other body constraints. With the human gure rooted through the toes, there are too many DOFs between the toes and the hands to be controlled e ectively. Even though the constraints on the pelvis, center of mass, and opposite foot help to resolve this redundancy, if the hand constraint is on equal par with the other parts of the body, the hand constraint can frequently cause the other constraints to be pulled away from their goals. Since the potential energy function describing the equilibrium state for the gure is a weighted combination of all of the constraints, the center of mass and pelvis constraints must have signi cantly higher weight to avoid having the hand pull the body o balance. It has been di cult to arrive at a set of weights which give the right behavior. It has been much easier to simply localize the movements of the arms and isolate them from the rest of the body. Philosophically, it is acceptable to consider the arm movements independently as well. Normally, a reaching task does not initiate much movement of the lower body, unless there are explicit instructions to do so. For example, consider what happens when a human being reaches for a nearby object such as a doorknob. If the door is near enough, this won't involve any bending of the waist, but if the door is farther away, it may be necessary to bend the waist. If the door is farther away still, it may be necessary to squat or counter-balance by raising a leg backwards. This system of behaviors requires an explicit control specifying which approach the gure takes. If the torso must bend or the center of mass must shift in order to perform a reaching task, then the user, or some higher level behavior function, must initiate it. Automatic generation of these intermediate postures is non-trivial. We discuss two rather di erent approaches in Sections 5.4 and 5.5. 4.1. AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR POSTURAL CONTROL 109 The Knees and Elbows The knees and elbows require special care to prevent them from becoming locked at full extension. The fully extended position not only appears awkward, but it tends to cause the inverse kinematics algorithm to get trapped in a local minimum. Because the algorithm uses a gradient descent approach, if an elbow or knee reaches its limit, it has a tendency to stay there1 . To prevent this, Jack uses limit spring constraints to discourage the knees and elbows from reaching their limiting value. The springs give a high energy level to the fully extended angle. The springs can be tuned to any angle, but the default is 10 , and in practice, this tends to work well. This gives the gure in its natural standing position a more pleasing posture, more like at ease" than attention". Biomechanics literature describes this in terms of the stresses on the muscles Car72 . Labanotation uses this posture as the default: the elbows are neither bent nor stretched" Hut70 and, in the middle level of support, the knees are straight but not taut" Hut70 . The Pelvis The pelvis and torso are intricatedly related. The torso includes all joints in the spine from the waist to the neck, and rotating these joints allows the gure to bend over. However, when human beings bend over, they generally bend their pelvis as well as their torso. This means manipulating the two hip joints as a unit, which can be a problem for a computer model because there is no single xed point below the hips from which to rotate. However, this problem is easy to handle by controlling the orientation of the pelvis through a constraint. 4.1.2 Passive Behaviors Passive behaviors can represent more complex relationships than the behavioral parameters. They are like little processes attached to each gure. The passive behavior functions are executed at each interactive iteration. A passive behavior can involve a global property of the gure such as the center of mass or the shape of the gure's support polygon. An example of this kind of behavior is the parametrization of the distribution of the weight between the gure's feet: when the feet move, the balance behavior function must compute the proper location for the balance point and register this with the constraint on the center of mass. Passive behaviors are instantaneous in that they explicitly de ne a relationship to be computed at each iteration. Passive behaviors are easy to implement in this basic system architecture because their only job is to compute the necessary global information and supply it to the behavioral controls. Because of the general nature of the inverse 1 Essentially the algorithm sees a zero gradient and hence nds no advantage to moving the locked joint as that does not decrease the overall distance to the goal: the required motion is in fact exactly perpendicular to the aligned segments. 110 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL kinematics constraints, the behaviors can overlap to a degree not possible with other systems, like Zeltzer's local motion processes Zel82, Zel84 . Currently, Jack has implemented six basic passive behavior functions for human gures, and they illustrate a range of capabilities. They control the location of the balance point, the orientation of the feet, the orientation of the pelvis, and the orientation of the hands. The nal two behaviors control the gure root. Balance as a Passive Behavior Probably the most important human postural behavior, and the one demanding the most coordination, is balance. The need to remain balanced dictates much of the subtle and elusive behavior of a human gure. The location of the balance point of a gure is signi cant in both cause and e ect. The location of the balance point is dependent on other parts of the gure, namely, the feet. Also, the balance point sends information to the other parts of the body regarding the gure's state of balance. Requiring a process to handle balance in a global fashion was recognized long ago BS79, BOK80 , but signi cant progress in computer interactivity and posture behavior algorithms was needed to realize that design. To parametrize the location of the balance point with respect to the feet we use the balance line, which is the line between a xed reference point in the middle of each foot. Biomechanics literature Car72 states that in the standing rest position, the body's vertical line passes 2-5cm in front of the ankle joint, midway through the arch of the foot. This line between the feet divides the support polygon down the middle. Given the location of the center of mass, the balance point parameters, call them x and z , can be determined as shown in Figure 4.2. To do this, project the balance point on the y = 0 plane and call the point b. Then nd the point on the balance line closest to this point, and call it p. z is the distance between b and p, that is, the balance point's distance forward from the balance line. However, it is more convenient to normalize z between 0.0 and 1.0 according to the placement of b between the balance line and the front edge of the support polygon. Therefore, if z 1 then the balance point lies outside the support polygon. If the balance point is behind the balance line, then let z be normalized between -1.0 and 0.0. Likewise, x is the interpolation factor which gives p in terms of the left and right foot reference points, normalized between 0.0 and 1.0, with x = 0 being the left foot. If x is outside of the 0; 1 , then the balance point is to the side of the support polygon. Once the system has the ability to measure balance, these parameters are available for the behavior functions to use. The balance point follows feet behavior, described in Section 4.1.2, falls directly out of this parametrization. This behavior causes the distribution of weight between the feet to remain constant even as the feet move. The active stepping behavior take step when losing balance, described in Section 4.1.3, uses this parameter as its trigger. 4.1. AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR POSTURAL CONTROL 111 b z x p Figure 4.2: The Parametrization of the Balance Point. Global E ects of Local Manipulations Another capability of the passive behaviors in this system is to telegraph changes in the posture of a local part of the gure to the rest of the gure as a whole. This can provide coordination between the di erent parts of the gure. The behavioral parameters as described above generally hold the di erent parts of the gure in place, but sometimes it is better to have them move automatically. A good example of this is the pelvis follows foot orientation behavior, described in Section 4.1.2, in which the orientation of the pelvis automatically adjusts to the orientation of the feet. Whenever the feet change orientation, they radiate the change to the pelvis which mimics the rotational spring-like behavior of the legs. Negotiating Position and Orientation The passive behaviors o er a solution to the problem of negotiating the overlapping in uence of position and orientation while interactively dragging part of the body. Because of the nature of the direct manipulation technique described in Section 3.1, it is not possible to rotate and translate during a single movement of the mouse. This has come up before, in Section 3.2.5: either the dragging procedure has no control over orientation, in which case the orientation is arbitrary and unpredictable, or the dragging procedure does have control over orientation, in which case the orientation remains globally xed during spurts of translation. Fixing the orientation during translation can, for example, cause the hand to assume an awkward orientation as it is translated. Passive behavior functions allow the direct manipulation operator to have control over the orientation and avoid awkward orientations. While the user is translating with the mouse, the behavior function can automatically determine a suitable orientation based on heuristic observations. While rotating, the user has complete control over the orientation. The heuristics can simply 112 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL be embedded in the behavior functions Section 2.4. The pair of behaviors foot orientation follows balance line and hands maintain consistent orientation, use heuristics taken from Labanotation to predict suitable orientations for the hands and the feet during their manipulation. This allows the user to position them mostly by translating them, making changes to the orientation only as necessary. The Figure Root One passive behavior deserves special attention: the gure root. The principal disadvantage of modeling an articulated gure as a hierarchy is that one point on the gure must be designated as the gure root. Section 3.2.3 explains the e ect of the gure root on the inverse kinematics algorithm: the positioning algorithm itself cannot move the gure root. It can only manipulate chains emanating from the root. Any movement of the gure root must be programmed explicitly. Therefore, a major element of Peabody is the ability to change the setting of the gure root when necessary. The gure root" is an unnatural concept. It has no natural analog for a mobile gure like a human being, so it has no place in the language for controlling human gures. Since it is a necessary internal concept, can it be controlled internally as well? For certain postures of a human gure, there are distinct reference points on the gure which serve as good gure roots: the feet, the lower torso, and the center of mass. It should be possible to have the system choose these automatically and thus make the root transparent to the user. There are several possibilities for the gure root of a human gure. Many systems which don't have the ability to change the root choose to locate it at the lower torso BKK+ 85 . However, this complicates the process of moving the lower torso during balance adjustments. Using this approach, it can be very di cult to get the gure to bend over convincingly because the hips need to shift backwards and downwards in ways that are di cult to predict. However, for a seated posture, the lower torso is a good choice for the root. When a gure is standing, the feet are natural choices for the root. The choice of the gure root can be handled by designing a behavior function which monitors the gure's posture and automatically changes the gure root when necessary to provide the best behavior. This behavior function uses the following rules: It roots the gure through a foot whenever the weight of the body is more than 60 on that foot. This ensures that if the gure is standing with more weight on one leg than the other, the supporting leg serves as the root. It also ensures that if the gure is standing with weight equally between the two legs but possibly swaying from side to side that the root doesn't rapidly vacillate between the legs. If the height of the center of mass above the feet dips below 70 of the length of the leg, then the root changes to the lower torso. This 4.1. AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR POSTURAL CONTROL 113 predicts that the gure is sitting down. Heuristically, this proves to be a good choice even if the gure is only squatting, because the constraint on the non-support leg tends to behave badly when both knees are bent to their extremes. Balance Point Follows Feet Labanotation has a notion for the distribution of the weight between the feet and the shifting of the weight back and forth Hut70 . This notion is wellde ned regardless of the position of the feet: after specifying the distribution of weight between the feet, this proportion should remain xed even if the placement of the feet need adjustment during a postural manipulation. This is the job of the balance point follows feet behavior. Given these two parameters, a new balance point can be computed based on any new position of the feet. Holding these parameters xed as the feet move ensures that the balance point maintains the same relationship to the feet, both laterally and in the forward backward direction. Foot Orientation Follows Balance Line During the active manipulation of the feet with the move foot command, the user can intersperse translations and rotations of the feet, centered around the toes. Since it is not possible to rotate and translate during a single movement, either the dragging procedure has no control over orientation, in which case the orientation is arbitrary and unpredictable, or the dragging procedure does have control over orientation, in which case the orientation remains globally xed during spurts of translation. The foot orientation follows balance line behavior o ers a convenient alternative. The solution which the behavior o ers is to predict the proper orientation of the foot based on the balance line and adjust the orientation automatically as the foot is translated with the move foot command. The balance line, as described above, is an imaginary line between the middle of the feet. Actually, this rule xes the orientation of the foot with respect to the balance line. As the foot translates, the balance line changes, and the orientation of the foot changes to keep the same relative orientation. This behavior is particularly appropriate when the gure is taking a step forward with the intention of turning to the side. Pelvis Follows Feet Orientation The muscles in the leg make the leg act like a rotational spring. The hip and ankle joints provide only a little more than 90 of rotation in the leg around the vertical axis. This means that the orientation of the feet and the orientation of the pelvis are linked together. If the orientation of the feet are xed, the orientation of the pelvis is severely limited. What is more, the extreme limits of pelvis orientation place an uncomfortable twist on the legs. If the legs are rotational springs, then the middle" orientation of the 114 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL pelvis can be determined by simply averaging the orientation of the feet. This seems to be in fact what happens when a person stands naturally: the pelvis is oriented to relieve stress on the legs. The pelvis follows feet orientation behavior simulates this. Hands Maintain Consistent Orientation The same problem with the orientation of the feet during the move foot command occurs with the hands with the move hand command. In fact, the problem is more intricate because the hands have a much greater range of movement than the feet. How is the orientation of the hand related to its position? How can this be determined automatically in order to predict reasonable postures when moving the hands? Labanotation suggests an answer. Labanotation has a detailed system for describing arm postures and gestures, but what is most interesting here is what the notation does not say. To simplify the syntax, Labanotation has a standard set of orientations for the palms when the arms are in speci c positions. Notations need be made only when the orientations di er from these defaults. The rules are Hut70 : When the arms hang by the side of the body, the palms face in. When the arms are raised forward or upward, the palms face towards each other. When the arms are raised outward to the side, the palms face forward. When the arms cross the body, the palms face backward. These rules are useful as defaults, but of course they do not dictate absolute behavior. These rules govern the orientation of the hands when the user translates them from one area to another without specifying any orientational change. These rules only take e ect when the hand moves from one region to another. Root Through Center of Mass Most of the behaviors described so far are only appropriate for standing gures, which of course means that they are also only appropriate for earthbound gures. But what about gures in zero-gravity space? This is actually quite easy to simulate by rooting the gure through the center of mass and disabling all other behaviors. The one constant element of zero-gravity is the center of mass. When the gure is rooted through the center of mass, the global location of the center of mass remains xed as the gure moves. 4.1.3 Active Behaviors Active behaviors mimic re exive responses to certain conditions in the body. They can have temporal elements, so they can initiate movements of parts of 4.1. AN INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR POSTURAL CONTROL 115 the body which last for a certain duration. These behaviors make use of the concept of a motion primitive. A motion primitive has a distinct duration in terms of interactive iterations, and it typically involves a constraint which changes over this time interval. An example of this is the stepping movement of the feet which is initiated when the gure's center of mass leaves its support area. The interactive system architecture maintains a list of currently triggered active behaviors, and it advances them at each iteration until they are complete. The behaviors terminate themselves, so the duration can be explicit in terms of a number of interactive iterations, or they can continue until a certain condition is met. Active behaviors are like motor programs, or schemas Kee82, Ros91, Sch82b, Sch82a . Considerable physiological and psychological evidence suggests the existence of motor programs, which are preprogrammed motor response to certain conditions. The theory of schemas suggests that humans and animals have catalogs of preprogrammed motor responses that are red o to produce coordinated movements in the body. Schemas are parametrized motor programs which can be instantiated with di erent settings. For some motor programs, there even seems to be very little feedback involved. Evidence of this comes from experiments which measure the excitation of the muscles of the arm during reaching exercises. The patterns of excitation remain constant even if the movement of the hand is impeded Ros91 . The incorporation of active behaviors into the postural control process begins to blur the distinction between motion and manipulation. The purpose of the behaviors is predictive: if the user drags the center of mass of a gure away from the support polygon, this probably means that the desired posture has the feet in a di erent location. The job of the active behavior is to anticipate this and hopefully perform the positioning task automatically. There are two active behaviors, both involving the placement of the feet. The take step when losing balance and take step when pelvis is twisted behaviors automatically reposition the feet just before the gure loses its balance. They use the balance point parameters described above as their triggers. The purpose of these behaviors is to predict a proper posture for the gure given that its center of mass is leaving the support polygon. Active behaviors can be used to simulate movement even in the context of postural control. The entire process of interactive postural control can serve as a good approximation to motion anyway. The active behaviors provide a way in which motion primitives can be incorporated into the interactive system. To do this more e ectively, the interactive system needs a more sophisticated notion of time and timed events Section 4.3. Take Step When Losing Balance This behavior res a stepping response to the loss of balance of a gure. When this behavior is active, it monitors the parametrization of the balance point of the gure as described with the balance point follows feet behavior. If the balance point leaves the support polygon to the front or back, the behavior 116 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL move foot move center of mass bend torso rotate pelvis move hand move head move eyes Table 4.6: The Manipulation Primitives. moves the non-support foot forward or backward to compensate. The nonsupport foot in this case is the one which bears less weight. The behavior computes the new foot location such that the current balance point will lie in the middle of the new support polygon once the foot arrives there. If the balance point leaves the support polygon to the side, the stepping motion moves the support foot instead. In this case, the support foot is the only one which can be repositioned in order to maintain balance. Take Step When Pelvis Is Twisted The discussion of the pelvis follows feet orientation behavior above described the relationship between the global orientations of the feet and pelvis, particularly in terms of determining an orientation for the pelvis from the orientation of the feet. The opposite relationship is possible as well. Consider standing with your feet slightly apart, and then begin to twist your body to the right. After about 45 of rotation, your legs will not be able to rotate any more. In order to continue rotating, you will be forced to take a step, a circular step with either your left or right foot. The take step when pelvis twisted behavior mimics this. When it senses that the orientation of the pelvis is near its limit relative to the feet, it repositions the non-support foot in an arc in front of or behind the other foot, twisted 90 . 4.2 Interactive Manipulation With Behaviors This section discusses the Jack manipulation primitives, but in the process it describes the entire manipulation process, including the e ect of all of the implemented behaviors. The e ect of the manipulation commands cannot be treated in isolation. In fact, the very nature of the system of behaviors implies that nothing happens in isolation. This discussion serves as a good summary of these techniques because these are the commands Table 4.6 which the user uses the most. These are the verbs in the postural control language. 4.2. INTERACTIVE MANIPULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 117 The interactive postural control vocabulary includes manipulation primitives which allow the user to push, poke, and twist parts of the body, and behavior controls which govern the body's response. The manipulation commands are su ciently intuitive to provide good handles on the gure, and the behavioral controls make the responses reasonable. The structure of the behaviors for human gures did not come out of a magic hat. The rationale behind the behaviors comes partially from biomechanics and physiology literature, and partially from the semantics of movement notations such as Labanotation. Labanotation provides a good set of default values for the behaviors because it incorporates so many assumptions about normal human movement. 4.2.1 The Feet The feet can be moved with the active manipulation command move foot. This command allows the user to drag the foot interactively. This automatically transfers the support of the gure to the other foot, provided the gure is standing. The control over the position of the feet is straightforward. The manipulation operator also gives control over the orientation. However, while translating the foot, its orientation depends upon the foot orientation behavior. The default behavior maintains a constant global orientation. The foot orientation follows balance line behavior causes the orientation of the foot to remain xed with respect to the balance line during translation. This means that if the foot goes forward, it automatically rotates as if the gure is turning toward the direction of the stationary foot. The move foot command automatically causes a change in the balance point according to the balance point follows feet behavior, which is the default. This means that the distribution of weight between the feet will remain constant as the foot moves. The location of the balance point within the support polygon, both side to side and forwards backwards, will remain xed as the support polygon changes shape. This is evident in Figure 4.3. The balance point shifts along with the foot. If this behavior is disabled, the balance point will remain xed in space. Manipulating the feet also telegraphs a change to the pelvis according to the pelvis follows foot orientation behavior, which is the default. This means that as the foot rotates, the pelvis automatically rotates as well. This keeps the body turned in the direction of the feet. 4.2.2 The Center of Mass and Balance The move center of mass command allows the user to interactively drag the balance point of the gure, shifting its weight back and forth or forward and backward. This command changes the parametrization of the balance point in terms of the feet. If the balance point follows feet behavior is active, then when the move center of mass command terminates, the balance point will remain at its new location relative to the support polygon. 118 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL Figure 4.3: Moving the Left Foot, with Balance Point Following Feet. The location of the balance point has a great e ect on the feet. If the foot behavior is pivot, then shifting the weight laterally back and forth will cause the feet to twist back and forth as well. On the other hand, if the feet do not pivot, then they remain planted, possibly inhibiting the movement of the balance point. In Figure 4.4, the feet are held in place, not pivoting. The move center of mass command also gives control over the elevation of the center of mass. Normally, the elevation of the center of mass is not controlled explicitly, except through the hold current elevation behavior option to the set balance behavior command. The move center of mass command gives control over the elevation, so moving the center of mass up and down allows the gure to stand on its tip-toes or squat down. Figure 4.5 shows the center of mass being lowered into a squatting posture. The constraint on the pelvis ensures that the hips remain square and straight. The movement of the center of mass also tends to trigger the rooting behavior. This is mostly transparent, but to the trained eye, it is apparent in the movement of the feet. The support foot the rooted one is always very stationary. The manipulation of the center of mass is the main instigator of the active stepping behavior. While the stepping behavior is active, if the balance point reaches the perimeter of the support polygon, the feet are automatically repositioned by the stepping behavior. Figure 4.6 illustrates the stepping behavior as the center of mass is dragged forward. When this occurs, the visual impression is of the gure being pulled and taking a step just to prevent a fall; it does not look like the gure is deliberately trying to walk somewhere. In Section 5.2 more purposeful stepping and walking behaviors are utilized. 4.2. INTERACTIVE MANIPULATION WITH BEHAVIORS Figure 4.4: Shifting the Center of Mass. Figure 4.5: Lowering the Center of Mass. 119 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL 120 Figure 4.6: Taking a Step before Losing Balance. 4.2.3 The Torso The Jack spine model provides a very important biomechanical feature for e ective human behavioral control. Each vertebra has a current position dened by the three joint angles relative to its proximal vertebra. Also de ned in the spinal database are joint rest positions and 6 joint limits for every joint. If each attribute is summed up for all joints, then 3D vectors are de ned for current position, joint rest position, and two joint limits for the global spine. The target position the 3D vector sum of nal joint positions is supplied as an input parameter. Movement towards the target position is either bending or unbending, meaning either towards the joint limits or towards the spine's rest position. Motion is de ned as an interpolation between the current position and either the spine's position of maximum limit, or the spine's rest position. Three rotations are calculated independently and then merged into one. For example, a 3D orientation vector e.g. ex 45 degrees, rotate axially 20 degrees left, and lateral bend 15 degrees right can be accomplished in one function with 3 loop iterations. It is assumed for the model that the maximum vertebral joint limit in one dimension will not a ect the joint limits of another dimension. The spine's rest position is included in the model, because it is a position of high comfort and stability. If the spine is unbending in one dimension of movement, it will move towards that position of highest comfort in that rotational dimension. The input parameters listed in Section 2.3 determine how much each vertebra bends as the spine moves. The three dimensions are 4.2. INTERACTIVE MANIPULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 121 done separately, then combined for the nal posture. A participation vector is derived from the spine's current position, target position, and maximum position. This global participation represents a 3D vector of the ratio of spine movement to the maximum range of movement. Participation is used to calculate the joint weights. The following formulas are de ned in each of three DOFs. Let Target = spine target position Current = spine current position Max = spine sum of joint limits Rest = spine sum of joint rest positions. If the spine is bending, then the participation P is , Current P = Target, Current : Max Otherwise, the spine is unbending and Current P = Target ,Current : Rest , The joint positions of the entire spine must sum up to the target position. To determine how much the joint participates, a set of weights is calculated for each joint. The participation weight is a function of the joint number, the initiator joint, and the global participation derived above. Also, a resistance weight is based on the resistor joint, degree of resistance, and global participation. To calculate the weight for each joint i, let: ji = joint position limiti = the joint limit resti = the rest position pi = participation weight ri = resistance weight. If the spine is bending, then wi = pi  ri  limiti , ji ; while if the spine is unbending, wi = pi  ri  resti , ji : CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL 122 The weights range from 0 to 1. A weight of k means that the movement will go k of the di erential between the current position and either the joint limit for bending or the joint rest position for unbending. To understand resistance, divide the spine into two regions split at the resistor joint. The region of higher activity contains the initiator. Label these regions active and resistive. The e ect of resistance is that joints in the resistive region will resist participating in the movement speci ed by the parameter degree of resistance. Also, joints inbetween the initiator and resistor will have less activity depending on the degree of resistance. Resistance does not freeze any of the joints. Even at 100 resistance, the active region will move until all joints reach their joint limits. Then, if there is no other way to satisfy the target position, the resistive region will begin to participate. If the desired movement is from the current position to one of two maximally bent positions, then the weights calculated should be 1.0 for each joint participating. The algorithm interpolates correctly to either maximally bent position. It also interpolates correctly to the position of highest comfort. To calculate the position of each joint i after movement succeeds, let: ji = joint position ji = new joint position Target = spine target position Current = spine current position M = Target , Current = incremental movement of the spine. Then Mw ji = ji + P wi ; i and it is easy to show that P j  = Target : i P P Mw ji = ji + P wii  Pj +P P i Mw =i wi P = Current + M P wii w = Current + M = Target: The bend torso command positions the torso using forward kinematics, without relying on a dragging mechanism. It consists of potentiometers which control the total bending angle along the three DOFs. The command also 4.2. INTERACTIVE MANIPULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 123 prompts for the avor of bending. These controls are the same as for the set torso behavior command described above. They include options which specify the range of motion of the spine, de ned through a top and bottom joint, along with initiator and resistor joints which control the weighting between the vertebrae. Bending the torso tends to cause large movements of the center of mass, so this process has a great e ect on the posture of the gure in general, particularly the legs. For example, if the gure bends forward, the hips automatically shift backwards so that the gure remains balanced. This is illustrated in Figure 4.7. 4.2.4 The Pelvis The rotate pelvis command changes the global orientation of the hips. This can curl the hips forwards or backwards, tilt them laterally, or twist the entire body around the vertical axis. The manipulation of the pelvis also activates the torso behavior in a pleasing way. Because of its central location, manipulations of the pelvis provide a powerful control over the general posture of a gure, especially when combined with the balance and keep vertical torso constraints. If the torso is kept vertical while the pelvis curls underneath it, then the torso curls to compensate for the pelvis. This is shown in Figure 4.8. The rotate pelvis command can also trigger the active stepping behavior if the orientation reaches an extreme angle relative to the feet. 4.2.5 The Head and Eyes The move head and move eyes commands manipulate the head and eyes, respectively, by allowing the user to interactively move a xation point. The head and eyes both automatically adjust to aim toward the reference point. The head and eyes rotate as described in Section 4.1.1. 4.2.6 The Arms The active manipulation of the arm allows the user to drag the arm around in space using the mechanism described in Section 3.2.5. These movements utilize the shoulder complex as described in Section 2.4 so that the coupled joints have a total of three DOFs. Figure 4.10 shows the left hand being moved forwards. Although it seems natural to drag this limb around from the palm or ngertips, in practice this tends to yield too much movement in the wrist and the wrist frequently gets kinked. The twisting scheme helps, but the movements to get the wrist straightened out can interfere with an acceptable position for the arm. It is much more e ective to do the positioning in two steps, the rst positioning the arm with the wrist xed, and the second rotating the hand into place. Therefore, our active manipulation command for the arms can control the arm either from a reference point in the palm or from the lower 124 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL Figure 4.7: Bending the Torso while Maintaining Balance. Figure 4.8: Rotating the Pelvis while Keeping the Torso Vertical. 4.2. INTERACTIVE MANIPULATION WITH BEHAVIORS Figure 4.9: Moving the Head. Figure 4.10: Moving the Hand. 125 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL 126 end of the lower arm, just above the wrist. This process may loosely simulate how humans reach for objects, for there is evidence that reaching involves two overlapping phases, the rst a ballistic movement of the arm towards the required position, and the second a correcting stage in which the orientation of the hand is ne-tuned Ros91 . If the target for the hand is an actual grasp, then a specialized Jack behavior for grasping may be invoked which e ectively combines these two steps. 4.2.7 The Hands and Grasping Jack contains a fully articulated hand. A hand grasp capability makes some reaching tasks easier RG91 . The grasp action requires a target object and a grasp type. The Jack grasp is purely kinematic. It is a considerable convenience for the user, however, since it virtually obviates the need to individually control the 20 DOFs in each hand. For a grasp, the user speci es the target object and a grip type. The user chooses between a prede ned grasp site on the target or a calculated transform to determine the grasp location. A distance o set is added to the site to correctly position the palm center for the selected grip type. The hand is preshaped to the correct starting pose for the grip type selected, then the palm moves to the target site. The ve grip types implemented are the power, precision, disc, small disc, and tripod Ibe87 . The grips di er in how the hand is readied and where it is placed on or near the object. Once these actions are performed, the ngers and thumb are just closed around the object, using collision detection on the bounding box volume of each digit segment to determine when to cease motion. 4.3 The Animation Interface 2 The Jack animation system is built around the concept of a motion, which is a change in a part of a gure over a speci c interval of time. A motion is a rather primitive notion. Typically, a complex animation consists of many distinct motions, and several will overlap at each point in time. Motions are created interactively through the commands on the motion menu and the human motion menu. There are commands for creating motions which control the placement of the feet, center of mass, hands, torso, arms, and head. Jack displays motions in an animation window. This window shows time on a horizontal axis, with a description of the parts of each gure which are moving arranged vertically. The time interval over which each motion is active is shown as a segment of the time line. Each part of the body gets a di erent track. The description shows both the name of the gure and the name of the body part which is moving. The time line itself displays motion attributes graphically, such as velocity control and relative motion weights. 2 Paul Diefenbach. 4.3. THE ANIMATION INTERFACE 127 The numbers along the bottom of the animation grid are the time line. By default, the units of time are in seconds. When the animation window rst appears, it has a width of 3 seconds. This can be changed with the arrows below the time line. The horizontal arrows scroll through time keeping the width of the window constant. The vertical arrows expand or shrink the width of the window, in time units. The current animation time can be set either by pressing the middle mouse button in the animation window at the desired time and scrolling the time by moving the mouse or by entering the current time directly through the goto time. Motions actually consist of three distinct phases, although this is hidden from the user. The rst stage of a motion is the pre-action step. This step occurs at the starting time of the motion and prepares the gure for the impending motion. The next stage is the actual motion function itself, which occurs at every time interval after the initial time up to the ending time, inclusive. At the ending time after the last incremental motion step, the post-action is activated disassociating the gure from the motion. Because of the concurrent nature of the motions and the possibility of several motions a ecting the behavior of one moving part, these three stages must occur at each time interval in the following order: motion, post-action, pre-action. This allows all ending motions to nish before initializing any new motions a ecting the same moving part. While the above description implies that body part motions are controlled directly, this is not the true behavior of the system. The animation system describes postures through constraints, and the motions actually control the existence and parameters of the constraints and behaviors which de ne the postures. Each motion has a set of parameters associated with it which control the behavior of the motion. These parameters are set upon creation of the motion and can be modi ed by pressing the right mouse button in the animation window while being positioned over the desired motion. This changes or deletes the motion, or turns the motion on or o . Each motion is active over a speci c interval in time, delimited by a starting time and an ending time. Each motion creation command prompts for values for each of these parameters. They may be entered numerically from the keyboard or by direct selection in the animation window. Existing time intervals can be changed analogously. Delimiting times appear as vertical ticks" in the animation window connected by a velocity line. Selecting the duration line enables time shifting of the entire motion. The yellow line drawn with each motion in the animation window illustrates the motion's weight function. Each motion describes movement of a part of the body through a kinematic constraint. The constraint is only active when the current time is between the motion's starting time and ending time. It is entirely possible to have two motions which a ect the same part of the body be active at the same time. The posture which the gure assumes is a weighted average of the postures described by the individual motions. The weights of each constraint are described through the weight functions, which can be of several types: CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL 128 The weight does not change over the life of the constraint. increase The weight starts out at 0 and increases to is maximum at the end time. decrease The weight starts out at its maximum and decreases to 0 at the end time. ease in ease out The weight starts at 0, increases to its maximum halfway through the life of the motion, and then decreases to 0 again at the end time. constant The shape of the yellow line in the animation window illustrates the weight function. The units of the weight are not important. The line may be thought of as an icon describing the weight function. The green line drawn with each motion in the animation window represents the velocity of the movement. The starting point for the motion comes from the current posture of the gure when the motion begins. The ending position of the motion is de ned as a parameter of the motion and is speci ed when the motion is created. The speed of the end e ector along the path between the starting and ending positions is controlled through the velocity function: Constant velocity over the life of the motion. increase The velocity starts out slow and increases over the life of the motion. decrease The velocity starts out fast and decreases over the life of the motion. ease in ease out The velocity starts slow, increases to its maximum halfway through the life of the motion, and then decreases to 0 again at the end time. constant The shape of the green line in the animation window illustrates the velocity function. The scale of the velocity is not important. This line can be thought of as an icon describing the velocity. 4.4 Human Figure Motions The commands on the human motion menu create timed body motions. These motions may be combined to generate complex animation sequences. Taken individually, each motion is rather uninteresting. The interplay between the motions must be considered when describing a complex movement. These motions are also mostly subject to the behavioral constraints previously described. Each one of these commands operates on a human gure. If there is only one human gure present, these commands automatically know to use that gure. If there is more than one human gure, each command will begin 4.4. HUMAN FIGURE MOTIONS 129 by requiring the selection of the gure. Each of these commands needs the starting and ending time of the motion. Default or explicitly entered values may be used. The motion may be repositioned in the animation window using the mouse. A motion is a movement of a part of the body from one place to another. The movement is speci ed in terms of the nal position and the parameters of how to get there. The initial position of the motion, however, is de ned implicitlyin terms of where the part of the body is when the motion starts. For example, a sequence of movements for the feet are de ned with one motion for each foot fall. Each motion serves to move the foot from its current position, wherever that may be, when the motion starts, to the nal position for that motion. 4.4.1 Controlling Behaviors Over Time We have already seen how the posture behavior commands control the e ect of the human movement commands. Their e ect is permanent, in the sense that behavior commands and constraints hold continuously over the course of an animation. The timed" behavior commands on the human behavior menu allow specifying controls over speci c intervals of time. These commands, create timed gure support, create timed balance control, create timed torso control, create time hand control, and create time head control each allow a speci c interval of time as described in Section 4.3 just like the other motion commands. The behavior takes e ect at the starting time and ends with the ending time. At the ending time, the behavior parameter reverts to the value it had before the motion started. 4.4.2 The Center of Mass A movement of the center of mass can be created with the create center of mass motion command. This controls the balance point of the gure. There are two ways to position the center of mass. The rst option positions the balance point relative to the feet by requiring a oating point number between 0.0 and 1.0 which describes the balance point as an interpolation between the left 3 0.0 and right 1.0 foot; thus 0.3 means a point 10 of the way from the left foot to the right. Alternatively, one can specify that the gure is standing with 30 of its weight on the right foot and 70 on the left. The global location option causes the center of mass to move to a speci c point in space. Here Jack will allow the user to move the center of mass to its desired location using the same technique as with the move center of mass command on the human manipulation menu. After choosing the positioning type and entering the appropriate parameters, several other parameters may be provided, including the weight function and velocity. The weight of the motion is the maximum weight of the constraint which controls the motion, subject to the weight function. 130 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL The behavior of the create center of mass motion command depends on the setting of the gure support. It is best to support the gure through the foot which is closest to the center of mass, which is the foot bearing most of the weight. This ensures that the supporting foot moves very little while the weight is on it. The e ect of the center of mass motion depends upon both the setting of the gure support at the time the motion occurs and when the motion is created. For predictable behavior, the two should be the same. For example, if a motion of the center of mass is to take place with the gure seated, then the gure should be seated when the motion is created. The support of the gure can be changed at a speci c moment with the create timed gure support command. This command requires starting and ending times and the gure support, just like the set gure support command. When the motion's ending time is reached, the support reverts to its previous value. 4.4.3 The Pelvis The lower torso region of the body is controlled in two ways: through the center of mass and through the pelvis. The center of mass describes the location of the body. The pelvis constraint describes the orientation of the hips. The hips can rotate over time with the command create pelvis motion. The create pelvis motion command allows the user to rotate the pelvis into the nal position, using the same technique as the rotate pelvis command. It also requires the velocity, and weight functions, and the overall weight. 4.4.4 The Torso The movement of the torso of a gure may be speci ed with the create torso motion. This command permits bending the torso into the desired posture, using the same technique as the move torso command. Like the move torso command, it also prompts for the torso parameters. The create torso motion command requires a velocity function, but not a weight or a weight function because this command does not use a constraint to do the positioning. Because of this, it is not allowable to have overlapping torso motions. After the termination of a torso motion, the vertical torso behavior is turned o . The behavior of the torso can be changed at a speci c moment with the create timed torso control command. This command requires starting time and ending times and the type of control, just like the set torso control command. When the motion's ending time is reached, the behavior reverts to its previous value. 4.4.5 The Feet The gure's feet are controlled through the pair of commands create foot motion and create heel motion. These two commands can be used in conjunction to 4.4. HUMAN FIGURE MOTIONS 131 cause the gure to take steps. The feet are controlled through constraints on the heels and on the toes. The toe constraints control the position and orientation of the toes. The heel constraint controls only the height of the heel from the oor. The position of the heel, and the entire foot, comes from the toes. The commands allow the selection of the right or left foot. The create foot motion command gets the ending position for the foot by the technique of the move foot command. In addition, a height may be speci ed. The motion causes the foot to move from its initial position to its nal position through an arc of a certain elevation. A height of 0 implies that the foot moves in straight-line path. If both the initial and nal positions are on the oor, then this means the foot will slide along the oor. A height of 10cm means the toes will reach a maximum height from the oor of 10cm halfway through the motion. The e ect of the create foot motion command depends upon how the gure is supported. Interactively, the move foot command automatically sets the support of the gure to the moving foot, and the create foot motion command does the same. However, this does not happen during the generation of the movement sequence. The behavior of the feet depends very much on the support of the gure, although the e ect is quite subtle and di cult to de ne. A foot motion can move either the supported or non-supported foot, but it is much better at moving the non-supported one. The general rule of thumb for gure support during a movement sequence is the opposite of that for interactive manipulation: during a movement sequence, it is best to have the support through the foot on which the gure has most of its weight. This will ensure that this foot remains rmly planted. The behavior of the feet can be changed at a speci c moment with the create timed foot control command. This command needs starting and ending times and the type of control, just like the set foot control command. When the motion's ending time is reached, the behavior reverts to its previous value. 4.4.6 Moving the Heels The movement of the foot originates through the toes, but usually a stepping motion begins with the heel coming o the oor. This may be speci ed with the create heel motion command. This command does not ask for a location; it only asks for a height. A height of 0 means on the oor. Usually a stepping sequence involves several overlapping motions. It begins with a heel motion to bring the heel o the oor, and at the same time a center of mass motion to shift the weight to the other foot. Then a foot motion causes the foot to move to a new location. When the foot is close to its new location, a second heel motion causes the heel to be planted on the oor and a second center of mass motion shifts some of the weight back to this foot. CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL 132 4.4.7 The Arms The arms may be controlled through the command create arm motion. This command moves the arms to a point in space or to a reference point such as a site. The arm motion may involve only the joints of the arm or it may involve bending from the waist as well. The command requires the selection of the right or left arm and whether the arm movement is to be con ned to the arm or include a bending of the torso. Arm movements involving the torso should not be combined with a torso movement generated with the create torso motion command. Both of these control the torso in con icting ways. The hand is then moved to the new position in space, using the same technique as the move arm command. The user can specify if this position is relative to a segment; that is, to a global coordinate location or to a location relative to another object. If the location is relative, the hand will move to that object even if the object is moving as the hand moves during the movement generation. 4.4.8 The Hands Hand behavior may also be speci ed over time with the create timed hand control command. The hand can be temporarily attached to certain objects over certain intervals of time. This command requires starting and ending times and the type of control, just like the set torso control command. Objects can be attached to the hands over an interval of time with the create timed attachment command. The timing of the grasp action can be set accordingly. During animation, one can specify the hand grasp site, the approach direction, the starting hand pose, and the sequencing of nger motions culminating in the proper grasp. If one is willing to wait a bit, the hand pose will even be compliant, via collision detection, to changes in the geometry of the grasped object as it or the hand is moved. 4.5 Virtual Human Control 3 We can track, in real-time, the position and posture of a human body, using a minimal number of 6 DOF sensors to capture full body standing postures. We use four sensors to create a good approximation of a human operator's position and posture, and map it on to the articulated gure model. Such real motion inputs can be used for a variety of purposes. If motion data can be input fast enough, live performances can be animated. Several other virtual human gures in an environment can react and move in real-time to the motions of the operator-controlled human gure. 3 Michael Hollick, John Granieri 4.5. VIRTUAL HUMAN CONTROL 133 Figure 4.11: Sensor Placement and Support Polygon. Motion can be recorded and played back for analysis in di erent environments. The spatial locations and motions of various body parts can be mapped onto di erent-sized human gures; for example, a 5th percentile operator's motion can be mapped onto a 95th percentile gure. Virtual inputs can be used for direct manipulation in an environment, using the human gure's own body segments; for example, the hands can grasp and push objects. We use constraints and behavior functions to map operator body locations from external sensor values into human postures. We are using the Flock of Birds from Ascension Technology, Inc. to track four points of interest on the operator. Sensors are a xed to the operator's palms, waist, and base of neck by elastic straps fastened with velcro Fig. 4.11. Each sensor outputs its 3D location and orientation in space. With an Extended Range Transmitter the operator can move about in an 8-10 foot hemisphere. Each bird sensor is connected to a Silicon Graphics 310VGX via a direct RS232 connection running at 38,400 baud. One of the initial problems with this system was slowdown of the simulation due to the sensors. The Silicon Graphics operating system introduces a substantial delay between when data arrives at a port and when it can be accessed. This problem was solved by delegating control of the Flock to a separate server process. This server will con gure the Flock to suit a client's CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL 134 y y y z x x x z z front Lateral front Axial front Flexion Figure 4.12: Extracting the Spine Target Vector needs, then provide the client with updates when requested. The server takes updates from the Birds at the maximum possible rate, and responds to client requests by sending the most recent update from the appropriate Bird. This implementation allows access to the Flock from any machine on the local network and allows the client to run with minimal performance degradation due to the overhead of managing the sensors. The sensors produce about 50 updates per second, of which only about 8 to 10 are currently used due to the e ective frame rate with a shaded environment of about 2000 polygons. The bulk of the computation lies in the inverse kinematics routines. The system must rst be calibrated to account for the operator's size. This can be done in two ways the sensor data can be o set to match the model's size, or the model can be scaled to match the operator. Either approach may be taken, depending on the requirements of the particular situation being simulated. Each frame of the simulation requires the following steps: 1. The pelvis segment is moved as the rst step of the simulation. The absolute position orientation of this segment is given by the waist sensor after adding the appropriate o sets. The gure is rooted through the pelvis, so this sensor determines the overall location of the gure. 2. The spine is now adjusted, using the location of the waist sensor and pelvis as its base. The spine initiator joint, resistor joint, and resistance parameters are xed, and the spine target position is extracted from the relationship between the waist and neck sensors. The waist sensor gives the absolute position of the pelvis and base of the spine, while the rest of the upper torso is placed algorithmically by the model. The spine target position is a 3 vector that can be thought of as the sum of the three types of bending the spine undergoes exion, axial, and lateral. Since the sensors approximate the position orientation of the base and top of the spine, we can extract this information directly. Lateral bending is found from the di erence in orientation along the z axis, axial twisting is found from the di erence in y orientation, and 4.5. VIRTUAL HUMAN CONTROL 135 exion is determined from the di erence in x orientation Fig. 4.12. Note that the front" vectors in this gure indicate the front of the human. This information is composed into the spine target vector and sent directly to the model to simulate the approximate bending of the operator's spine. 3. Now that the torso has been positioned, the arms can be set. Each arm of the gure is controlled by a sensor placed on the operator's palm. This sensor is used directly as the goal of a position and orientation constraint. The end e ector of this constraint is a site on the palm that matches the placement of the sensor, and the joint chain involved is the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joint. 4. The gure's upper body is now completely postured except for the head, so the center of mass can be computed. The active stepping behaviors are used to compute new foot locations that will balance the gure. Leg motions are then executed to place the feet in these new locations. One unique aspect of this system is the absolute measurement of 3D cartesian space coordinates and orientations of body points of interest, rather than joint angles. Thus, while the model's posture may not precisely match the operator's, the end e ectors of the constraints are always correct. This is very important in situations where the operator is controlling a human model of di erent size in a simulated environment. With a fth sensor placed on the forehead, gaze direction can be approximated. Hand gestures could be sensed with readily available hand pose sensing gloves. These inputs would directly control nearly the full range of Jack behaviors. The result is a virtual human controlled by a minimally encumbered operator. 136 CHAPTER 4. BEHAVIORAL CONTROL Chapter 5 Simulation with Societies of Behaviors 1 Recent research in autonomous robot construction and in computer graphics animation has found that a control architecture with networks of functional behaviors is far more successful for accomplishing real-world tasks than traditional methods. The high-level control and often the behaviors themselves are motivated by the animal sciences, where the individual behaviors have the following properties: they are grounded in perception. they normally participate in directing an agent's e ectors. they may attempt to activate or deactivate one-another. each behavior by itself performs some task useful to the agent. In both robotics and animation there is a desire to control agents in environments, though in graphics both are simulated, and in both cases the move to the animal sciences is out of discontent with traditional methods. Computer animation researchers are discontent with direct kinematic control and are increasingly willing to sacri ce complete control for realism. Robotics researchers are reacting against the traditional symbolic reasoning approaches to control such as automatic planning or expert systems. Symbolic reasoning approaches are brittle and incapable of adapting to unexpected situations both advantageous and disastrous. The approach taken is, more or less, to tightly couple sensors and e ectors and to rely on what Brooks Bro90 calls emergent behavior, where independent behaviors interact to achieve a more complicated behavior. From autonomous robot research this approach has been proposed under a variety of names including: subsumption architecture by Bro86 , reactive planning by GL90, Kae90 , situated activity by AC87 , 1 Welton Becket. 137 138 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS and others. Of particular interest to us, however, are those motivated explicitly by animal behavior: new AI by Brooks Bro90 , emergent re exive behavior by Anderson and Donath AD90 , and computational neuro-ethology by Beer, Chiel, and Sterling BCS90 . The motivating observation behind all of these is that even very simple animals with far less computational power than a calculator can solve real world problems in path planning, motion control, and survivalist goal attainment, whereas a mobile robot equipped with sonar sensors, laser-range nders, and a radio-Ethernet connection to a Prolog-based hierarchical planner on a supercomputer is helpless when faced with the unexpected. The excitement surrounding the success of incorporating animal-based control systems is almost revolutionary in tone and has led some proponents such as Brooks Bro90 to claim that symbolic methods are fundamentally awed and should be dismantled. Our feeling, supported by Maes Mae90 , is that neural-level coupling of sensors to e ectors partitioned into functional groupings is essential for the lowest levels of competence to use Brooks' term, though by itself this purely re exive behavior will not be able to capture the long-term planning and prediction behavior exhibited by humans and mammals in general. Association learning through classical conditioning can be implemented, perhaps through a connectionist approach BW90 , though this leads only to passive statistics gathering and no explicit prediction of future events. Our feeling is that symbolic reasoning is not awed, it is just not e cient for controlling real-valued, imprecise tasks directly. The problem with traditional planning is its insistence on constructing complete, detailed plans before executing. Recent research in this area has focused directly on relaxing this constraint by interleaving planning and executing, reusing pieces of plans, delaying planning until absolutely necessary, and dealing directly with uncertainty. The distinction between the symbol manipulation paradigm and the emergent computation paradigm is even blurring|Maes has shown how a traditional means-ends-analysis planner can be embedded in an emergent computation framework, and Shastri Sha88 has shown how simple symbol representation and manipulation can be accomplished in neural networks which can be seen as the most ne-grained form of neuro-physiologically consistent emergent computation. Our strategy for agent construction will be to recognize that some form of symbolic reasoning is at the top motivational level and biologically-based feedback mechanisms are at the bottom e ector level. By putting them in the same programming environment we hope to gain insight into how these extremes connect. Hopefully, the result will be more robust than the harsh, rigid, feedback-devoid distinction between the planner and its directly implemented plan primitives. As will be discussed in Section 5.1.7, however, an important technique for understanding what is missing will be to make premature leaps from high-level plans to low-level behaviors appropriate for simple creatures. This approach is bidirectional and opportunistic. Blind top-down development may never reach the real world and pure bottom-up development faces the horror of an in nite search space with no search heuristic and no 5.1. FORWARD SIMULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 139 clear goals. In this Chapter we rst pursue this notion of societies of behaviors that create a forward reactive simulation of human activity. The remaining Sections present some of the particular behaviors that appear to be crucial for natural tasks, including locomotion along arbitrary planar paths, strength guided motion, collision-free path planning, and qualitative posture planning. 5.1 Forward Simulation with Behaviors Figure 5.1 is a diagram of the control ow of a possible agent architecture. The cognitive model that will manage high-level reasoning is shown only as a closed box. It will not be discussed in this section other than its input output relation | it is the topic of Chapter 6. The importance of encapsulating the cognitive model is that it does not matter for the purposes of this section how it is implemented. Inevitably, there are direct links between the subcomponents of the cognitive model and the rest of the system. However, we believe the level of detail of the current system allows ignoring these links without harm. The components of an agent are: 1. Simulated Perception: this will be discussed in Section 5.1.1, but note that raw perceptual data from the perception module is much higher level than raw data in a machine perception sense | our raw data includes relative positions of objects and their abstract physical properties such as object type and color. In a simulation we have perfect environmental information, so it is the job of the sensors to also simulate realistically limited values. 2. Perceptual A erent Behavior Network: perceptual behaviors that attempt to to nd high-level information from raw sensory data. Typically they respond to focusing signals which change eld of view, thresholds, distance sensitivity, restrictions on type of object sensed, and the like. 3. Cognitive Model: the source of long-range planning and internal motivation activity not triggered directly by perception. 4. E erent Behavior Network: behaviors that derive activation or deactivation signals. Note that the a erent and e erent behavior networks are separated only for organizational convenience | they could actually be one network. 5. Simulated E ectors: attempt to modify objects embedded in the kinematics or dynamics simulation. Although there may be a general feed-forward nature through the above components in order, the connectivity must be a completely connected graph with the following exceptions: 140 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Simulated Perception Perceptual (Afferent) Behaviors Cognitive Model Efferent Behaviors Simulated Effectors Figure 5.1: Abstract Agent Architecture. SimulationCore SimulationParticipant ActionController Behaviors NetObjects KinematicObject JackFigure DynamicObject Figure 5.2: Outline of System Class Hierarchy. 5.1. FORWARD SIMULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 141 1. The cognitive model cannot activate e ectors directly. 2. There is no feedback directly from e ectors | e ector feedback is considered perception usually proprioception, though pain from muscle fatigue is also possible and is thus fed-back through the environment. Raw perceptual information may go directly to the cognitive model or to e erent behaviors, but it is typically routed through perceptual behaviors which derive higher level information and are sensitive to various focusing control signals from the cognitive model, e erent behaviors, or perhaps even other perceptual behaviors. The cognitive model may attempt to re-focus perceptual information through signals to the perceptual behaviors or it may activate or deactivate e erent behaviors in order to accomplish some type of motion or physical change. E erent behaviors may send signals to e ectors, send feedback signals to the cognitive model, or attempt to focus perceptual behaviors. One typical pattern of activity associated with high-level motivation may be that the cognitive model, for whatever reason, wants to accomplish a complex motion task such as going to the other side of a cluttered room containing several moving obstacles. The cognitive model activates a set of e erent behaviors to various degrees, perhaps an object attraction behavior to get to the goal and a variety of obstacle avoidance behaviors. The e erent behaviors then continually activate e ectors based on activation levels from the cognitive model and from information directly from perceptual behaviors. Note that this nal control ow from perception directly to e erent behavior is what is traditionally called feedback control. In another typical pattern of activity, re ex behavior, e erent behavior is initiated directly by perceptual behaviors. Note, however, that especially in high-level creatures such as humans, the cognitive model may be able to stop the re ex arc through a variety of inhibitory signals. 5.1.1 The Simulation Model Rather than implementing models on real robots we will implement and test in detailed simulations that by analogy to the world have a physically-based, reactive environment where some objects in the environment are under the control of agent models that attempt to move their host objects. For the agent modeler, the main advantage to testing in simulations is the ability to abstract over perception. Because agents are embedded in a simulation, they can be supplied with the high-level results of perception directly, abstracting over the fact that general machine perception is not available. At one extreme agents can be omniscient, having exact information about positions, locations, and properties of all objects in the environment, and at the other extreme they can be supplied with a color bitmap image of what would appear on the agent's visual plane. A good compromise that avoids excessive processing but that also provides for realistically limited perception, is suggested by Rey88 and also by RMTT90 . They use the Z-bu ering hardware 142 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS on graphics workstations or a software emulation to render a bitmap projection of what the agent can see, except that the color of an object in the environment is unique and serves to identify the object in the image. The combination of the resulting image and the Z-bu er values indicate all visible objects and their distances, and this can be used for object location or determination of uncluttered areas. Many models of reactive agents are accompanied by a simulation with 2D graphical output such as AC87, PR90, HC90, VB90 , however, these simulation environments are extreme abstractions over a real environment and assume discrete, two-dimensional, purely kinematic space. Such abstractions are, of course, necessary in initial phases of understanding how to model an intelligent reactive agent, but extended use of a system without real-valued input parameters and immense environmental complexity is dangerous. As will be discussed Section 5.1.3, Simon Sim81 argues that complex behavior is often due to a complex environment, where the agent responds to environmental complexity through simple feedback mechanisms grounded in sensation. When environmental complexity is not present, the agent modeler, noticing the lack of complexity, may commit agent bloating, also discussed in Section 5.1.3, where environmental complexity is accounted for arti cially in the agent model. 5.1.2 The Physical Execution Environment In our model, kinematic and dynamic behavior has been factored out of the agent models and is handled by a separate, commonmechanism. The networks of e erent behaviors controlling a conceptual agent in the environment will request motion by activating various e ectors. The requested movement may not happen due to the agent's physical limitations, collision or contact with the environment, or competition with other behavioral nets. Simulations of agents interacting with environments must execute on reasonably ne-grained physically-based simulations of the world in order to result in realistic, useful animations without incurring what we call the agentbloating phenomenon, where motion qualities arising from execution in physical environment are stu ed into the agent model. One of Simon's central issues Sim81 is that complex behavior is often not the result of a complex control mechanism, but of a simple feedback system interacting with a complex environment. Currently, for simplicity, our animations are done in a kinematic environment one considering only velocity and position and not a dynamic one also considering mass and force. Using only kinematics has been out of necessity since general dynamics models have not been available until recently, and even then are so slow as to preclude even near real time execution for all but the simplest of environments. Kinematic environments are often preferred by some since kinematic motion is substantially easier to control with respect to position of objects since there is no mass to cause momentum, unexpected frictional forces to inhibit motion, and so on. But as we demand more of our agent models we will want them to exhibit properties 5.1. FORWARD SIMULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 143 that result from interaction with a complex physical world with endless, unexpected intricacies and deviations from desired motion. Unless we execute on a physically reactive environment we will experience one form of agent-bloating where we build the physical environment into the agents. If we build an actual simulation model into agents we have wasted space and introduced organizational complexities by not beginning with a common physical environment. If we build the environmental complexity into the agents abstractly, perhaps through statistical models, we will have initial success in abstract situations, but never be able to drive a meaningful, correct, time-stepped simulation with multiple agents interacting with an environment and each other. We do not mean that statistical and other abstract characterizations of behavior are not necessary just that abstract description is essential to understanding how the underlying process works and judging when a model is adequate. The much cited loss of control in dynamic simulations needs to be overcome, and the message of emergent behavior research is that perhaps the most straightforward approach to this is by looking at the plethora of working existence proofs: real animals. Even the simplest of single-celled creatures executes in an in nitely complex physical simulation, and creatures we normally ascribe little or no intelligence to exhibit extremely e ective control and goal-orientedness. Animals do this primarily through societies of feedback mechanisms where the lowest levels are direct sensation and muscle contraction or hormone production or whatever. In our system dynamic simulations should enjoy the following properties: E ectors request movement by applying a force at a certain position to an object. Collisions are detected by the system, which will communicate response forces to those participating in the crash or contact situation. Viscous uid damping is simulated by applying a resistance force opposite and proportionate to instantaneous velocity. For simplicity, and especially when the motion is intended to be abstract, a simulation may still be run on a purely kinematic environment which has the following properties: 1. E ectors request changes in position and orientation, rather than application of force. 2. Every object has some maximum velocity. 3. No motion takes place unless requested explicitly by e ectors. 4. Collisions are resolved by stopping motion along the system's estimated axis of penetration. 5. The system adapts the time increment based on instantaneous velocity and size of object along that object's velocity vector so that no object could pass entirely through another object in one time step. 144 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS The particular physical simulation approach is to use a simple nitedi erence approximation to the equations for elastic solids. Objects are modeled as meshes of point masses connected by springs including cross connections to maintain shape, where tighter spring constants yield more rigid looking bodies. This approach is discussed by Terzopoulos TPBF87 and Miller Mil91 and has the advantage of extreme simplicity and generality. Because it is a discrete approximation to the integral-level" analytical physics equations it can solve many problems for free, though in general the cost is limited accuracy and much slower execution times than the corresponding direct analytical methods the results, however, are not only good enough for animation" but are good enough considering our abstraction level. The model can easily account for phenomena such as collision response, elastic deformation, permanent deformation, breakage, and melting. Finite element analysis yields a better dynamic behavior to the point-mass mesh for accuracy and execution time, but is not as general as the mass spring approach and cannot model breakage and melting. 5.1.3 Networks of Behaviors and Events The insulation of the cognitive model with networks of behaviors relies on emergent computation. It is important to understand, then, why emergent computation works where a strict hierarchy would not, and what problems an emergent computation approach poses for the agent designer and how these problems can be overcome. For simplicity, existing high-level task-simulation environments tend to model activity in strict tree-structured hierarchies, with competition occurring only for end e ectors in simulation models as in Zel82 , or for position of a body component in purely kinematic models. However, for some time behavior scientists and those in uenced by them have argued that although there is observable hierarchy, behavior especially within hierarchical levels is not tree structured but may have an arbitrary graph of in uence Gal80, Alb81 . In particular a theory of behavior organization must anticipate behaviors having more than one parent and cycles in the graph of in uence. The central observation is that in many situations small components communicating in the correct way can gracefully solve a problem where a direct algorithm may be awkward and clumsy. Of course this approach of solving problems by having a massive number of components communicating in the right way is nothing new: cellular automata, fractals, approximation methods, neural networks both real and arti cial, nite-di erence models of elastic solids TPBF87 , simulated annealing, and so on use exactly this approach. The drawback to such massively parallel systems without central control is typically the inability to see beyond local minima. Certainly a high-level planner may periodically exert in uence on various system components in order to pull the system state from a local minimum. The appropriate introduction of randomness into component behavior, however, can help a system settle in a more globally optimal situation. This randomness can be from explicit 5.1. FORWARD SIMULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 145 environmental complexity, introduction of stochastic components, limited or incorrect information, or mutation. This general approach is not limited to low-level interaction with the environment. Minsky proposes a model of high-level cognition in Min86 where a society of agents" interacts organized as a graph to accomplish high-level behavior. Pattie Maes Mae90 has proposed an approach to high-level planning through distributed interaction of plan-transformation rules. Ron Sun proposed a distributed, connectionist approach to non-monotonic reasoning Sun91 . All of these approaches rest on emergent computation | behavior resulting from communication of independent components. Common objections to such an approach are: 1. it is doomed to limited situations through its tendency to get stuck in local minima. 2. in order to implement, it requires an unreasonable amount of weight ddling. The rst objection has already been addressed. The second is a serious concern. Our proposed solution will be to transfer the weight assignment process to some combination of the behavioral system and its environment. An evolution model is one way to do this, as Braitenberg Bra84 does with his vehicles, or as the Arti cial Life eld would do. Another is to combine simple behavioral psychology principles and a connectionist learning model in a creature that wants to maximize expected utility Bec92 , then provide a reinforcement model that punishes the creature whenever it does something wrong like hits something. Making it easy for a human designer to engage in an iterative design and test process is another approach. Wilhelms and Skinner's WS90 system does exactly this by providing a sophisticated user interface and stressing real-time or at least pseudo-real-time simulation of creatures interacting with the environment. However, we will not pursue this approach for the following reasons: Self-supervised weight assignment as agents interact with their environment is clearly more desirable from a simulation point of view, though it sacri ces direct control for realism and ease of use. For reasons discussed in Section 5.1.2, we encourage execution in complex physically-based environments | an emphasis precluding real-time playback on standard displays. 5.1.4 Interaction with Other Models Our approach then, is to control physical simulation with the abstract ndings of the animal sciences, beginning by using the tricks that low-level animals 146 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS use. Low-level animal behavior tends, through its extensive use of environmental feedback, to be incremental | it makes a new decision at every moment considering the current state of the environment. For this reason it is considered reactive because it will incorporate unexpected events in constant time as though they had been planned for in advance. Certainly human behavior exhibits short and long term planning that cannot be explained by purely reactive processes. We hope to discover and elaborate abstraction layers with long-term symbolic planning at the top and feedback mechanisms at the bottom. However, there are countless areas in the neuro-physiological level study of humans that are not well enough understood to allow direct or even abstract implementation. Behavior such as human walking, to our knowledge, cannot be described accurately in terms of feedback from proprioceptive sensors and perhaps the vision system. Many such components of human behavior can, however, be modeled directly by abstract methods and we ought to be able to incorporate these as we progress. These direct methods will often be considerably faster than the corresponding neuro-physiological models which typically rely an massive parallel computation and will not run e ciently on sequential machines. So even if there were a neural-level walking algorithm for humans, in cases where the robustness and correctness of locomotion are unlikely to contribute to the usefulness of the overall simulation, say because the are very few obstacles and the terrain is simple, it would be useful to use the direct method to save time. Algorithms that are designed to manipulate human body parts directly can be incorporated into the described system as long as an approach to con ict resolution is also implemented should there be more than one behavior attempting to control a given body segment this can be weighted averaging, or strict prioritization, or whatever. Since the rest of the system is totally reactive and considers the current state of the environment at every instant, it does not matter whether the physical model, kinematic model, or some other process modi ed a given object. As will be discussed later, if a collision is detected, all behaviors controlling the o enders will be sent messages indicating the points of collision and the impulse forces. For objects that do not have explicit velocity information a velocity is simply computed by looking at the system's current t and how far the object was moved over the previous time step. The receiving behaviors can do whatever they wish with the information | replan, respond to it, ignore it, or anything appropriate. The only di culty is when two objects both controlled by unyielding direct control methods collide | they both will fail to move any further. This can be avoided by keeping the number of objects under direct control limited, or by always implementing some sort of failure recovery method. Since communication is based on contact positions and forces, di erent control approaches can always communicate through their e ects on the environment. Even other physically-based object controllers such as nite element analysis, or direct rigid body dynamics can be incorporated. Direct control mes- 5.1. FORWARD SIMULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 147 sages across computer networks or through operating system pipes to dynamics simulation packages can also be used. Direct manipulation is also possible though there must be a way to compensate for speed di erences if the simulation is running much slower than real time. One way to do this is to have the user move an object while the simulation is frozen, ask the user how long in simulation time that action should take, then use a direct kinematic controller to do a spline-smoothed approximation of the user's motion as the simulation continues. 5.1.5 The Simulator The simulation of intelligent agents interacting with a reactive environment is advanced incrementally in small adaptive time steps. The t for a time 1 slice will be no greater than 30 th of a second the typical video frame rate and can be as small as oating point precision will allow. Typically, kine1 matically controlled objects will update on 30 ths of a second but dynamically controlled objects when experiencing high-impact collisions will want very small time steps. The distinction made in earlier sections between agents and the environment is only conceptual at the simulator level| both components of agent models and components of physical models are considered rst-class participants in a single simulation. Every time step is broken down into a number of synchronizing phases. The synchronizing phases are motivated by Haumann and Parent's behavioral simulation system HP88 , but augmented with features for adaptive time steps. The following messages are broadcast in the given order to every participant on every time step: start This tells participants a time step is beginning. Typically bu ers for collecting messages in the a ect stage are cleared here, and state information is saved in case there is a backup. a ect Participants that attempt to modify the state of other participants may do so here by looking at the state of the environment and sending messages calling for change. However, no participant is allowed to change the appearance of an internal state all calls for change must be bu ered and dealt with in the respond stage. respond Objects are allowed to change their externally accessible state variables, such as position and color for environmental objects or activation level for behavioral network components. data inject Rigid rules, such as static non-interpenetration, are enforced here after objects have had a chance to update themselves. Pure kinematic scripting may be done here also. In addition, at any phase any object may request that the time step be restarted with a smaller time step if it feels the simulation is running too fast. A participant need only suggest a new t, perhaps half the previous t, then 148 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS call for a global backup. All participants are required to store persistent state information in the start phase, and restore this state if a backup is called. Participants may also request new t values without requesting a backup and if no requests are made, the system will try to double the t on every 1 step until it reaches 30 th of a second. The Class Hierarchy An object-oriented approach is natural for implementing such a system, and in order to allow fast execution for interactive development, we chose to use C++. The cognitive model is based on Lisp and Prolog and will communicate through C-callout functions to C++. The class hierarchy is outlined in Figure 5.2. The SimulationCore class manages the clock, the current t, and a list of participants to which it broadcasts synchronizing messages on each time step. SimulationParticipant encapsulates all participants in the simulation. A distinction is made between participants that have spatial qualities the KinematicObj class, which tends to operate in the respond stage and participants that try to modify the state of other participants the ActionController class which operates in both the a ect and respond stages. Objects, actions, and networks The KinematicObj class is broken into a JackFigure class which allows use of the Jack gures. The DynamicObj class is for objects controlled by dynamic simulation and is a subset of kinematic objects because any dynamic object ought to be able to respond to any message intended for a purely kinematic object. ActionControllers are broken down into Behaviors which include perceptual and e erent behaviors discussed above and NetObjects which connect them. Our network package allows general neural network-type constructions, though it is important to note that the system is not a neural network because: the 'neurons' nodes may be of arbitrary complexity. the messages passed along network links may be very complicated, in particular, they can be pointers to objects. Neural networks can be used within behaviors, however, and we have begun experimenting with backpropagation learning FS91, HKP91 and recurrent networks Bec92, Sch90 as ways of learning how to behave. All ActionController instances must respond to messages requesting the start and end time of activation or an indication that the action has not started or ended. This allows general implementation of conditional action sequencing through meta-behaviors that on each time step check to see of a particular action has started or ended or if an action of a particular type has begun or ended. 5.1. FORWARD SIMULATION WITH BEHAVIORS 149 5.1.6 Implemented Behaviors Presently, reactive agents resemble Reynolds' birds Rey87 in that on each time step the agent moves along its local z -axis. E erent behaviors attempt to modify the global orientation of the local z -axis and also determine by how much it will move forward. Our primary perceptual behavior is the Closest-k sensor. Its arguments are the number and type of objects to which it is sensitive. In addition the sensor needs to know what its relative position is to its host environmental object the z -axis of this transformation will be the forward direction. The sensor produces k groups of outputs which will contain information on the closest k objects of the de ned type. Each group will have three oating-point output nodes: the distance from the sensor's current global origin, the angle between the sensor's z -axis and a vector to the detected object's centroid, and the radius of the detected object we currently use bounding cylinders and bounding spheres around objects to simplify calculations. We have found no pressing need yet to construct a corresponding furthest-k sensor. Another perceptual behavior that is not behaviorally motivated, but useful for abstract control is the ObjectSensor that is sensitive only to a particular object in the environment and has outputs similar to a closest-k sensor. The e erent behaviors we have implemented are loosely motivated by neuro-ethological ndings about real creatures and are discussed by Wilhelms and Skinner WS90 in their implementation and abstraction of Braitenberg's Vehicles Bra84 and in Anderson and Donath's emergent re exive behavior system AD90 . What is novel about our behaviors is their dynamically adjustable tuning parameters: 1. threshold distance 2. eld of view angular threshold 3. sensitivity of activation level to distance of object and angular distance of object. Distance from threshold and angle from center scaled by an exponent and a constant both focusing parameters. these can be adjusted directly by the cognitive component or by other behaviors. We have found the following behaviors particularly useful: Attract go toward either closest-k of a certain type of object or a speci c object. Loosely corresponds to teleotaxis in animals Gal80 . Avoid go away from a particular object or from a certain type of object. Also a form of teleotaxis. GoAround uses the incremental obstacle avoidance approach outlined by Reynolds Rey88 , which is based on how birds avoid obstacles while ying. 150 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Achieve go to a particular place or a particular place relative to another object. AttractLine go directly towards a line in space used to follow walls. AvoidLine go directly away from a line in space used to avoid walls. 5.1.7 Simple human motion control An important approach to developing human behaviors is to attempt to apply the behaviors appropriate for low level animals directly to humans and see where they appear awkward in order to understand what is missing. Our initial attempt allows the above e erent and perceptual behaviors to be used directly in a human model except that instead of simply moving along the z axis the human agent attempts to reduce its current and desired headings by taking steps. The stepping is accomplished by using a locomotion algorithm Section 5.2. Our walking algorithm is incremental in that it only needs to know where the next footstep should go and how it should be oriented. Our approach to supplying footsteps clips the di erence between the current and desired headings to 45 degrees and places the next foot to be moved alongside the new heading. Heading is determined by the orientation of the lower torso which is oriented by the walking algorithm. The size of the step is currently based on the curvature of the turn smaller steps for larger turns, though certainly step length should have other in uences. Simulations involving this simple human agent model show very clearly that humans anticipate the e ects of placing the next step perhaps through behavioral gradient estimation rather than blindly following in uences of the current situation. In all complicated situations under the described model the agent tends to oscillate around the behavior gradient. There are other agent behaviors that are in the process of migrating into this behavioral framework. In the next sections we look at locomotion, strength-guided lifting, collision avoidance, and posture planning. 5.2 Locomotion 2 Locomotion provides a tremendous extension of the workspace by moving the body to places where other activities may be accomplished. A locomotion system should provide a reasonable con guration of the gure at any time as it moves along a speci ed input path. There have been many e orts to make this process more realistic and automatic, which can roughly be summarized into two major approaches: kinematic and dynamic controls. Rotoscopy data and biomechanics knowledge can be utilized to control locomotion kinematically, but empirical data must be generalized to get walking under parametric control. A dynamics computation can be done to get the locomotion path and some of the body motion characteristics, but biomechanics knowledge is 2 Hyeongseok Ko. 5.2. LOCOMOTION 151 HS TO HS LEFT LEG TO HS RIGHT LEG DS INTERVAL1 HS=HEELSTRIKE TO=TOE OFF DS=DOUBLE STANCE DS INTERVAL2 Figure 5.3: The Phase Diagram of a Human Walk. useful in determining the details and reducing the complexity of the whole body dynamic system. These two approaches can be applied to get straight path walking. The natural clutter and constraints of a workplace or other environment tend to restrict the usefulness of a straight path so we must generalize walking to curved paths. We have already seen the stepping behavior and the collision avoidance path planning in Jack, so a locomotion capability rounds out the ability of an agent to go anywhere accessible. First we give some necessary de nitions for the locomotion problem, then look at feasible ways of implementing curved path walking. At a certain moment, if a leg is between its own heelstrike beginning and the other leg's heelstrike ending, it is called the stance leg. If a leg is between the other leg's heelstrike beginning and its own heelstrike ending, it is called the swing leg. For example, in Figure 5.3, the left leg is the stance leg during interval 1, and the right leg is the stance leg during interval 2. Thus at any moment we can refer to a speci c leg as either the stance or swing leg with no ambiguity. The joints and segments in a leg will be referenced with pre xes swing or stance: for example, swing ankle is the ankle in the swing leg. Let  = 1 ; : : :; J be the joint angles and  = l1 ; : : :; lS be the links of the human body model. Each i can be a scalar or a vector depending on the ~~ DOFs of the joint. Let  be the sequence of hi ; di; sfi ; lorri; i = 0; 1; : : :; n, where hi is the heel position of the ith foot, di is the direction of the ith foot, sfi is the step frequency of the ith step, and lorri  left" or right" is 0 when the ith foot is left foot and 1 otherwise. The locomotion problem is to nd the function f that relates  and  with  at each time t:  = f ; ; t: 5:1 Usually the function f is not simple, so the trick is to try to devise a set of algorithms that computes the value of  for the given value of ; ; t, depending on the situation. 5.2.1 Kinematic Control The value of  can be given based on rotoscopy data. Two signi cant problems in this approach are the various error sources in the measurements and 152 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS the discrepancy between the subject's body and the computer model. When applying kinematic empirical data to the model, obvious constraints imposed on the walking motion may be violated. The most fundamental ones are that the supporting foot should not go through nor o the ground in the obvious ways depending on the situation, and that the global motion should be continuous especially at the heel strike point. The violation of these constraints is visually too serious to be neglected. During motion generalization the error is likely to increase. Therefore in the kinematic control of locomotion, one prominent problem is how to resolve errors and enforce constraints without throwing away useful information that has already been obtained. So how can we generalize empirical data? The walk function  depends on many parameters, and simple interpolation cannot solve the problem. Boulic, Magnenat-Thalmann and Thalmann's solution for this problem BMTT90 is based on the relative velocity RV , which is simply the velocity expressed in terms of the height of the hip joint Ht e.g. 2Ht=sec. For example the height of the waist Os during the walk is given by ,0:015RV + 0:015RV sin 22t , 0:35 where t is the elapsed time normalized by the cycle time. Because this formulation is based on both body size and velocity, the approach can be applied under various body conditions and velocities. 5.2.2 Dynamic Control Bruderlin and Calvert built a non-interpolating system to simulate human locomotion Bru88, BC89 . They generated every frame based on a hybrid dynamics and kinematics computation. They could generate a wide gamut of walking styles by changing the three primary parameters step length, step frequency, and speed. The example we use here is based on their work. Their model is divided into two submodels. The one stance model consists of the upperbody and the stance leg. The other swing model represents the swing leg. In the stance model, the whole upperbody is represented by one link and the stance leg is represented with two collinear links joined by a prismatic joint. So the stance leg is regarded as one link with variable length !. In the swing model, the two links represent the thigh and calf of the swing leg. In both models, links below the ankle are not included in the dynamic analysis and are handled instead by kinematics. Two sets of Lagrangian equations are formulated, one set for each leg phase model. To do that, the ve generalized coordinates, !, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 are introduced: ! is the length of stance leg; 1 , 2 , 3 is measured from the vertical line at the hip to the stance leg, upperbody, and the thigh of the swing leg, respectively; and 4 is the exion angle of the knee of the swing leg. During the stance phase the stance foot remains at x; y, so x and y are regarded as constants. Once those ve values of general coordinates are given, the con guration of the whole body can be determined by kinematics. 5.2. LOCOMOTION 153 So the goal of the dynamics computation is to obtain the general coordinate values. We will focus only on the stance model here. By formulating the Lagrangian equation on the stance model, we get the three generalized forces F! , F 1 , and F 2 . F! = m2 ! , m2 r2 2 sin 2 , 1  , m2 r2 _2  _2 , _1  cos 2 , 1  ,m2 ! _1 2 , m2 r2 _2 _1 cos 2 , 1  +m2 g cos 1 5.2 2 + m2 !2  1 + 2m2 !! _1 F 1 = I1 + m1 r1 _ ,m1 r1 + m2 !g sin 1 + m2 r2 2 ! cos 2 , 1  ,m2 r2 _2 2! sin 2 , 1  5.3 F 2 = ,m2 r2 ! sin 2 , 1  + m2 r2! 1 cos 2 , 1  2 +I2 + m2 r2  2 , m2 gr2 sin 2 +2m2 r2! _1 cos 2 , 1  + m2 r2 ! _1 2 sin 2 , 1  _ 5.4 which can be written in a matrix form as 2 32 ! 3 2 3 a11 a12 a13 Fw + b1 4 a21 a22 a23 5 4 1 5 = 4 F 1 + b2 5 a31 a32 a33 F 2 + b3 2 5:5 Let xt be the value of x at time t; x can be a scalar, a vector, or a matrix. In equation 5.5 at time t, everything is known except !; 1 ; 2; Fw ; F 1 ; F 2 . If we give the generalized force values at time t, the above linear equation can be solved for accelerations. The position at the next time step is ~ ~ ~ q_r t + t = q_r t + tqr t 5.6 ~r t: q ~t + t = ~t + tq_ q 5.7 The internal joint torques F t = Fw ; F 1 ; F 2 T are not fully known. Bruderlin adopted some heuristics from biomechanics to handle this problem. For example, to get F 1 , he noted A signi cant torque at the hip of the stance leg occurs only just after heel strike and lasts for about 20 of the cycle time. Also, the torque during this time interval is such that it rapidly reaches a maximum value and decays quickly towards the end IRT81, Win90 . and approximated it by a constant function F 1 = c for the rst 20 of cycle time 0 for the remaining cycle time. 5:8 154 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Similarly, in modeling the hip joint and waist joint as springs, the internal torques were given by the following formulas: F! = k! !des + pa3 , ! , v! ! _ 5:9 F 2 = ,k2  2 , 2 des , v2 _2 : 5:10 To handle the errors coming from these approximations, several checkpoints were set. For example, the posture at the heel strike after the current step can be derived based on the step symmetry. Integrating F t until the checkpoint, we can compare the result with the desired one. The constants in the equations above e.g. c; a3 are adjusted according to the di erence. This process is repeated until the integration brings it close enough to the desired posture. 5.2.3 Curved Path Walking Research on biped locomotion has focused on sagittal plane walking in which the stepping path is a straight line. Unfortunately, simply treating a complex walking path as a sequence of straight-line path segments does not work. The problems of turning and coordinating the limb motions at the turns is frequently neglected and the rigid appearance of the resulting abrupt mid-air turns is clearly unacceptable animation. In building a general planar locomotion behavior, we utilized pre-existing straight path ideas. We will call a linear path locomotion algorithm a 1D system; we will use it as a process within our 2D behavior. For every 2D step, we will consider its underlying 1D step, and the 1D system will provide some needed information. Our generalization algorithm from 1D to 2D is based on the intuition that there should be a smooth transition between linear and curved locomotion. If the curvature is not large, the 2D walk generated should be close to the 1D walk given by the underlying 1D system. In particular, the degenerate 2D case of a straight line should be exactly the same as that produced by the underlying 1D system. Since no assumptions are made about the underlying 1D system, any 1D locomotion algorithm can be generalized into our 2D one. Moreover, the underlying 1D system will determine the stylistics or faults of the curved path walk. When requested to create a step, the 1D step generation algorithm provides information to the 2D system. The 2D system rst computes the center of mass site trajectory and the locations of both hip joints. The locations of the feet are computed based on the 1D step information. Because we have the hip and foot locations of both legs, the con gurations of both stance and swing legs can be determined. The banking angle is computed, and the upper body is adjusted to move the center of mass to achieve the required banking. The parameters  that determine the con guration of the whole body is now available for Jack display. This entire process is incremental at the step level, so that it ts neatly into the behavioral simulation paradigm. 5.2. LOCOMOTION 155 Ei λ d i-1 h i-1 λ HSM Ei-1 hi δ TOM α2 di α1 Figure 5.4: The Step Length of the Underlying 1D Step. Specifying the Walk The direct input to the locomotion behavior is a step sequence  of 4-tuples, ~~ 5:11 i = hi ; di ; sfi ; lorri ; i = 0; : : :; n: Each tuple i is called the ith foot description. The pair of adjacent two foot descriptions  i,1 ; i is called the ith step description or simply the ith step. Even though we have maximum control of locomotion by using the step sequence, generating such a sequence directly is a tedious job. The behavioral simulation can generate a path incrementally, or an interactive user could specify a curved path. In either case, the speci cation is automatically transformed to a step sequence. The speci cation of a walk in 1D can be done by giving a sequence of sli ; sfi ; i = 1; : : :; n. Each sli ; sfi  a ects the type of current step, starting from the current heelstrike to the next one. For every step description  i,1; i in 2D, we consider its underlying 1D step. The step frequency sf1D of this 1D step is given by sfi of i . We can draw 2 lines 1, 2 on the ~ horizontal plane as shown in the Figure 5.4: 1 is in the direction of di,1 ~ ~ displaced by  from ~ i,1 ; 2 is in the direction of di displaced by  from hi. h Let be the arc length of the spline curve from Ei,1 to Ei , where Ei,1 and Ei are the projections of the heel positions to the lines 1, and 2 , respectively. ~ The derivatives at the end points of this spline curve are given by di,1 and ~i. The step length sl1D of the underlying 1D step is given by this . d Path of the Center Site For this discussion we will keep the model simple by assuming that the center of mass moves along a straight line from the heelstrike moment of the stance leg HS to the toe o moment of the swing leg TO Figure 5.5. The trajectory of the center site during this double stance phase DS is given ~ by the current stance foot direction di,1. From the TO to the next HS, the center site moves along a spline interpolation Figure 5.5. At both ends of the spline, the derivative of the must match that of the adjacent line segments for 156 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS HSM TOM TOM HSM HSM TOM Figure 5.5: The Trajectory of the Center Site Top View. λ d i-1 C NHSM h i-1 λ HSM X C TOM TOM α2 α1 Y hi di Figure 5.6: The Position of Center Site at Heelstrike Moment. rst order continuity. Through the whole locomotion, the pelvis is assumed to face the derivative direction of the center site path, and be vertical to the ground. The torso can be bent in any direction, a part of which is given by the underlying 1D algorithm, and another part is given from a banking adjustment. ~ To derive the spline curve, we need the position CNHS and derivative _ NHS of the center site at the next HS, as well as CT O and C T O at TO which _ ~ ~ ~ C are provided by the underlying 1D system Figure 5.6. The assumptions _ ~ ~ ~ above imply that C NHS = di, and CNHS should be put at point X somewhere on the line 2. Let 1D and 1D be the length of the center site trajectory from HS to TO, and from TO to the next HS, respectively, during the underlying 1D step. Let 2D of corresponding 2D step be similarly de ned. Let 2D X  ~ be the arc length top view of the spline from CT O to X in Figure 5.6. Now ~ NHS at the next HS is set to the point X on the position of the center site C the line 2 such that 1D = 2D : 5:12 1D 2D X  ~ This de nition of CNHS is based on the smooth transition assumption from 1D locomotion to 2D. By a mapping which preserves arc length ratio Gir87, SB85, Far88 , we can nd the correspondence between the 2D trajectory of the center site and underlying 1D one. Note that this de nition also makes 5.2. LOCOMOTION 157 Hsw HSM λ C2D HSM BANKING TOM Figure 5.7: Banking of the Center Site. TURNING Hsw HSM C2D HSM TOM Figure 5.8: Turning of the Center Site. the degenerate case of 2D walk exactly same with the corresponding 1D walk. The displacement of the curved path from the underlying linear path is produced by banking as shown in Figure 5.7. The position of the displaced center site in 2D step is C2D , and Hsw is the position of the swing hip. Banking mostly results from ankle joint adjustment. Even though the center site is put on the spline curve by the ankle angle, the upper body has not bent yet to generate the overall correct banking of the whole body. The banking should be considered in terms of the center of mass of the body. The overall banking is given by 2 5:13 = arctan v  g where v is the velocity, g is the gravity, and  is the curvature of the path Gir87 . Here we use the spline curve of the center site as an approximation to get the curvature. The upper body should be bent so that the center of mass which is in the upper body may make the angle around the stance ankle with respect to the ground. Iteration can be used to compute the current center of mass and reduce the di erence from the current one and the desired one. We assume that the length of the dynamic leg ! in 2D locomotion at a moment t, is the same as ! at the corresponding moment in the underlying 1D step. So the displaced center site C2D will be lower than the corresponding 1D center site C1D . The position x1 ; y1; z1 of the hypothetical ankle is available from the old foot location. Let x2; y2 ; z2 be the position of the swing hip Hsw in Figure 5.7. The horizontal components x2 and z2 can be computed 158 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS from the derivative at C2D and . In Figure 5.7,  is the distance between Hsw and C2D , and this distance is along the perpendicular direction of the derivative. Because we assumed that ! is the same in 1D and 2D locomotion, we have j x1; y1 ; z1 , x2; y2 ; z2 j= ! 5:14 where ! is given by the underlying 1D system. The value of y2 that satis es the above equation is the height of both Hsw and C2D . Because the pelvis is assumed to be upright through the steps, the height of the stance hip H is also y2 . The Stance Leg The center site movement of 2D locomotion during DS is the same as that of the 1D one, including the height component, so the stance leg con gurations are given by the underlying 1D system. During the single stance phase, we still use 1D system to get the joint angle at the ball of foot. But because the center site begins to deviate, the other joint angles should be computed. In the stance leg, after the foot is put at on the ground, the toetip is regarded as the root because that point is not moved until the next toe o . Because the joint angle at the ball of the foot is provided by the 1D algorithm, we have the location A of the ankle. Since the location of the hip is also available the con guration of the stance leg can be determined. The Swing Leg at the Double Stance Phase Because a revolute joint is assumed at the ball of foot, if we exclude the possibility of sliding, the toe group of the swing foot should stay xed on the ground during the DS. Because there are 3 links between the swing hip and the ball of foot, we should resolve the redundancy in a reasonable way. If we use the ball of the foot joint angle in the 1D algorithm this redundancy goes away. This approximation works well in most of the cases. But when both the direction change and the step length the distance between the adjacent steps are extremely large, the distance j ~sw j from Hsw to Asw becomes too long to be connected by the lengths of thigh and calf. This problem is solved by increasing the angle at the ball of foot until j ~sw j becomes less than the sum of thigh and calf. Then ~sw is used to get the joint angles at ankle, knee, and hip. The Swing Leg at the Single Stance Phase The trajectory top view followed by the swing ankle is approximated by a second degree Casteljau curve Far88 . The 3 control points are given by the position D1 of the current swing ankle at TO, D2 which is the symmetric point of the stance ankle with respect to the line , and the ankle position D3 at the next heel strike point Figure 5.9. 5.2. LOCOMOTION 159 SWING FOOT (AFTER) D3 λ λ STANCE FOOT D2 α D1 SWING FOOT (BEFORE) Figure 5.9: The Path of the Swing Foot. The height component of the ankle is determined by the underlying 1D algorithm. So now we have the locations Asw and Hsw , and can determine the swing leg con guration except for the two indeterminacies. At the moment of heelstrike, the swing leg should have been prepared for the next step. Because linear walking is assumed from HS and TO, the hip and ankle angles in swing leg should become 0 except for the bending direction. So we should somehow adjust the swing leg and foot from the chaos con guration at TO to the ordered con guration at the next HS. At toe o , the displaced rotated around the forward axis foot gets to the normal position very quickly and it is approximated by an exponential x function that decreases rapidly to 0: for some positive constant G, we let 3 at time t be ,Gt   5:15 t = 0  exp tsw where t is the elapsed time after TO, and tsw is the duration between the TO and the next HS. The rotation of the swing leg around the the axis from the swing hip to the swing ankle is approximated by a parabola given by ~ ~ t = 0   tsw , t 2 5:16 tsw If the 2D locomotion path is actually a straight line, the walk generated is exactly the same as the walk given by the underlying 1D system. For example, in the consideration of swing leg motion during the single stance phase, D1 ; D2 , and D3 will be collinear and parallel to the walking path. x z Also in the equations 5.15 and 5.16, both 3 0 and 7 0 will be 0 and the trajectory of the swing leg will be exactly the same as that of 1D walking. 5.2.4 Examples Figure 5.10 shows foot steps generated by the interactive step editor. Figure 5.11 shows the walking path generated by the interactive path editor. Fig- 160 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Figure 5.10: Steps Generated by the Step Editor. Figure 5.11: Steps Generated by the Path Editor. 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 161 ure 5.12 shows snapshots during a turning step. Finally, Figure 5.13 shows a path generated incrementally by the approach and avoidance behaviors. 5.3 Strength Guided Motion 3 Human motion is likely to be hybrids of many motion and path generation techniques. The task is to nd e ective combinations that provide realistic motion behaviors while simultaneously o ering the user reasonable and intuitive control mechanisms. We have already seen several methods using constraints and other simple control methods that implement various basic human activities such as reaching, looking, grasping, and balancing. Now we will look closer at a task-level control algorithm for object manipulation by an end-e ector, such as lifting a load to a speci ed position in space. The resulting motion is certainly dictated by the geometric limits and link structure of the body; but more importantly the motion is strongly in uenced by the strength and comfort of the agent. 5.3.1 Motion from Dynamics Simulation Torques may be used to physically simulate motions of a gure. Typically the joint responses are conditioned by springs and dampers so that responses to external forces can be computed. Such force- and torque-based methods are called dynamic simulations Gir87, Gir91, AGL87, IC87, WB85, Wil87, FW88, Wil91, Hah88, HH87, Bar89 . Solving the dynamic equations, an initial value problem, is computationally expensive, especially if the joints are sti AGL87 . Natural external forces such as gravity and collision reactions easily yield motions which are free-swinging or passive purely reactive, but which give the unfortunate impression of driving a hapless mannequin or puppet. As might be expected, the best examples of dynamic simulation come from crash studies Pra84 where rapid deceleration produces forces that typically overwhelm any agent-initiated torques. In less violent motions, the torques may be derived from a spring or vibration model. Such have been used to create convincing motions of worms, snakes, and other exible objects Mil88, PW89 , but this cannot be the same mechanism used for human gure motion. Dynamic simulations are annoyingly di cult to control by an animator since force space speci cations are highly non-intuitive. Kinematic and inverse kinematic approaches are easier to manipulate and may create the right look," but su er from potentially unrealistic or unspeci ed velocities or torques in the body joints. These problems have been addressed as boundary value problems with objective functions. The trajectories are then solved by global optimization approaches WK88, Bre89 or control theory BN88 , but their methods presume complete knowledge of the driving conditions and overall constraints. 3 Philip Lee. 162 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Figure 5.12: Snapshots during a Turning Step. Figure 5.13: Incremental Walk Behavior. 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 163 Robotics emphasizes accomplishing a motion within constraints and optimizing it with respect to some criteria such as time, torque, energy, or obstacles Bob88, HS85b, KN87, Kha87, MK85, SL87 . Bioengineers try to determine if human motion conforms to some optimality criterion, such as time or energy BC68, CJ71, YN87, Yeo76 . Given its range and diversity, human motion is not optimal with respect to a single criteria. Despite these various approaches to the human motion problem, none has been successful at specifying a task by describing a load and a placement goal, and then completing the task in a realistic though possibly suboptimal manner. There have been e orts to generate a path between two endpoints AAW74, Ayo91, SH86, KR79, SSSN85 , but the usual solution incorporates constraints and a single objective function that is optimized. 5.3.2 Incorporating Strength and Comfort into Motion We o er a solution which blends kinematic, dynamic and biomechanical information when planning and executing a path. The task is described by the starting position, the load weight that needs to be transported, and a goal position for the load. Some simple additional parameters help select from the wide range of possible paths by invoking biomechanical and performance constraints in a natural fashion. Thus a path is determined from a general model rather than provided by default or by an animator. In addition, the algorithm is incremental: it has the ability to adapt to changing forces that are required to complete a task. The basic premise of the method is that a person tends to operate within a comfort region which is de ned by available strength. This is even more probable when the person has to move a heavy object. We assume that a person tends to operate within a comfort region dictated by muscular strength, especially when moving a heavy object. When a person has to accomplish a given task, say lifting a box or cup, he starts from some initial posture and then plans the direction for his hand to move. This planning is based on the person's perception of his strength, comfort range, and the importance of staying along a particular path. After a direction is determined, he tries to move in that direction for a short distance with joint rates that maintain the body's discomfort level below a particular threshold. Once the position is reached another direction is selected by balancing the need to nish the task as directly as possible with restrictions derived from the body's limitations. Again, joint rates can be determined once a new direction is established. The objective is to nd the trajectories, both joint and end-e ector, that a human-like linkage would traverse to complete a lifting task The task can be speci ed as a force that has to be overcome or imparted to reach a goal position over an entire path. The task speci cation can be generalized to describe a complicated task by letting the force be a function of body position, hand position, time, or other factors. In general, task speci cation can be represented by a force trajectory. In addition to task speci cation by a force 164 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS trajectory, we have seen other behaviors in which human motion is guided by constraints limiting joint and end-e ector trajectories. Constraints that guide the end e ector motion are discomfort level, perceived exertion, and strength. Discomfort level is de ned in a mechanical sense. It is found by calculating, over the entire body, the maximum torque ratio: current torque divided by the maximumtorque at each individual joint for the current joint position and velocity. The Comfort level is just 1 , discomfort. In general, when humans move they try to maintain their e ort below a particular discomfort level. Therefore, it is desirable to dictate a motion that minimizes the maximum torque ratio of a body in order to maximize the comfort level. Perceived exertion is a variable used to indicate the expected level of difculty in completing a task. It depends on the perception of the amount of strength required an implicit function of the force trajectory and the amount of strength available. If perceived exertion is low then the discomfort level is not expected to be exceeded for the paths likely" to be taken to satisfy a task, especially for a path that travels a straight line between the initial body position and the goal. However, if the perceived exertion is high, then the end-e ector path needs to deviate from a straight path in order to abide by the comfort constraint. Perceived exertion is represented by a cone which is de ned by the maximum deviation angle of a path from its current position. Strength the maximum achievable joint torque also dictates end e ector motion and path. For testing the strength-guided motion behavior any suitable strength formulation would su ce; we used empirical data collected by Abhilash Pandya of NASA Johnson Space Center PMA+ 91 . There are two strength curves to represent the two muscle group strengths  exor and extensor at each DOF. 5.3.3 Motion Control The motion controller consists of three components Figure 5.14: 1. Condition Monitor which monitors the state of a body and suggests motion strategies. 2. Path Planning Scheme PPS which plans the direction that an ende ector will move. 3. Rate Control Process RCP which determines the joint rates for motion. The condition monitor reports on the current state of a body: current position, maximum strength for a current position, current joint torques, etc. It then suggests motion strategies to the path planning scheme which determines an end-e ector's direction of travel. The amount of motion of the end-e ector in the suggested direction of travel can be arbitrarily set. The rate of travel, constrained by torque, for a path interval can then be computed by the rate control process. After the joint rates are resolved and new joint positions are found, these procedures are repeated until the entire joint path is mapped 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 165 force trajectory, comfort, perceived exertion, joint chain Reach Goal ? Behavioral selector strength Path Planning Scheme strategy 1 strategy 2 .... strategy n external dynamics Joint Control Joint Control Joint Control Figure 5.14: Strength Guided Motion Architecture. out in a manner that satis es the speci ed task. This system architecture is an iterative process which allows changes to the parameters at any time through other external processes. Possible situations to alter any of the parameters are dropping or changing the mass of a load, redirecting the goal, or encountering an obstacle. This is di erent from the global nature of optimal control-based algorithms. We handle similar global considerations through an external process LWZB90 . Condition Monitor The condition monitor gathers information about the current state of a body, assembles the information, and suggests a motion strategy for the next procedure to process. The motion strategies are a function of the constraint parameters: comfort, perceived exertion, and strength. Each motion strategy, based on the constraints, concentrates on a separate fundamental aspect of motion. The strategies can be divided into those that represent indirect joint control and those that represent direct joint control. For indirect joint control strategies, the end-e ector's need to reach a goal is more important than joint considerations; and for direct joint control, joint considerations are more important than reaching a goal. We can also interpret the strategies as 166 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS particular optimization problems. The condition monitor is the highest level of the three procedures in predicting a path. Path Planning Scheme The path planning scheme, guided by the condition monitor, determines the direction to move. In general, the output of any system is bounded by its headroom: the available range of a variable within a constraint. In the case when there is much strength in a system a situation where indirect joint control applies the headroom can be used to suggest incremental joint displacements, d . A larger headroom allows a larger displacement. The mapping between the cartesian displacement and the joint displacement is dx = Jd 5:17 where J is the 3  n Jacobian matrix and n is the number of joint displacements. If the headroom for each joint is represented by a weighting vector w proportional to d , then dx = Jw ^ 5:18 where dx is a normalized direction of reach. The direction dx is then com^ ^ pared against a cone representing the feasible directions of travel derived from perceived exertion. If dx is within the cone then the direction of motion should ^ be dx, otherwise the direction can be dx projected onto the cone. ^ ^ When the system is relatively weak, the suggested direction of motion must not violate the strength constraints. The decision process should shift importance from one strategy where the desirability to reach a goal is a major component of determining a suggested motion to an alternative strategy of avoiding positions where the joints are greatly strained. This leads to schemes where direct joint control is imperative to avoid positions where joints are strained Lee92 . Rate Control Process The rate control process, the most basic of the three procedures, resolves the speed with which a body moves along a prescribed end-e ector path. This requires the use of dynamics, especially when the motion is fast. However, the incorporation of dynamics is di cult. When torques are speci ed to drive a motion direct dynamics, control is a problem; when the driving forces are derived by kinematic speci cation inverse dynamics, the forces are useful for only a short time interval and they may violate the body's torque capacity; and nally, when the forces optimize a particular function between two sets of positional constraints boundary value problem, the method presumes that the optimization criteria is valid for the body's entire range of motion. Dynamics equations can be interpreted as constraint equations solving for joint trajectories if they satisfy the conditions imposed by speci c end-e ector path and torque limits. The dynamics equations can be reformulated so that 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 167 they provide a mapping between an end-e ector path and a binding torque constraint. A binding torque constraint is the maximum torque allowed to drive a body with maximumend-e ector acceleration without the end-e ector deviating from the prescribed path. A greater torque would cause excessive inertial force and therefore, undesirable path deviation. From the derivation of the reformulated dynamics equations originally derived to solve for path completion in minimum time Bob88 , joint trajectories can be found from the acceleration of an end-e ector. In addition to nding the trajectories, the reformulated dynamic equations implicitly determine the force functions joint torques to guide an end-e ector along a speci ed path. Torque limits are established by the current discomfort constraint. The discomfort level variable dcl determines the torque limit at each joint by a simple relation: 5:19 dcl =  c;i max;i where c;i is the torque load for a particular joint i. The value  max;i is the maximum torque for the joint's current position obtained by querying the strength curves. When the value of dcl becomes greater than one, there is no more strength to accomplish a task and therefore the attempt to complete a task should cease. The discomfort level can be adjusted to achieve a desired motion. It in uences both the rate of task completion and the direction of travel. 5.3.4 Motion Strategies This is a catalogue of human motion strategies that are evaluated in the condition monitor and are executed in the path planner. The strategies are given in the order of increasing discomfort. Available Torque When a person moves, the tendency is to move the stronger joint. This is similar to the forces due to a spring or other types of potential forces. A stronger spring, based on the spring's sti ness coe cient, would yield a larger displacement per unit time than a weaker spring. Similarly, for a human, the amount of displacement for a joint depends not only on the strength that a joint is capable of, but mainly on the amount of strength that is currently available. The amount of strength available, which is based on the di erence between the current required torque to support a particular position and the e ective maximum strength the maximum strength factored by comfort, is called torque availability. If torque availability is low, motion should not be encouraged. Conversely, if the torque availability is high, the joint should do more of the work. Torque availability is the driving factor for a joint to move and to thereby redistribute the joint torques so that the comfort level is more uniform. 168 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Reducing Moment As a joint approaches its e ective maximumstrength, the joint should move in a manner that avoids further stress discomfort while still trying to reach the goal. A path towards the goal is still possible as long as the maximumstrength is not surpassed for any of the joints. As the body gets more stressed it should attempt to reduce the moment caused by a force trajectory by reducing the distance normal to the force trajectory's point of application. In addition, a reduction in moment increases the torque availability of at least the joint that is rapidly approaching its maximum strength. The reduction in the total moment involves examining the moments on a joint by joint basis. At each joint a virtual displacement is given to determine if that displacement provides su cient moment reduction to continue moving in that direction. This strategy assumes that the body has enough e ective strength to allow its joints to move to positions where the overall stress level of the body is smaller than if the joints were only guided by kinematic demands. Pull Back The two previous strategies depend on the current torque being less than the maximum strength. In these cases, maneuverability in torque space is high and therefore an end-e ector can still consider moving toward a goal without exceeding any joint's maximum strength. When a particular joint reaches its maximumstrength, however, then that joint can no longer advance toward a goal from the current con guration. The Pull Back strategy proposes that the end-e ector approach the goal from another con guration. In an e ort to determine another approach to the goal, the constraint of moving toward a goal within a restricted path deviation can be relaxed. The emphasis of the strategy is one where the joints dictate an improved path in terms of torques. This can be accomplished by increasing the ultimate available torque the di erence of maximum strength to current torque for a set of weak joints joints that are between the joint which has no ultimate available strength and an end-e ector. In general, the joint with the least amount of ultimate available torque will reverse direction and cause the end-e ector to pull back move away from its goal. The idea is to increase the overall comfort level. When the joints form a con guration that has a greater level of comfort, there might be enough strength to complete the task. Then the governing strategy could return to Reducing Moment, which allows the end-e ector to proceed toward the goal. The Pull Back strategy leads to a stable con guration. This is a posture that a set of joints should form so that it can withstand large forces, such as those caused when changing from a near-static situation to one that is dynamic. 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 169 Added Joint, Recoil, and Jerk When the three strategies, Available Torque, Reducing Moment, and Pull Back have been exhausted and an agent still cannot complete a task, it is obvious that the active joints the joints that were initially assigned to the task cannot supply su cient strength. When this occurs it should be determined if the task should be aborted or if there are other means of acquiring additional strength. One mode of acquiring more strength is to add a joint to the chain of active joints. This assumes that the added joint is much stronger than any of the active joints. Another mode to consider is to use the added joint to jerk apply with maximum force the set of active joints. Jerk reduces the forces necessary to complete a task for the set of active joints. Before jerking is initiated, a stable con guration should be formed by the active joints. After a stable con guration has been formed and the added joint has jerked, the active joints can then proceed to reach their goal since the required torques have decreased. A third possibility is to recoil another set of joints and then jerk with the recoiled set of joints in order to reduce the forces needed by the set of active joints to complete a task. For example, a weight lifter sometimes recoils his legs and then pushs o to reduce the force required in his arms. 5.3.5 Selecting the Active Constraints The path determination process has been uncoupled into two active constraints: comfort and perceived exertion. In the rate control process involving dynamics, the two constraining parameters must be active to determine the joint rates. At higher levels of control such as in the path planner, both need not be active simultaneously. In fact, as the torque levels change the applicability of a particular constraint to predict motion also changes. We use a model that relates the comfort level to the constraints. The strategies bound various comfort levels. High Comfort. The perceived exertion constraint is not active but the comfort constraint is, because any changes in acceleration not necessarily large may cause a joint to exceed the allowable discomfort level. In general, the force trajectory associated with a motion of high comfort is negligible, but dynamics is important because of the relatively large inertial e ects of the body. This group is bounded by motions that are categorized by zero jerk condition Gir91 and Available Torque. Regular Comfort. The end-e ector can advance toward the goal. Perceived exertion and comfort are loosely constraining and dynamics should be evaluated. Available Torque and Reducing Moment bounds this comfort level. Discomfort. At this point the discomfort level for one or more joints are surpassed. The perceived exertion constraint needs to be changed so 170 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS that a larger path deviation is allowed. Motion should have slowed down considerably, therefore dynamics is not important and, most likely, is not meaningful. This group is formed by Reducing Moment and Pull Back. Intolerable Discomfort Many of the joints' comfort levels have been ex- ceeded and there may be other joints which could be approaching their maximum available torque. In such a situation, strategies can be combined. The pool of strategies are Added Joint, Pull Back, Recoil, and Jerk. Perceived exertion is relaxed and depending on the combination of the strategies, dynamics might be important. 5.3.6 Strength Guided Motion Examples The strategies for Available Torque, Reducing Moment, Pull Back, and Added Joint are implemented in Jack. Figures 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, and 5.18 show the paths that were produced from these conditions. The task is to place an increasingly heavy load from various initial positions at a goal which is located above the body's head. In Figure 5.15, there are two curves which outline the path of the hand. The right curve is for a task that involves lifting a 10 pound object; the left curve is for a 20 pound object. For the right curve, because the object is relatively light, a fast motion is predicted and the solution resembles a minimum time path. For the left curve, the heavier weight draws the hand closer to the body. This path is rough because it is at the boundary of a solution determined by Available Torque and Reducing Moment. In Figure 5.16, the right curve is for the 20 pound lift, and the left curve is for a lift of 30 pounds. Once again the algorithm predicts that a heavier object would bring the hand closer to the body. Figure 5.17 shows the body with a heavier load 35 pounds. The body immediately executes Pull Back. In this case, the body pulls back to a region of high comfort and therefore the approach to the goal is smooth, without the rough path evident in the previous gures. In Figure 5.18, the joint chain, initially composed of the joints between the hand and the shoulder, is allowed to extend to the waist. The algorithm decides that it is better to distribute the weight with more joints. Figure 5.18 shows the advantage of including the waist in the set of active joints. These algorithms can be applied to any type of task, as long as it is forcebased: even rising from a chair. A force trajectory is used to represent the body weight and the shoulder's normal position when standing is used as the force goal. The body leans forward to balance its weight a consequence of Reducing Moment to reach the shoulder goal. The average time of a path generation is under 10 seconds. Since our examples mainly involved heavy loads, static torque computations were used. The internal joint chain positions are determined by Jack inverse kinematics. 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION Figure 5.15: Lifting a 20 pound and 10 pound Object. Figure 5.16: Lifting a 30 pound and 20 pound Object. 171 172 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Figure 5.17: Pull Back. Figure 5.18: Added Joint. 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 173 5.3.7 Evaluation of this Approach We have tried to generate a realistic motion path for a slow, weight-lifting task represented by a time- and position-dependent force trajectory. The method maps out an entire path automatically and incrementally for a force trajectory over a set of constraints based on comfort level, perceived exertion, and strength. Because the body state is constantly updated, these constraints can also be a function of an external model, such as fatigue. Motion is generated by integrating a condition monitor which suggests basic motion strategies, a path planning scheme which locally plans the ende ector's path and a rate control process which controls the joint rates. The condition monitor o ers strategies to pursue by balancing the goal of the task against the resources that are currently available. The path planning scheme proposes a direction of travel by executing the basic strategies. The elusive force function that previous investigators have sought can be found by changing the role of the dynamic equations to a constraint equation which is established with a dynamics model. By selecting the most restrictive constraint from the constraint equations, the maximum joint rates can be computed. Altering the constraints used in this problem still gives a goal-directed motion that conforms to physical laws. We see this capability as an inherently model-driven, exible, and crucial component for generating more natural human behaviors. We will see shortly in Section 5.4 how this approach can be extended to include collision avoidance during more complex actions. 5.3.8 Performance Graphs Three types of graphs are developed for the user to analyze some pertinent mechanical relations of the agent's movements. The properties that are tracked and graphed are comfort levels, work, and energy Figure 5.19, 5.20, and 5.21. The histogram of comfort shows the current discomfort value as well as the user-speci ed desired maximum. The e ective comfort level is the actual comfort level that controls the movements. It includes factors that may a ect the desired comfort level. Currently, an exponential function representing fatigue is one of the factors that can alter the e ective comfort level. The graph of work the agent performs at each iteration is computed as Wj = n X i=n i  i 5:20 where n is the number of DOFs, i is the current torque of the ith joint, and  i is the change in joint position  j , j ,1. The energy graph represents the sum of all the work performed by the joints since the beginning of the task. Because the amount of energy that is expended grows very fast, the curve that represents energy is automatically rescaled to t within the designated plot area when necessary. 174 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Figures 5.22, 5.23, and 5.24 show the comparative trajectories of the hand as load, comfort level, and perceived exertion are varied. 5.3.9 Coordinated Motion Coordinated motion is when the execution of a task requires more than one set of linkages either from the same agent or from two separate agents. Our implementation of coordinated motion follows the same parameter control philosophy. As in the task speci cation of a single linkage, a coordinated task is made a function of comfort and path deviation. The coordination between the two joint chains is based on a master and slave relation: the weaker chain is the master and the stronger chain is the slave. The algorithm rst determines which is the weaker linkage master, then its path is generated according to the strategy that is appropriate for its comfort level. The other joint chain slave must comply with the master's new position. Simple geometry from the master's new position, the dimension of the object, and the magnitude of the slave's incremental displacement is used to determine the slave's new position see Figure 5.25. The magnitude of the master and slave's incremental path is a nominal distance factored by their respective comfort level; the master will travel less than the slave. The master-slave assignment switches whenever the relative comfort the di erence between the two linkages' comfort level reverses. The speci cation of a coordinated task begins by instantiating each of the joint chains as a separate task. Then the goal and the weight of the object to be moved is stated. Next, the kinematic relation between the two linkages is speci ed; this involves identifying the attachment points on the object handle with the corresponding end-e ector. This is done for each of the chains that participates in the coordinated task. The end-e ectors are automatically attached to the handle. Finally, two control parameters which control the characteristics of the path need to be speci ed. The rst control parameter, allowable comfort di erence, speci es a tolerance in the relative comfort level before a masterslave switch is made. A graph can be called to display the di erence in comfort between the two joint chains. The other parameter controls the amount of allowable path deviation. The user can control the amount of path deviation by entering a ratio that determines the relative propensity between the path of moving to the goal directly and the path that is sensitive to the agent's stress level. Unlike a task involving a single chain, the motion of each chain cannot deviate or switch strategy without considerating the other chain. This means that the strategies of the two linkages should coincide; both linkages performing Pull-Back would not be permitted. Because of this limitation, the strategies available in this current implementation are only Available-Torque and Reduce-Moment. 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 175 Figure 5.19: Plots of Comfort Level, Work, and Energy 10 lb., pe = 0.30, cl = 0.50 176 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Figure 5.20: Plots of Comfort Level, Work, and Energy 20 lb., pe = 0.30, cl = 0.50 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 177 Figure 5.21: Plots of Comfort Level, Work, and Energy 30 lb., pe = 0.30, cl = 0.50 178 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Figure 5.22: 30 lb., pe = 0.30, cl = 0.40, 0.50, 0.85 Figure 5.23: 30 lb., pe = 0.30, cl = 0.40, 0.50, 0.75, 0.85 5.3. STRENGTH GUIDED MOTION 179 Figure 5.24: 5 lb., pe = 0.30, 0.20, 0.10, 0.05, cl = 0.50 object's sphere of possible virtual positions intersection of both spheres slave's sphere of possible virtual displacements object's virtual position virtual displacement virtual displacement slave master Figure 5.25: Construction of the Path for Coordinated Motion. 180 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS 5.4 Collision-Free Path and Motion Planning 4 Collision-free path planning has applications in a variety of elds such as robotics task planning, computer aided manufacturing, human gure motion studies and computer graphics simulations. A collision-free path for an articulated gure is the path along which the articulated gure moves from an initial con guration to a nal con guration without hitting any obstacles residing in the same environment as the articulated gure. A great deal of research has been devoted to the motion planning problem in the area of robotics within the last 10 years, e.g. LPW79, LP87, LP83, Bro83b, BLP83, Bro83a, Don84, DX89, KZ86, Gou84 . However, despite the applicability of motion planning techniques to computer graphics simulations, the problem has not been addressed much in the computer graphics community Bre89, DLRG91 . Articulated human gures are characterized by a branching tree structure with many DOFs. Existing algorithms in robotics fall short in handling some of the issues encountered when dealing with these types of gures. We present novel algorithms that can address all these issues. The basic idea is that instead of treating all the DOFs in the gure together, we divide them up into groups and treat these groups one by one and playback the path in a coordinated manner when all the groups are considered. Our motion planning system can also take into consideration the strength data of human gures so that the planned motion will obey strength availability criteria Section 5.3. 5.4.1 Robotics Background The major challenge of our problem is to handle a redundant branching articulated gure with many DOFs. Many of the robotics algorithms deal with manipulators with relatively few DOFs, e.g. mobile robots which typically have 3 DOFs or arm-like robots which have 6. Many of these algorithms are based on the use of the con guration space C space which is the space encompassing the DOFs of the robot LPW79, LP83 . The inherent di culty with this approach is due to the high dimensionality of the C space. It is well known that the worst case time bound for motion planning for a robot arm is exponential in the dimensionality of its C space SS83a, SS83b . It is only during the last few years that motion planning algorithms that can handle manipulators with many DOFs have been presented BLL89b, BLL89a, BL89, Gup90, Fav84, Bre89 . Very few studies consider articulated gures with branches. Barraquand et al gave an example involving a manipulator with 2 branches BLL89b, BLL89a, BL89 . In their work, they create an arti cial potential eld in the 3D workspace and the free path is found by tracking the valleys. A gain in e ciency is obtained as a result of the clever selection of potential functions and heuristics. However, it is not clear how these can be selected in general. 4 Wallace Ching. 5.4. COLLISION-FREE PATH AND MOTION PLANNING 181 Control Algorithm Sequential Algorithm Basic Algorithm Playback Algorithm Planar Algorithm Figure 5.26: Di erent Modules and their Associated Algorithms in the Path Planning System. Faverjon et al Fav84 partition the free space into oct-trees and uses some probability measures to cut down the search tree during the A* search. Gupta Gup90 handles sequential linkages with many DOFs using a sequential search technique which basically treats the individual DOFs one by one instead of considering all of them together. The initial stage of our path planner is based on his work. 5.4.2 Using Cspace Groups The main idea of our path planner is to handle the DOFs of the articulated gure not all at once but a certain number at a time. The general principle of our path planner is rst to divide the DOFs into a number of groups which we call Cspace groups . We then compute the collision-free motion for the DOFs in each group successively, starting from the rst group. After the motion of the DOFs in group i has been planned, we parameterize the resulting motion with a parameter t. The motion for the DOFs in group i + 1 will then be planned along this path by controlling the DOFs associated with it. The problem is then posed in a t  k space if there are k DOFs in this group. We proceed in this manner along the whole gure structure and solve for the motion for all the groups. Finally a playback routine is invoked to playback the nal collision-free path for the gure. Our system adopts a modular design in that it is made up of a number of modules each of which is based on an algorithm Figure 5.26. Each module carries out a particular function and contributes to the whole path nding process. On a more global perspective, the path nding procedure can be viewed as consisting of two phases: the computation phase and the playback phase. All of the steps involved in these phases are performed by the algorithms described in later sections. 182 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS The overall path planning procedure is outlined as follows: Computation Phase: 1. Partition the articulated gure's DOFs into Cspace groups according to a grouping scheme. 2. Impose an order of traversal among the Cgroups. For a human gure, we use a depth- rst traversal. This means we plan the motion for one arm and then another. 3. Invoke the control algorithm that handles traversal of the tree and nds the nal collision-free path. This algorithm will actually call upon a subsidiary algorithm, sequential algorithm , to compute the free path along a branch of the tree structure. The sequential algorithm will in turn call another subsidiary algorithm, the basic algorithm , to compute the path for the DOFs within each Cgroup. Playback Phase: After all the Cspace groups have been considered, a special playback algorithm will be called upon to traverse the tree structure in a reverse order, collect and coordinate all the computed information and nally playback the overall collision-free path in discrete time frames. These time frames can be further interpolated to produce smooth motion. Ideally the behavioral simulation loop controls the frame timing and hence the production of the output postures. The translational movement of the articulated gure as a whole on a plane can also be generated with this planner. In this case, the gure resembles a mobile robot with two degrees of translational freedom and one degree of rotational freedom. The module that handles this case is named the Planar Algorithm . Figure 5.27 shows the general redundant branching articulated structure and symbols that we will use for reference. We will mainly focus on the upper body of the human gure. The system can be easily applied to the legs to provide stepping or foothold movements as we will show later. 5.4.3 The Basic Algorithm The particular algorithm we have chosen is the one presented by LozanoP rez in LP87 due to its simplicity and intuitiveness. It rst constructs the e C space for the articulated gure. For the sake of completeness, the process is described below. If the manipulator has n links, its con guration space can be constructed as follows: 1. i = 1. 2. While i n do 5.4. COLLISION-FREE PATH AND MOTION PLANNING b2 bn b1 g 183 l nm n 1p (t ) 12 g 12 l n2 l n1 parameters (t 11) g 11 l groups l links 0m 0 03 l 02 l b0 branches 01 Figure 5.27: The Redundant Branching Articulated Figure. a Ignore links beyond link i, and nd the ranges of legal values of qi by rotating link i around the position of joint i determined by the current value ranges of q1; :::; qi,1 and check for collision with the surrounding obstacles. Self collision can be avoided by checking collision with linkages from the same gure as well. Mark those joint values at which link i will have a collision as forbidden. b Sample the legal range of qi at the speci ed resolution. c Increment i and repeat step a for each of these value ranges. The free space is then represented by a regions data structure to explore the connectivity between the cells. A graph is then built on these region nodes and an A* search is conducted to search for a free path from the start node to the goal node. 5.4.4 The Sequential Algorithm The Sequential Algorithm handles the motion planning problem for the Cspace groups along a sequential branch. This algorithm is based on but di ers from Gupta's work. 184 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Referring to Figure 5.28, let n be the total number of Cspace groups on this branch. Let the joint DOFs associated with the groups be represented by qij where i is the group number and j is from 1 to mi where mi is the maximum number of DOFs group i has. Let ri be the reference vertex for group i. It is basically the distal vertex of the link associated with the DOFs in the group i. Let rit denote the trajectory of the reference vertex ri. The g s initial and goal con gurations of the arm are given as qij and qij , i=1..n; j = 1..mi. The algorithm is as follows: 1. Compute a collision-free trajectory for the links associated with group 1. The trajectory of the reference vertex on its link will be r1t. 2. i = 2. 3. While  i n  a along ri,1t, discretize the path according to a pre-speci ed resolution. Compute a collision-free trajectory for the DOFs in the ith g s group from qij to qij for j = 1..mi using the basic algorithm. b given q1j t; q2j t; :::; qijt, compute rit using forward kinematics. c Increment i. The parameter used in parameterizing the path already computed can be either interpreted as temporal or non-temporal. For a temporal interpretation of the parameter, the path computed has to be monotonic with respect to the parameter t simply because we cannot travel backward in time. Hence backtracking within the Cspace group is not allowed and the chance of nding a path is greatly restricted. In the example shown in Figure 5.29, we will not be able to come up with a path without backtracking. We have adopted a nontemporal interpretation of the parameter in most cases as this will increase the chance of nding a path. Each C group deals with one parameter and a certain number of DOFs. The number of DOFs can vary between C groups so as to t into the structure of the gure. For example, the shoulder joint can be handled by one C group with 3 DOFs. The number of DOFs handled at a time also a ects the degree of optimality of the resulting path with respect to some criteria. Theoretically, the optimal path can only be obtained by searching through the n-dimensional C space built from considering all n DOFs together. However, such an algorithm has been proven to be exponential in the dimensionality of its C space SS83a . There is a customary trade o between speed and optimality. Our choice of using the region graph instead of the visibility graph allows for the path to be positioned farther away from the obstacles, hence leaving more room for the next linkage Figure 5.30. 5.4. COLLISION-FREE PATH AND MOTION PLANNING 185 r1 Group n q Group 2 12 q 11 Group 1 m1 = 2 Figure 5.28: A Sequential Linkage. q t Figure 5.29: An Example Showing the Case that a Path can only be Found with Backtracking which Means the Parameter Takes on a Non-Temporal Interpretation. 5.4.5 The Control Algorithm The control algorithm performs the entire path planning process: 1. Apply the Planar Algorithm to the whole gure to obtain the planar collision-free translational movement of the gure taken as a whole. 2. Parameterize the resulting motion. 3. Repeat the following to every branch, starting from the rst. a Apply the Sequential algorithm to the branch using the last parameter in the rst group. b Parameterize the resulting path computed for this branch according to some prespeci ed resolution. c Invoke the PlayBack Algorithm to the branch to obtain the sequence of joint angle values of the branch when moving along the computed path. d Record this sequence of joint angles in the array FREEANGLES . 186 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS q1 t (a) q1 t (b) Figure 5.30: a A Path that is Too Close to an Obstacle. This Leaves Little Room for the Next Linkage to Maneuver. b A Better Path that is Farther Away from the Obstacle. 4. Apply the PlayBack Algorithm to the whole gure, starting from the last group of the very last branch. 5. The angle values obtained can then written into frames for continuous playback. 5.4.6 The Planar Algorithm The articulated gure can translate and rotate on a plane, navigating around obstacles. The whole gure behaves just like a mobile robot. The path planning algorithm in this case deals with a three dimensional 2 translational, 1 rotational Cspace. We can handle this case simply with our basic algorithm or other existing mobile robot path planning techniques. 5.4.7 Resolving Con icts between Di erent Branches Although the di erent branches are attached to the same rear link of branch b0, we do not use the same parameter t that parameterizes the motion of branch b0 in all these branches. The reason is that the parameters tij are interpreted as non-temporal in general. Hence, backtracking within the Cspace group is allowed and the values of tij along the computed path can be nonmonotonic. If we use the same parameter in computing the motion for the rst groups in all other branches, some of the joint angle values cannot be obtained uniquely during the nal playback phase. This reasoning may become clear after looking at the playback algorithm. Our solution to this problem is to further parameterize the already parameterized path of the previous branch and then use the new parameterization variable in the next branch. 5.4. COLLISION-FREE PATH AND MOTION PLANNING Branch n, Group j-1 (g q n, j-1 187 Branch n, Group j ) (g N n, j-1 q ) n, j n, j a A 1 t N a 0 n, j-1 0.7 1 Linear 1 t n, j 0.7 Mapping 0 1 (a) q q n, j n, j-1 Branch n (b) Figure 5.31: An Example Showing How the Final Joint Angle Values of the Whole Figure are Obtained from the Cspace Associated with the Cspace Groups. 5.4.8 Playing Back the Free Path During the playback phase, we start from the last group of branch bn and then traverse the branches in a backward manner along branch bn,1, bn,2 and so on and nally to branch b0. For example, let Figure 5.31 a represent the con guration space for the last group of the last branch, i.e. group gn;pn of branch bn . We then discretize the free path according to a pre-speci ed playback resolution. The number of discretization intervals for this last group will be equal to the number of time frames for the nal simulation. At every discretized point, say A, there is a corresponding q; t pair: the q value is what we should set the last joint DOF to, and the parameter t is used to deduce the motion of the preceding group. We rst set the last DOF to the q value. Then we use the parameter t in the pair to trace back to the preceding proximal group. Note that within this preceding group, the parameter t is monotonic by de nition. Hence we can uniquely determine the corresponding q; t pair within this preceding group. By the same token, we can continue tracing back to the groups further preceding this one Figure 5.31 a. We carry on in this fashion recursively until we come to the rst group within this branch. Note that at this point, all joint DOFs along this branch will have been set to their correct value for this simulation time frame. The sequence of joint values along the free path for all the other branches should have also been 188 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS recorded in the array FREEANGLESi . The parameter value left unused will then be used as an index into the recorded joint angle array and to uniquely determine the set of angles corresponding to the movement of the preceding branch. The rest of the branches are processed similarly. We will examine the playback algorithm by looking into its two components separately: the Final Playback algorithm and the Single Branch Single Frame Playback algorithm. The Final Playback Algorithm The Final Playback algorithm is driven by the behavior simulation cycle and generates the intermediate body postures culminating in the nal goal achievement. Discretize the path computed for the last group in the last branch into N discrete points according to some pre-speci ed resolution. This number also determines the total number of key postures or time frames we will generate for the nal simulation. For each time frame, do the following steps to get back the computed angles. 1. Apply the Single Branch Single Frame Playback Algorithm to branch bn , the last branch in the gure. 2. A parameter value will be obtained at the termination of this algorithm. Use this parameter as an array index into FREEANGLES for the next branch. The joint angles recorded for the next branch will be read from the array element pointed to by this parameter value. 3. Set the joint angles in the next branch to the values read from the array. 4. The last parameter value read from the array is used to index into the FREEANGLES array for the next branch in a similar manner. 5. Repeat the same process for the rest of the branches. 6. Now all the joint angles in the articulated gure have been set to their appropriate values in this time frame. What is left is the position of the whole gure. The last parameter value obtained from the last step is used to index into the path computed from the Planar Algorithm. Then we set the whole gure location to that indexed position. The Single Branch Single Frame Playback Algorithm Let the branch index we are considering be i. Here branch i has a total of pi groups. This playback algorithm is called only after the motion for the 5.4. COLLISION-FREE PATH AND MOTION PLANNING 189 last group in the branch is computed. This algorithm only deals with one discretized point, and hence only one time frame. We start from the last group in the branch and go down the branch by doing the following on each group. 1. From the discretized point on the computed path, read the values of the qi;j s associated with this Cspace group from the axes of the Cspace. This is illustrated in Figure 5.31 a with a 2D Cspace as an example. 2. Set the joints in the articulated chain corresponding to these q variables to the values just found. 3. Then read the normalized parameter value ti;j from the t axis. 4. Through a linear mapping, obtain the corresponding discretized point on the path computed for the next group down the branch from this parameter value. Note that after this algorithm terminates, all the joint angles on this branch will be set to the appropriate values for this simulation time step. 5.4.9 Incorporating Strength Factors into the Planned Motion In Section 5.3 we demonstrated that realistic animation of lifting motions can be generated by considering the strength of the human gure. The basic premise of the method is that a person tends to operate within a comfort region which is de ned by the amount of available torque. The static torque values at all the joints required to sustain a load is a function of gure con guration. The path planner incrementally updates the next joint angle values according to the available torque at the current con guration based on a number of motion strategies. The planning methodology we have described so far divides the DOFs into groups and plans the motion for each group sequentially. Therefore, only after the control algorithm terminates do we have the complete path for each DOF. However, we need to make use of the strength information during the planning process. This requires values of all joint angles at a certain con guration. The solution is to use the value of the current parameter and project it over to the rest of the angles that have not yet been computed. The projection function PROJ is arbitrary since this is only an approximation of reality, so we use just a simple linear interpolation: PROJ t = initial + t final , initial  . Since our searching process uses the A* algorithm, a heuristic function is evaluated at every step to nd the node that has the smallest value. So far we have been using only a spatial distance measure in this heuristic function. The path found will be optimal up to the size of the regions used. Now, 190 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS however, we have a means to compute the required torque value of a particular con guration, so this heuristic function can include terms representing strength information. The weights attached to these terms represent the relative importance of the quantities they represent. Possible terms to include are: Work DoneR. The total work done or energy expended can be measured by the term T ~  d~. The integration is done over the path taken. Comfort. The comfort level of the resulting motion can be measured by the available torque which is the quantity obtained by subtracting the required torque from the strength limit at that particular joint conR guration. We can sum up all the contributions along the path as ~~ AvailTorque   d where the available torque is de ned in terms of its elements: AvailTorque~i = ~ S tr~i , T ~i if Str~i T  i 0 otherwise The subscript i stands for the i-th element in the vector. Str is the strength limit vector. This integral value will then represent the overall comfort level. This term will properly be useful only in the g function as it only a ects future actions. Fatigue. Humans are not like robots: our strength will decrease with R time as a result of fatigue. We may include a term such as kT ~kdt to avoid taking a path that has a high torque value maintained over a prolonged period of time. The path found by the collision-free path planner is the best up to the size of the regions the basic entities. Paths within regions are chosen by the strength guided motion heuristics. For example, in Figure 5.32 a, the left path may be chosen by search to be better than the one on the right. This path can then be further re ned by examining local comfort levels and invoking one of the motion heuristics such as Available Torque, Reducing Moment and Pull Back . 5.4.10 Examples We have experimented with a variety of reaches involving shelves and apertures. Figure 5.33 shows a human gure reaching through two apertures with both arms. The path computed is collision-free and involves more than 20 DOFs. These and similar examples take about 12 to 20 minutes elapsed time to compute, depending on the complexity of the environment. Simulating the wide range of human motions requires a number of di erent behavioral skills such as walking, grasping, and lifting. The path planner 5.4. COLLISION-FREE PATH AND MOTION PLANNING 191 RG R G R1 R2 R 2 R 1 R S RS (a) (b) RG R1 R2 RS (c) Figure 5.32: a Part of a Sample Cspace Showing Two Possible Paths Leading from the Start to the Goal Node. b The Corresponding Regions Graph. c Path Re nement after Considering Comfortable Motion Heuristics. interfaces with other existing techniques in simulating more complex human behaviors. Figure 5.34 shows a human gure climbing up a rocky surface. The climbing movement of each limb and the torso translation are produced by the path planner. Each limb is considered in turn by the planner; the other three limbs are xed by a point reach constraint. The spatial locations for each hand grasp and foothold must be pre-speci ed by the user. Even though our path planner cannot handle closed loop systems directly, such motions can be simulated with the help of other behaviors. 5.4.11 Completeness and Complexity This planner is an approximate algorithm when backtracking among groups is not employed: it may fail to discover a path even though one exists. When backtracking is employed between groups, the algorithm is turned into a complete algorithm. Alternatively, the DOFs can be re-grouped di erently if a path cannot be found for the previous grouping scheme. The basic algorithm within a Cspace group has complexity Ork,1mn2  where k is the number of DOFs, r is the discretization interval, m is the number of faces and edges for the gure and n for the environment LP87 . Since the number of DOFs in a Cspace group is bounded, the run time for the basic algorithm can be treated as a constant. Consequently the whole algorithm runs in Op time where p is the total number of groups in the tree 192 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS structure without backtracking between groups. With backtracking, the worst case run time for the algorithm is exponential with respect to the number of DOFs. This is the same as a conventional exhaustive search algorithm. We believe that the average run time of the algorithm is fast enough for practical though not interactive use. 5.5 Posture Planning 5 Motion generation algorithms for geometric gures typically start with ini- tial, nal, and sometimes intermediate con gurations or postures. From these input postures, natural" motion sequences are generated which satisfy given optimization criteria, e.g., time or energy. The assumption that the nal joint angle con guration of a highly redundant articulated gure such as the human body is known in advance is rather unrealistic. Typically, only the task-level goals of the end e ectors are known. In order for an agent to move in accordance with such task-level goals, we need to provide the agent with an ability to plan both intermediate and nal postures. Posture planning uses explicit reasoning along with numerical procedures to nd a relatively natural and collision-free sequence of postures that terminates at the desired goal. The inputs to the posture planner are positional or orientational goals for end e ectors. The posture planner nds the appropriate movements of relevant body parts needed to achieve the goals. It discovers a nal global posture satisfying the given goals by nding intermediate motions that avoid collision. Typical motions used in the plan include stepping towards the workspace, spreading the legs, bending the upper body at the waist while the whole body remains balanced, and moving the upper arm with respect to the shoulder. Only the geometric aspects of body motion are considered at this time. The agent is assumed to be initially located in the vicinity of the target object so that an end e ector goal can be achieved by taking only one or two steps. It is assumed that a given goal is not changed during the posture planning process. Collision-avoidance will be alluded to as necessary but the details are not addressed here Jun92 . The fundamental problem in achieving postural goals is controlling the massively redundant skeletal DOFs. There are 88 DOFs in the Jack model not counting ngers. Figure 5.35 shows a simpli ed tree containing only 36 DOFs that are necessary for gross motion. This excludes the vertebrae which account for most of the remaining freedom. To solve the redundancy problem, we should reduce the relevant DOFs to a manageable set at any given moment during motion planning. We use constraints to supplement the traditional methods of robot motion planning in joint space done solely using numeric computations LPW79, LP81, LP83, BHJ+ 83, LP87, Bro83b, Bro83a, Don87, Kha86, MK85, BLL89a, Bre89, CB92 . We reduce the complexity of the numeric computations by applying cues from qualitative knowledge and reasoning. 5 Moon Jung. 5.5. POSTURE PLANNING 193 Figure 5.33: A Human Figure Reaching Through Two Apertures with Both Arms. 194 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Figure 5.34: A Human Figure Climbing up a Rocky Surface. This Animation is Created with a Hybrid of Simulation Techniques. 5.5. POSTURE PLANNING 195 20,21,22 17,18,19 14,15,16 24 28,29,30 23 11,12,13 25,26,27 8,9,10 5,6,7 3 4 2 (34,35,36) 1 (31,32,33) Figure 5.35: The Reduced Degrees of Freedom of the Human Body. Here are the basic steps needed to determine postures needed to achieve a given end e ector goal. 1. Postulate primitive motions for the end e ector goal considering motion dependencies and a minimum disturbance constraint. For example, a motion dependency causes the palm to move forward and downward when the upper body is bent forward about the waist. While deciding on movement of body parts, the body is subjected to a constraint which requires minimal movements. For example, the agent does not bend if a relevant object can be grasped just by extending the hand. Primitive motions are de ned in terms of salient parameters de ned in the 3D Cartesian task space. These parameters are called control points and control vectors. They are points and vectors de ned on parts of the body that allow the conversion from task-level goals into an intuitive subset of body DOFs. 2. Use mental simulation to bind parameters of primitive motions and to detect collisions. The body is subject to inherent constraints such as one that requires that the body remain balanced when a task is performed. 3. If the mental simulation indicates that a body part would collide with an obstacle, identify collision-avoiding spatial constraints or suggest intermediate collision-avoiding goals by reasoning about the qualitative geometric relations among the body part, the goal placement, and the obstacle. 196 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS forehead view-vector shoulder palm-up-vector torso-up-vector palm-center pelvis-center pelvis-forward-vector foot body-ground-site Figure 5.36: Task-Level Control Parameters: Control Points and Vectors. 4. If the postulated motions violate already achieved goals or collisionavoiding constraints, use the amount of violation to replan and compensate for the violation. 5.5.1 Functionally Relevant High-level Control Parameters To control body postures e ectively, we represent spatial con guations of the body in terms of lumped" control parameters: control points and control vectors Figure 5.36. Control points are points de ned on important body parts such as feet, pelvis, head, and hands to control their positions. Control vectors are vectors de ned to control orientations. The task-space control points or vectors are considered to be the reduced set of DOFs of the body with respect to the task-space. The number of task-space DOFs that we consider is 14. A control point or vector moves relative to a base site of the control point or vector. For example, the palm-center may be moved with respect to a base site at the shoulder, the pelvis-center, or the body-ground-site. Or it may be moved as the whole body moves with respect to the base site outside of the body, that is, the origin of the world coordinate frame. The pelvis-forwardvector controls the horizontal orientation of the body and so is con ned to rotate along the horizontal circle centered at the pelvis-center. The torso- 5.5. POSTURE PLANNING 197 up-vector controls the forward backward orientation of the upper body. Note that the rough con guration of the body is de ned by the four primary control parameters: body-ground-site, pelvis-center, pelvis-forward-vector, and torsoup-vector. 5.5.2 Motions and Primitive Motions Motions are de ned by specifying control parameters and the directions and the distances to move them. We use the three standard directions along which to move or rotate: sagittal forward backward, vertical upward downward, and sideward leftward rightward. These relative directions are considered unit vectors de ned with respect to the body-centered coordinate frame. When we say that a control point moves forward, it means that the movement of the control point has the forward component. It may have other motion components. For example, we use the motion goal move-byforehead, downward, Dist to refer to a goal of moving the forehead downward by distance Dist and orient-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Angle to refer to a goal of rotating the torso-up-vector forward by angle Angle. A motion along a given direction is decomposed into the three components along the standard directions. This is convenient for two reasons. First, the component motions can be independently planned, although interference among them must be taken into account. Second, it is easy to nd cooperative motions that contribute to a given standard motion component. Note that motion move-byforehead, downward, Dist does not specify the base site relative to which the forehead is to move. The forehead may move relative to the pelvis-center by bending the torso-up-vector forward, or relative to the body-ground-site by lowering the pelvis-center down, or do both in sequence or parallel. A motion which speci es the base site of a control point or vector is called a primitive motion. Examples of primitive motions are given in Table 5.1. Primitive move-byleft.palm-center, downward, Dist, pelvis-center means that the agent moves the left palm center downward by distance Dist with respect to base site pelvis-center. When the body-groundsite is moved, its base site is the world origin world. For example, movebybody-ground-site, forward, Dist, world means that the body-ground-site is moved forward by distance Dist with respect to the world origin. The consequences of a primitive motion are not speci ed in terms of precondition-action-e ect rules. Rather they are computed by incremental motion simulation by taking advantage of the underlying geometric properties of the body and the body balance constraint. Enumerating e ects of primitive motions under di erent conditions is simply not feasible in the continuous domain of motion planning with massively redundant bodies. 5.5.3 Motion Dependencies A positional goal is translated into a conjunction of simultaneous goals. For example, given a positional goal, GoalPos, 198 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Table 5.1: Primitive Motions for Manipulating Control Parameters. move-byleft.palm-center, downward, Dist move-byleft.palm-center, downward, Dist, shoulder move-byleft.palm-center, downward, Dist, pelvis-center move-bybody-ground-site, forward, Dist, world orient-bypelvis-forward-vector, leftward, Ang orient-bypelvis-forward-vector, leftward, Ang, pelvis-center orient-bypelvis-forward-vector, leftward, Ang, body-ground-site the di erence vector from the current position of the palm center to the goal position GoalPos is decomposed into the forward, downward, and rightward component vectors, with their distances being F, D, and R respectively . That is, positional goal positioned-atright.palm-center, GoalPos is translated to the conjunction of the three component motion goals: move-byright.palmcenter, forward, F, move-byright.palm-center, downward, D, and movebyright.palm-center, rightward, R. There are several ways to achieve each component motion goal. They are determined based on the motion dependencies among di erent body parts. More precisely, they are relationships among control parameters described as follows: 1. move-byright.palm-center, forward, Dist has four contributors: a b c d move-byright.shoulder, right.palm-center, forward, D1, rotate-bypelvis-forward-vector, leftward, Ang2, rotate-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang3, pelvis-center, move-bybody-ground-site, forward, D4, world, such that Dist = D1 + D2Ang2 + D3Ang3 + D4, where D2Ang2 is the distance that the right-palm-center travels due to the rotation of the pelvis-forward-vector leftward by angle Ang2 and D3Ang3 is the distance that the right-palm-center travels due to the rotation of the torso-up-vector forward by angle Ang3. In general, these distances are dependent on the body context, the situation in which the body is placed. Hence it would be extremely hard to compute them analytically in advance without incremental simulation. 2. move-bypalm-center, downward, Dist has two contributors: a move-bypalm-center, downward, D1, shoulder, b move-byshoulder, downward, D2 such that Dist = D1 + D2. 5.5. POSTURE PLANNING 199 3. move-byshoulder, downward, Dist has two contributors: a rotate-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang1, pelvis-center, b move-bypelvis-center, downward, D2, body-ground-site such that Dist = D1Ang1 + D2, where D1Ang1 is the distance that the shoulder travels due to the rotation of the torso-up-vector with respect to the pelvis-center by angle Ang1. 4. move-bypalm-center, leftward, Dist has four contributors: a b c d move-byright.shoulder, right.palm-center, leftward, D1, rotate-bypelvis-forward-vector, leftward, Ang2, rotate-bytorso-up-vector, leftward, Ang3, pelvis-center, move-bybody-ground-site, leftward, D4, world, such that Dist = D1 + D2Ang2 + D3Ang3 + D4, where D2 is the distance that the right-palm-center travels due to the rotation of the pelvis-forward-vector leftward by angle Ang2 and D3 is the distance that the right-palm-center travels due to the rotation of the torso-upvector leftward by angle Ang3. How much to move or rotate the contributing control parameters to achieve a given goal is not part of what we call motion dependencies. They are determined by mental simulation. 5.5.4 The Control Structure of Posture Planning The control structure of posture planning Figure 5.37 is described. The planner maintains the partial plan the plan under construction that has unordered goals and motions and the list of constraints on goals or motions. The partial plan is initialized to the input goals: positioned-atpalm-center, GoalPos, aligned-withpalm-up-vector, GoalVector , which are subject to the proximity constraints. The motion postulator is invoked to suggest a sequence of primitive motions needed to achieve the current goal. The motions are rst postulated without considering collisions, while respecting the previously identi ed constraints. When the motions are postulated, the motion simulator selects motions to achieve the positional goal. To do so, the motion dependencies among body parts are used. They permit many alternative ways of achieving a given goal. They are partly constrained by the minimum disturbance constraint which prescribes that body parts farther away from the end e ector or the upper body are to move only when movements of body parts nearer the end e ector or the upper body are not su cient to achieve a given postural goal. The minimum disturbance constraint is procedurally incorporated into the motion postulator. To determine the values of distance parameters, selected motions are simulated by incrementally changing the 200 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS collision-avoiding goal generated result of simulation start collision Proximity Goal Generator endeffector goal Motion Postulator current goals/ constraints postulated motions Motion Simulator current Collision Avoiding Goal Generator motions PARTIAL PLAN / CONSTRAINT LIST Simulated Geometric World collision-avoiding goals / constraints : Data Flow : Control Flow Figure 5.37: The Overall Control of Planning. control parameters until the goal values are reached. The incremental step size for each control parameter is assumed to be xed. When the motions are determined, the motion simulator is again invoked to detect potential collisions of important body parts, hands, the upper body including the head, and the lower body. Collision detection of important body parts seems su cient for the purpose of nding a gross motion plan. If collisions are detected, the motion simulator marks the faces of the obstacles with which body parts collided for the rst time and continues the simulation, even with object penetration, until the selected motions are fully achieved. This reveals all potential body part collisions and provides more lookahead without signi cant extra cost. If collision has occurred during the motion simulation the planner calls the collision-avoiding goal generator to generate intermediate goals. The achievement of the collision-avoiding goals is then planned by the motion postulator. 5.5.5 An Example of Posture Planning The process of posture planning is best described using an example. Consider a positional goal positioned-atright.palm-center, GoalPos. Assume that the proximity constraints which the positional goal is subject to are already 5.5. POSTURE PLANNING 201 achieved and are maintained. For simplicity of exposition, the end e ector goal is assumed to have only the forward and downward components, ignoring the sideward component. Consider the situation in Figure 5.38. 1. Translate the input goal positioned-atright.palm-center, GoalPos to its contributor motions: move-byright.palm-center, forward, F and move-byright.palm-center, downward, D, where the goal vector from the palm center to goal position GoalPos is decomposed to vectors F and D. 2. According to the minimum disturbance constraint, the shoulder is tried rst as the base joint of the palm-center motions. This will be done if the distance between the shoulder and the goal position is less than the arm length. Otherwise, the shoulder should be rst moved so that the distance between the new shoulder position and the goal position will be less than the arm length. A plausible goal position of the shoulder can be simply found as shown in Figure 5.39. To nd it, rst get the vector ArmLine between the shoulder and the goal position of the end e ector. Get the vector Arm whose length is equal to the arm length and which is parallel to vector ArmLine. Then the di erence vector Di = ArmLine , Arm becomes the motion vector of the base site, the shoulder. Suggest parallel primitive motions move-toright.palm-center, forward, F0, right.shoulder and move-toright.palm-center, downward, D0, right.shoulder and add them to the goal tree. Then, extract the downward and forward motion components from the di erence vector Di . Let the downward component be DDist and the forward component FDist Figure 5.39. Add two goals move-byright.shoulder, downward, DDist and move-byright.shoulder, forward, FDist to the goal tree. They are parallel goals to be achieved at the same time. They are added to the goal tree to be achieved before the end e ector motions previously added. 3. Get the top two goals from the goal tree. Nonlinear planning is used to plan for the goals, that is, each goal is planned for independently starting from the current situation. If the goals interfere, they are resolved by nding and removing the causes of the con ict. According to the motion dependencies, goal move-byright.shoulder, forward, FDist can be achieved by i orient-by torso-up-vector, forward, Ang2, pelvis-center and ii move-bybody-ground-site, forward, F1, world where FDist = F1 + F2Ang2. Goal move-byright.shoulder, downward, DDist is achieved by a orient-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang1, pelvis-center and b move-bypelvis-center, downward, D2, body-ground-site, where DDist = D1Ang1 + D2. Here D1Ang1 is the movement of the shoulder caused by bending the torso-up-vector by angle Ang1 and D2 is the movement of the shoulder caused by lowering the pelvis-center. 4. Consider subplan i orient-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang1, pelviscenter and ii move-tobody-ground-site, forward, FDist, world for 202 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS the forward component goal of the shoulder. Based on the minimum disturbance constraint, motion i alone is rst tried, because its base site pelvis-center is more proximal to the control point, the shoulder, than is the base site world of motion ii. Motion i orient-bytorsoup-vector, forward, Ang2, pelvis-center helps achieve the rst goal as long as the precondition holds that the shoulder is above the horizontal plane passing through the pelvis-center Figure 5.40. Incrementally simulate motion i to determine angle parameter Ang2 Figure 5.39. This angle value is di cult to predict without incremental simulation, because this value is a ected by the body balance constraint. Simulate the motion until the forward component goal of the shoulder is achieved or the precondition is violated. Because the precondition is violated before the forward component goal is achieved, it is concluded that motion i alone is not su cient. Motion ii is used to ll the remaining gap. The distance F1 that motion ii should achieve is easily predicted by simple arithmetic Figure 5.41. The temporal relation between motions i and ii is determined, because the motion whose base site is the world origin world is to be achieved rst. Consider subplan a orient-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang1, pelviscenter and b move-bypelvis-center, downward, D2, body-ground-site, where DDist = D1Ang1 + D2, for the downward component goal of the shoulder. According the minimum disturbance constraint, motion a alone is chosen rst, because its base site pelvis-center is more proximal to the hand than is the base site of motion b, body-ground-site. This is compatible with the observation that lowering the pelvis-center requires bending the knees and is considered more di cult than bending the torso-up-vector. This may not be possible if bending the torso causes collision. But in this example, collisions are not considered. Incrementally simulate motion b to determine angle parameter Ang2. Simulate until the downward component goal of the shoulder is achieved, that is, DDist = D1Ang1. Because motion a for the downward component is the same bending the torso as motion ii for the forward component, the simulation of motion a will be done by augmenting or subtracting the simulation of motion ii. 5. The above reasoning suggests two motions move-bybody-ground-site, forward, F1, world and orient-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang2, pelviscenter for the forward component goal of the shoulder, and one motion orient-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang1, pelvis-center for the downward component goal of the shoulder. If the two sets of motions do not interfere with each other with respect to the achievement of the two parallel goals, the motion postulation is successful. But this is not the case. When motion orient-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang1, pelvis-center is simulated to achieve the downward motion component DDist, the shoulder goes below the horizontal plane passing through the pelvis-center Figure 5.42. It therefore also contributes negatively to the forward mo- 5.5. POSTURE PLANNING 203 tion component FDist, partly violating the goal move-byright.shoulder, forward, FDist. The motion postulator rst attempts to resolve this goal interference by modifying distance parameters of motions in the current partial plan goal tree. If the rebinding of motion parameters fails, the motion postulator will try other combinations of contributing motions. When the motion postulator modi es the subplans, subplans with more contributing motions are tried earlier than are those with fewer motions. In particular, subplans with single motions cannot be rebound without destroying the goals they achieved. Consider a subplan with more than one contributing motion. If the distance of one motion is modi ed to avoid the goal interference, this also causes the violation of the goal of the subplan. But the distances of the other motions can be modi ed to compensate for that violation. In the current example, the motion postulator keeps the subplan for the downward goal of the shoulder, because it has only one motion orient-bytorso-up-vector, forward, Ang2, pelvis-center. This decision a ects motion orient-bytorso-upvector, forward, Ang1, pelvis-center in the subplan for the forward goal of the shoulder, with Ang1 := Ang2. This decision in fact turns out to be the same as the initial arbitrary decision used to simulate the two subplans. Simulate the two subplans thus obtained. Get the distance of the negative contribution from the resulting simulated situation. Let the distance be NegDist. The distance can be achieved by adding an additional motion move-bybody-ground-site, forward, NegDist, world. This motion compensates for the distance DegDist without doing any harm to the downward goal of the shoulder. But the motion postulator is supposed to see rst that modifying the distance parameters of the current plans will work, before trying to add other motions. That is possible in this case by modifying motion move-bybody-ground-site, forward, FDist, world to move-bybody-ground-site, forward, FDist + NegDist, world. 6. After the shoulder goals are achieved, the current motions in the goal tree to be considered are the downward and forward motions of the palm-center with respect to the current position of the shoulder. Simulate these motions. Both motion components are achieved with equal importance given to each of them. They will be achieved if there are no hindrances constraints or obstacles at all, because the position of the shoulder has been obtained based on that assumption. If there are hindrances, the base of the palm-center the shoulder needs to be relocated as the palm-center is moved to intermediate goals. The intermediate goals are found to avoid the hindrances while achieving the goal of the palm-center. 204 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS Figure 5.38: The Initial Situation for a Given Goal. FDist shoulder DDist new shoulder hand Figure 5.39: The Two Components of the Shoulder Di erence Vector. 5.5. POSTURE PLANNING 205 The horizontal line passing the pelvis center Figure 5.40: As Long as the Shoulder is Above the Horizontal Line, Bending the Torso-Up-Vector Moves the Shoulder Forward. FDist shoulder Ang2 DDist F2 F1 ( FDist = F1 + F2(Ang2) ) Figure 5.41: Achieving the Forward Component: By Moving the BodyGround-Site and Bending the Torso. 206 CHAPTER 5. SIMULATION WITH SOCIETIES OF BEHAVIORS FDist Ang1 DDist BDist (DDist = D1(Ang1) ) BDist : Negative Contribution of Bending the Torso Figure 5.42: Achieving the Downward Component: By Rotating the TorsoUp-Vector Forward, Which Violates the Forward Component by Distance BDist. Chapter 6 Task-Level Speci cations So far we have been talking about real-time interactive display and manipulation of human gures, with the goal of enabling human factors engineers to augment their analyses of designed environments by having human gures carry out tasks intended for those environments. This chapter explores the use of task-level speci cations as an alternative to direct manipulation for generating task simulations. By now, the reader should be convinced of the value of being able to simulate, observe and evaluate agents carrying out tasks. The question is what is added by being able to produce such simulations from high-level task speci cations. The answer is e cient use of the designer's expertise and time. A designer views tasks primarily in terms of what needs to be accomplished, not in terms of moving objects or the agent's articulators in ways that will eventually produce an instance of that behavior e.g., in terms of slowing down and making a left turn rather than in terms of attaching the agent's right hand to the clutch, moving the clutch forward, reattaching the agent's right hand to the steering wheel, then rotating the wheel to the left and then back an equal distance to the right. As was the case in moving programming from machinecode to high-level programming languages, it can be more e cient to leave it to some computer system to convert a designer's high-level goal-oriented view of a task into the agent behavior needed to accomplish it. Moreover, if that same computer system is exible enough to produce agent behavior that is appropriate to the agent's size and strength and to the particulars of any given environment that the designer wants to test out, then the designer is freed from all other concerns than those of imagining and specifying the environments and agent characteristics that should be tested. This chapter then will describe a progression of recent collaborative efforts between the University of Pennsylvania's Computer Graphics Research Lab and the LINC Lab Language, INformation and Computation to move towards true high-level task speci cations embodying the communicative richness and e ciency of Natural Language instructions. The rst section will describe our earliest work on using simple Natural 207 208 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS Language commands to drive task animation. This work also dealt with an aspect of performance simulation that is rarely communicated in task speci cations: how long an action will take an agent to perform. Section 6.2 describes our next e ort at using Natural Language commands to drive task animation, focusing on how kinematic and spatial aspects of desired behavior are conveyed in Natural Language commands. One of the consequences of these rst two studies is understanding the value of a strati ed approach to mapping from language to behavior: it is not e cient for, say, the language understanding components to make decisions that commit the agent moving a hand or a knee in a particular way, unless those movements are stated explicitly but rarely in the text. Because of this recognized need for intermediate representations between Natural Language descriptions and animation directives, an experiment was performed, described in Section 6.3, in which an intermediate level compositional language was created for specifying task-actions and generating task-level animated simulations from scripts written in this language. This demonstration paves the way for the ultimate connection between the behavioral simulation structure of the preceding Chapter and the conceptual structures of this one. Each of these early e orts focused on individual commands in Natural Language. Task speci cations, on the order of Natural Language instructions, go beyond individual commands in specifying what an agent should and shouldn't do. Since our current work is aimed at generating task animations from speci cations as rich as Natural Language instructions, we devote the discussion in Section 6.4 to describing some features of instructions and what an understanding system requires in order to derive from them what a person would in understanding and acting in response to instructions. 6.1 Performing Simple Commands 1 Our rst work on driving task animation through Natural Language com- mands was a prototype system developed by Je rey Esakov that explored simple relations between language and behavior EBJ89 . In this case, the desired behaviors were simple arm reaches and head orientation view changes on the part of the animated gures. While seemingly very easy, these tasks already demonstrate much of the essential complexity underlying languagebased animation control. 6.1.1 Task Environment In Esakov's work, the tasks to be animated center around a control panel i.e. a nite region of more or less rigidly xed manually-controllable objects here, the remote manipulator system control panel in the space shuttle with its variety of controls and indicators. Because Esakov was producing task animations for task performance analysis, he needed to allow performance 1 Je rey Esakov. 6.1. PERFORMING SIMPLE COMMANDS 209 to depend upon the anthropometry of the agent executing the task. In the experiments, all the controls were in fact reachable without torso motion by the agents being animated: failure situations were not investigated and the fully articulated torso was not yet available. An animation of one of the experiments can be found in EB91 . 6.1.2 Linking Language and Motion Generation The primary focus of this work was to combine Natural Language task specication and animation in an application-independent manner. This approach used the following Natural Language script: John is a 50 percentile male. Jane is a 50 percentile female. John, look at switch twf-1. John, turn twf-1 to state 4. Jane, look at twf-3. Jane, look at tglJ-1. Jane, turn tglJ-1 on. John, look at tglJ-2. Jane, look at twf-2. Jane, turn twf-2 to state 1. John, look at twf-2. John, look at Jane. Jane, look at John. The abbreviations denote thumbwheels such as twf-1 and toggle switches such as tglJ-1. Thumbwheels have states set by rotation; toggles typically have two states, on or off. This type of script, containing simple independent commands, is common to checklist procedures such as those done in airplanes or space shuttles Cen81 . The verb look at" requires a view change on the part of the gure, and the verb turn" requires a simple reach. Fine hand motions, such as nger and wrist rotations, were not animated as part of this work. The two primary problems then are specifying reach and view goals, and connecting object references to their geometric instances. 6.1.3 Specifying Goals For these reach tasks the goal is the 3D point which the ngertips of the hand should touch. A view goal is a point in space toward which one axis of an object must be aimed. Spatially, such goals are just Peabody sites and must be speci ed numerically with respect to a coordinate system. Within the natural language environment, goals are not seen as coordinates, but rather as the objects located there for example, John, look at switch twF-1. Jane, turn switch tglJ-1 on. 210 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS Because the exact locations of the switches is unimportant at the language level, in creating an animation, the switch name tglJ-1 must be mapped to the appropriate switch on the panel in the animation environment. The same process must be followed for the target object toward which an object axis must be aligned in a view change. This problem reduces to one of object referencing. 6.1.4 The Knowledge Base In general, all objects have names. Since the names in the task speci cation environment may be di erent from those in the animation environment, there must be a mapping between the names. The knowledge base that Esakov used contained information about object names and hierarchies, but not actual geometry or location. He used a frame-like knowledge base called DC-RL to store symbolic information Ceb87 . For example, the DC-RL code for an isolated toggle switch, tglJ-1, follows: concept tglJ-1 from control having  role name with value = "TOGGLE J-1" role locative with value = panel1 role type-of with value = switch role sub-type with value = tgl role direction with value = down up role states with value = off on role movement with value = discrete mm linear off on 20 5 role current with value = off  To reference this switch from within the animation environment, a mapping le was generated at the same time the graphical object was described. concept ctrlpanel from panelfig having  role twF-1 with value = ctrlpanel.panel.twf_1 role twF-2 with value = ctrlpanel.panel.twf_2 role twF-3 with value = ctrlpanel.panel.twf_3 role tglJ-1 with value = ctrlpanel.panel.tglj_1 role tglJ-2 with value = ctrlpanel.panel.tglj_2  6.1. PERFORMING SIMPLE COMMANDS 211 The names twF-1, twF-2, tglJ-1 correspond to the names of switches in the existing knowledge base panel description called panelfig. These names are mapped to the corresponding names in the animation environment e.g., ctrlpanel.panel.twf 1, etc. and are guaranteed to match. 6.1.5 The Geometric Database The underlying geometric database is just Peabody code. The salient toggle and thumbwheel locations were simply mapped to appropriate sites on a host segment representing the control panel object. The relevant part of the Peabody description of the panel gure is shown: figure ctrlpanel segment panel psurf = "panel.pss"; site base- location = trans0.00cm,0.00cm,0.00cm; site twf_1- location = trans13.25cm,163.02cm,80.86cm; site twf_2- location = trans64.78cm,115.87cm,95.00cm; site twf_3- location = trans52.84cm,129.09cm,91.43cm; site tglj_1- location = trans72.36cm,158.77cm,81.46cm; site tglj_2- location = trans9.15cm,115.93cm,94.98cm; This entire le is automatically generated by a modi ed paint program. Using the panel as a texture map, switch locations are interactively selected and the corresponding texture map coordinates are computed as the site transformation. The panel itself is rendered as a texture map over a simple polygon and the individual sites then refer to the appropriate visual features of the switches. 6.1.6 Creating an Animation Linking the task level description to the animation requires linking both object references and actions. A table maps the names of objects from the task description environment into the psurf geometry of the animation environment. In this simple problem domain the language processor provides the other link by associating a single key pose with a single animation command. Each part of speech lls in slots in an animation command template. Simple Jack behaviors compute the nal posture required by each command which are then strung together via simple joint angle interpolation. 212 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS 6.1.7 Default Timing Constructs Even though the basic key poses can be generated based upon a Natural Language task description, creating the overall animation can still be di cult. We have already discussed posture planning and collision avoidance issues, but there is yet another problem that bears comment. From the given command input, the timing of the key poses is either unknown, unspeci ed, or arbitrary. Action timings could be explicitly speci ed in the input, but languagebased task descriptions do not normally indicate time. Alternatively, de ning the time at which actions occur can be arbitrarily decided and iterated until a reasonable task animation can be produced. In fact, much animator e ort is normally required to temporally position key postures. There are, however, more computational ways of formulating a reasonable guess for possible task duration. Several factors e ect task performance times, for example: level of expertise, desire to perform the task, degree of fatigue mental and physical, distance to be moved, and target size. Realistically speaking, all of these need to be considered in the model, yet some are di cult to quantify. Obviously, the farther the distance to be moved, the longer a task should take. Furthermore, it is intuitively accepted that performing a task which requires precision work should take longer than one not involving precision work: for example, threading a needle versus putting papers on a desk. Fitts Fit54 and Fitts and Peterson FP64 investigated performance time with respect to two of the above factors, distance to be moved and target size. It was found that amplitude A, distance to be moved and target width W  are related to time in a simple equation: Movement Time = a + b log 2A 6:1 W where a and b are task-dependent constants. In this formulation, an index of movement di culty is manipulated by the ratio of target width to amplitude and is given by: 6:2 ID = log 2A W This index of di culty shows the speed and accuracy tradeo in movement. Since A is constant for any particular task, to decrease the performance time the only other variable in the equation W must be increased. That is, the faster a task is to be performed, the larger the target area and hence the movements are less accurate. This equation known as Fitts' Law can be embedded in the animation system, since for any given reach task, both A and W are known. The constants a and b are linked to the other factors such training, desire, fatigue, and body segments to be moved; they must be determined empirically. For button tapping tasks, Fitts FP64 determined the movement time MT  to be MTarm = 74ID , 70msec 6:3 6.1. PERFORMING SIMPLE COMMANDS 213 Task Duration Times msec Actor Action ID Fitts Duration Scaled Duration John Look twf-1 2.96 321 963 John Turn twf-1 5.47 335 1004 John Look tglJ-2 4.19 566 1697 John Look twf-2 4.01 530 1590 John Look Jane 4.64 655 1966 Jane Look twf-3 4.28 584 876 Jane Look tglJ-1 3.64 456 685 Jane Turn tglJ-1 5.39 329 493 Jane Look twf-2 4.16 560 840 Jane Turn twf-2 4.99 299 449 Jane Look John 4.33 594 891 Table 6.1: Task Durations Using Fitts' Law. In determining this equation, it was necessary to lter out the extraneous factors. This was done by having the subjects press the button as quickly as possible and allowing them to control the amount of time between trials. Jagacinski and Monk JM85 performed a similar experiment to determine the movement time for the head and obtained the following equation MThead = 199ID0 , 268msec 6.4 2A ID0 = log W , W 6.5 0 This equation is the result of equating the task to inserting a peg of diameter W0 into a hole of diameter W , and resulted in a better t of the data. For our purposes the above constants may not apply. Since it was our desire to have the man in our animation move sluggishly and the woman move quickly but not too quickly, we scaled Equations 6.3 and 6.4 by di ering constants. MTmanarm = 3  MTarm MTmanhead = 3  MThead MTwomanarm = 1:5  MTarm MTwomanhead = 1:5  MThead This width of the target, W in equation 6.2 was chosen to be 1cm. For head movements, we chose W0 = :33 after JM85 . This results in the action durations shown in Table 6.1. Although Fitts' Law has been found to be true for a variety of movements including arm movements A = 5 , 30cm, wrist movements A = 1:3cm 214 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS Dru75, JM85, LCF76 , and head movements A = 2:45 , 7:50  JM85 the application to 3D computer animation is only approximate. The constants di er for each limb and are only valid within a certain movement amplitude in 2D space, therefore the extrapolation of the data outside that range and into 3D space has no validated experimental basis. Nonetheless, Fitts' Law provides a reasonable and easily computed basis for approximating movement durations. While it may seem odd at rst to have attacked both Natural Language interpretation and timing constructs as part of the same research, Esakov's work foreshadows our more recent work on language and animation by focusing on the fact that the same instruction, given to agents with di erent abilities, will be carried out in di erent ways. Language tells an agent what he or she should attempt to do: how he or she does it depends on them. 6.2 Language Terms for Motion and Space 2 The next piece of work that was done on driving task animation through Natural Language commands was Jugal Kalita's work on how Natural Language conveys desired motion and spatial aspects of an agent's behavior. In English, the primary burden falls on verbs and their modi ers. Kalita's work showed how verbs and their modi ers can be seen as conveying spatial and kinematic constraints on behavior, thereby enabling a computer to create an animated simulation of a task speci ed in a Natural Language utterance. This work is described at greater length in Kal90, KB90, KB91 . 6.2.1 Simple Commands To understand Kalita's contribution, consider the following commands: Put the block on the table. Turn the switch to position 6. Roll the ball across the table. Each of these commands speci es a task requested of an agent. Performing the task, requires inter alia that the agent understand and integrate the meanings of the verbs put, turn, open, roll and the prepositions on, to, across. This requires understanding the signi cant geometric, kinematic or dynamic features of the actions they denote. In Kalita' approach to physically based semantics, a motion verb denotes what may be called a core or kernel actions. This kernel representation is then used with object knowledge and general knowledge about actions to obtain semantic representations and subsequent task performance plans which are speci c to a context for example, 2 Jugal Kalita. 6.2. LANGUAGE TERMS FOR MOTION AND SPACE 215 The core meaning of the verb put as in Put the block on the table establishes a geometric constraint that the rst object here, the block remains geometrically constrained to or, brought in contact with and supported by a desired position on the second object here, the table. The core meaning of the verb push as in Push the block against the cone involves applying a force on the manipulated object here, the block through the instrument object here, the hand. The prepositional phrase speci es the destination of the intended motion. The verb roll as in Roll the ball across the table involves two related motions occurring simultaneously|one rotational about some axis of the object, and the other translational, caused by the rst motion. The rotational motion is repeated an arbitrary number of times. 6.2.2 Representational Formalism Geometric relations and geometric constraints The meanings of locative prepositions are represented using a template called a geometric-relation. A simple geometric relation is a frame-slot structure: geometric-relation: spatial-type: source-constraint-space: destination-constraint-space: selectional-restrictions: Spatial-type refers to the type of the geometric relation speci ed. Its values may be positional or orientational. The two slots called source-constraintspace and destination-constraint-space refer to one or more objects, or parts or features thereof, which need to be related. For example, the command Put the cup on the table requires one to bring the bottom surface of the cup into contact with the top surface of the table. The command Put the ball on the table requires bringing an arbitrary point on the surface of the ball in contact with the surface of the table top. Since the items being related may be arbitrary geometric entities i.e., points, surfaces, volumes, etc., we call them spaces. The rst space is called the source-constraint space and the second, the destination-constraint space. The slot selectional-restrictions refers to conditions static, dynamic, global or object-speci c that need to be satis ed before the constraint can be executed. More complex geometric relations require two or more geometric relations to be satis ed simultaneously: geometric-relation: f g-union g-relation-1 g-relation-2  g-relation-n g 216 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS where g-relation-i is simple or complex. Geometric relations are also used in the speci cation of geometric constraints, which are geometric goals to be satis ed: Geometric-constraint: execution-type: geometric-relation: Geometric constraints are distinguished by their execution-type slot, which can take one of four values: achieve, break, maintain or modify. Kinematics The frame used for specifying kinematic aspects of motion is the following: Kinematics: motion-type: source: destination: path-geometry: velocity: axis: Motions are mainly of two types: translational and rotational. In order to describe a translational motion, we need to specify the source of the motion, its destination, the trajectory of its path path-geometry, and the velocity of the motion. In the case of rotational motion, path-geometry is circular, and velocity, if speci ed, is angular. Rotational motion requires an axis of rotation. If not speci ed, it is inferred by consulting geometric knowledge about the object concerned. Kernel actions The central part of an action consists of one or more components: dynamics, kinematics and geometric-constraints|along with control structures stating its other features. The control structures used in the examples that follow are: repeat-arbitrary-times and concurrent. The keyword concurrent is specied when two or more components, be they kinematic, dynamic or geometric constraints, need to be satis ed or achieved at the same time. The keyword repeat-arbitrary-times provides a means for specifying the frequentation property of certain verbs where certain sub-actions are repeated several times. The verbs' semantic representation need not specify how many times the action or sub-action may need to be repeated. However, since every action is presumed to end, the number of repetitions of an action will have to be computed from simulation based on tests for some suitable termination conditions, or by inference unless speci ed linguistically as in Shake the block about fty times. 6.2. LANGUAGE TERMS FOR MOTION AND SPACE 217 6.2.3 Sample Verb and Preposition Speci cations Many of the features of Kalita's representation formalism can be seen in his representation of the verbs roll" and open" and the prepositions in" and across". Others can be seen in the worked example in Section 6.2.4. A kinematic verb: roll The verb roll refers to two motions occurring concurrently: a rotational motion about the longitudinal axis of the object and a translational motion of the object along an arbitrary path. The rotational motion is repeated an arbitrary number of times. The verb roll is thus speci ed as: roll l-agent, l-object, path-relation agent: l-agent object:l-object kernel-action: concurrent ff f kinematic: motion-type: rotational axis: longitudinal-axis-of l-object g repeat-arbitrary-times g f kinematic: motion-type: translational path: path-relation g g selectional restrictions: has-circular-contour l-object, longitudinal-axis-of l-object A verb that removes constraints: open One sense of open is to move as a door from closed position. The meaning is de ned with respect to a speci c position of a speci c object. The closed position of the object can be viewed as a constraint on its position or orientation. Thus, this sense of open involves an underlying action that undoes an existing constraint. The object under consideration is required to have at least two parts: a solid 2D part the cover and an un lled 2D part de ned by some kind of frame the hole. The meaning must capture two things: 1 that at the start of the action, the object's cover must occupy the total space available in object's hole in the constrained position, and 2 that the result of the action is to remove the constraint that object's cover and its hole are in one coincident plane. This is ful lled by requiring that the two sub-objects the hole and the cover are of the same shape and size. The de nition for open is: open Ag, Obj  agent: Ag object: Obj kernel-action: geometric-constraint: 218 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS execution-type: break spatial-type: positional geometric-relation: source-constraint-space: Obj hole destination-constraint-space: Obj cover selectional-restrictions: contains-part Obj, hole contains-part Obj, cover area-of Obj cover = area-of Obj hole shape-of Obj cover = shape-of Obj hole A locative preposition: in The sense of in captured here is within the bounds of, contained in or included within. According to Herskovits Her86 , this use type for in is spatial entity in a container. This meaning of in is speci ed as in X,Y , geometric-relation: spatial-type: positional source-constraint-space: volume-of X destination-constraint-space:interior-of Y selectional-restrictions: or container-p Y, container-p any-of sub-parts-of Y size-of X  size-of Y normally-oriented Y A container is an object which can hold one or more objects such that the object is surrounded by" the volume de ned by the boundaries of the container. It is a concept which is di cult to de ne clearly, although heuristics can be devised to recognize whether an object is a container. For our purposes, if an object or any of its parts can work as containers, it will be so labeled in the function slot of its representation. The second selectional restriction is due to Cooper Coo68 . The third restriction is due to Herskovits, who explains its necessity by stating that the sentence The bread is in the bowl is pragmatically unacceptable if the bowl is upside down and covers the bread under it Her86 . A path preposition: across Path is a part of kinematic speci cation of a motion or an action. A complete de nition of path requires specifying its source, destination and path geometry, which Kalita does, using a structure called a path-speci cation: path-speci cation: source: destination: path-geometry: 6.2. LANGUAGE TERMS FOR MOTION AND SPACE 219 Across is one of several path prepositions in English. Others include from, to, around, round and along. Across has two types of meanings|dynamic and static locative meaning. The dynamic meaning implies a journey across an object, whereas the static meaning implies a location between two lines edges perpendicular to them and touching, and possibly extending beyond them. The dynamic sense of across is seen in: Roll Slide Move the block ball across the board. This dynamic sense of across speci es all three components required for path speci cation. across X, Y , path-speci cation: source: any-of exterior-edges-of Y, parallel-to longitudinal-axis Y destination:any-of exterior-edges-of Y, parallel-to longitudinal-axis Y path-geometry: straight-line selectional-restrictions: destination 6= source has-axis X, longitudinal angle-between path-geometry, longitudinal-axis Y, 90  length Y  width Y length Y dimension-of X,along-direction longitudinal-axis Y The longitudinal axis of an object is the axis along which the length of an object is measured. There are a number of selectional restrictions imposed on the objects X and Y also. For example, the reason for the fourth selectional restriction can be gauged from the two phrases: across the road and along the road. 6.2.4 Processing a sentence The sentence Put the block on the table can be used to show how Kalita's system obtains a meaning for a whole sentence from the meanings of its parts, i.e., the lexical entries of its constituent words. The lexical entry for put speci es the achievement of a geometric relationship between an object and a location speci ed by a prepositional phrase. The meaning of the verb is speci ed in terms of a yet-unspeci ed geometric relation between two objects. The preposition on along with the objects involved leads to the sense that deals with support. A bottom-up parser FW83 returns the logical meaning representation as put you block-1 on block-1 table-1 . In this representation, the verb put takes three arguments: a subject, an object and the representation for a locative expression. Entities block-1 and table-1 are objects in the world determined to be the referents of the noun phrases. The logical representation has you as the value of the subject since the sentence is imperative. Now, to obtain the intermediate meaning representation, the arguments of put in the logical representation are matched with the arguments in the following lexical entry for put: 220 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS put l-agent, l-object, l-locative , agent: l-agent object: l-object kernel-actions: geometric-constraint: execution-type: achieve geometric-relation: l-locative This lexical entry has three arguments. After matching, l-agent has the value you, l-object has the value block-1, and l-locative has the value on block-1 table-1. The value of the geometric-relation slot of the kernel-actions slot in the representation is lled in by the semantic representation for the l-locative argument which is created from the meaning of on the table", using the following de nition of on": on X,Y , geometric-relation: spatial-type: positional source-constraint-space: any-of self-supporting-spaces-of X destination-constraint-space: any-of supporter-surfaces-of Y selectional-restrictions: horizontal-p destination-constraint-space equal direction-of normal-to destination-constraint-space, global-up" free-p destination-constraint-space As a result, the intermediate meaning representation of put the block on the table" is: agent: you object: block-1 kernel-actions: geometric-constraint: execution-type: achieve geometric-relation: spatial-type: positional source-constraint-space: any-of self-supporting-spaces-of block-1 destination-constraint-space: any-of supporting-surfaces-of table-1 selectional-restrictions: horizontal-p destination-constraint-space equal direction-of normal-to destination-constraint-space, global-up" free-p destination-constraint-space In order to execute the action dictated by this sentence, the program looks at the knowledge stored about the block to nd a part of the block on which 6.2. LANGUAGE TERMS FOR MOTION AND SPACE 221 it can support itself. It observes that it can be supported on any one of its faces and no face is more salient than any other. A cube the shape of the block has six faces and one is chosen randomly as the support area. Next, the program consults the knowledge stored about the table and searches for a part or feature of the desk which can be used to support other objects. It gathers that its function is to support small" objects on its top. This top surface is also horizontal. As a result, nally, the system concludes that one of the sides of the cube has to be brought in contact with the top of the table. The nal meaning for the sentence obtained is agent: you object: block-1 kernel-actions: geometric-constraint: execution-type: achieve geometric-relation: spatial-type: positional source-constraint-space: block-1 side-2 destination-constraint-space: table-1 top-1 block-1 side-2 represents a speci c face of a speci c block. table-1 top-1 represents the top surface of a speci c table. This nal representation is then sent to a planner JKBC91 which produces a plan for performing the task by an animated agent in a given workspace. The plan is taken up by a simulator BWKE91 which establishes connection with Jack and then produces an animation: The block is initially sitting on top of a closed box. The agent reaches for it with his right hand, grasps it, moves it to a point near the top of a table to his left, places it on the table, and moves his hand back. As with Esakov's work, there were still unfortunate capability gaps in the simulator available to Kalita. In particular, the lack of a exible torso, unchecked collisions with the environment, and no balance constraints led to some painful-looking postures and object trajectories which passed through obstacles. 6.2.5 Summary This section has discussed the representation of meanings of some verbs and prepositions, emphasizing the importance of geometric information such as axes of objects, location of objects, distance or angle between objects, path of object motion, physical contact between objects, etc., in the meaning representation of prepositions. Elsewhere it is shown that such geometric considerations are important for not only representing verbs and prepositions, but also adverbs KB90 . 222 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS In the work described here, the operational meanings of action verbs and their modi ers have been represented in terms of components pertaining to constraints and kinematic dynamic characterization. For additional examples of decomposition see Kal90 . 6.3 Task-Level Simulation 3 The third experiment tested the feasibility of using what might be viewed as low-level task primitives to create task animations Lev91 . If successful, this would have two advantages: Since we viewed some kind of low-level task primitives as being the output speci cation language of any language processing stages, it would allow us to design and test a set of primitives in parallel with the other system components. This kind of lower-level speci cation language might itself be usable by an engineer to generate animations in terms of task-level actions rather than having to specify particular body movements. To illustrate the latter contrast, consider a scene with an animated agent, a table, and a cup on a shelf next to the table. The animator engineer wants to create an animation of the agent moving the cup from the shelf to the table. A task-level speci cation could enable the animator engineer to produce the desired behavior, using a set of task-action speci cations. For example, the sequence grasp-action hand cup position-action cup table-top could be used to generate an animation of the agent's hand grasping the cup, followed by a positioning of the cup on the top of the table. As a test environment we used an expanded version of some written instructions to remove a Fuel Control Valve FCV from an imaginary aircraft fuselage Figure 6.1. Fuel Control Valve Removal Instructions: 1. With right hand, remove socket wrench from tool belt, move to front of body. With left hand, reach to tool belt pocket, remove 5 8 inch socket, move to wrench, engage. Adjust ratchet for removal. 2. Move wrench to left hand bottom hole, apply pressure to turn in a loosening motion, repeat approximately 7 times to loosen threaded bolt. 3. Move wrench away from bolt, with left hand reach to bolt and remove bolt and washer from assembly, move left hand to belt pouch, place bolt and washer in pouch. 3 Libby Levison. 6.3. TASK-LEVEL SIMULATION 223 Figure 6.1: A Frame from the Fuel Control Valve Removal Task. The FCV is the Cylindrical Object Mounted to the Flat Plate. 4. Move wrench to bottom right hand bolt, apply pressure to turn in a loosening motion, repeat approximately 7 times to loosen threaded bolt. 5. Repeat operation 3. 6. Move wrench to top bolt, apply pressure to turn in a loosening motion, repeat approximately 6 times to loosen threaded bolt. Move left hand to grasp assembly, loosen the bolt the nal turn. Move wrench to tool belt, release. With right hand reach to bolt, remove bolt and washer, place in pouch. Return right hand to assembly, with both hands move Fuel Control Valve to movable cart and release. 6.3.1 Programming Environment The work area, tools and parts for the scene were modeled with Jack. Just as the engineer who currently writes the instruction manuals has knowledge of the task and knows, for example, that a Phillips head screwdriver is required, it is assumed that the engineer-animator will have the knowledge required to lay out the scene of the animation. It is also assumed that a skilled engineer is already trained in analyzing tasks and developing instruction sets for the do- 224 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS main. This project simply provides a di erent medium in which the engineer can explain the task. The task simulation is based on Yaps, a symbolic process simulator EB90, BWKE91 . Yaps provides animation-directives which access Jack's behaviors. These animation-directives are not only ordered and sequenced via Yaps' temporal and conditional relationships KKB88 , but can also be composed to produce parameterized simulation procedures. These procedures, called task-actions, are de ned for a number of parameters agent, object, location, etc.. The same task-action can thus be used at various times with di erent parameters to create distinct animation segments. The possibility of de ning and reusing these procedures simpli es the animation programming problem for the engineer. By extending these procedural compositions, highlevel procedures could be generated so that the mapping from the instructions to these procedures would be straightforward. KB Esa90 is a frame-based, object-oriented knowledge system which establishes symbolic references to Jack's geometric data. While Jack maintains and manipulates the geometric model of the world, KB maintains the symbolic information. Yaps uses KB's symbolic representation to manipulate the geometric model. These symbolic KB representations are passed to the Yaps task-actions as parameters. This frees Yaps from knowing" the speci c world coordinates of an object or the object's exact geometric representation. For instance, if Jack contains a model of a cup, KB would have an entry which identi ed cup as that particular Jack entity. Yaps has no knowledge of the object's location; KB's mapping from symbolic to geometric representation will resolve any ambiguity. Thus the animator need not talk about the-cup-on-the-table-at-world-coordinates-x,y,z, but can reference the symbolic entity, cup. Should the cup move during the course of the action, KB resolves the problem of the cup's exact location. 6.3.2 Task-actions At the time of this research, Yaps provided only three low-level animationdirectives with which to access Jack behaviors. These are generate-motion, create-constraint and delete-constraint. Generate-motion causes an object not necessarily animate to move from its current location to another. No path planning was performed in the Jack version of the time, and Yaps handled frame-to-frame timing directly as described in Section 6.1. Createconstraint establishes a physical link between two not necessarily adjacent objects. If two objects are linked together and one of the objects is moved, the second object moves along with it. The physical constraint relation between the objects is maintained. Create-constraint can be further speci ed to use positional and or orientational alignments. Delete-constraint removes the speci ed constraint between two objects. Yaps provides a mechanism for building animation templates by combining or composing the above animation-directives. Using di erent combinations of generate-motion, create-constraint, and delete-constraint, and vary- 6.3. TASK-LEVEL SIMULATION 225 ing the agents and the objects of these animation-directives as well as their temporal and causal relations, it is possible to build a set of task-actions. Task-actions can themselves be composed into more complex task-actions. As the procedures acquire more speci cation, the task-actions approach tasklevel descriptions. It is important to note, however, that task-actions simply de ne templates; an animation is realized by instantiating the task-actions, supplying parameters as well as timing constraints and other conditions. The composability of the task-actions allows for the de nition of some abstract and high-level concepts. It is these high-level animation descriptions which will allow the engineer to program an animation at the task-level. 6.3.3 Motivating Some Task-Actions The rst templates to be de ned were simply encapsulations of the Jack animation-directives: reach-actionagent object, hold-actionagent object and free-object-action object were just generate-motion, createconstraint and delete-constraint, respectively. Although the names chosen for the task-actions do make some attempt to elicit their de nition, there was no attempt to come up with de nitive de nitions of these actions in this segment of the research project. In the following, the use of agent and object is simply for readability; for example, a hold-action can be applied between two objects e.g., hold-action wrench-head 5-8th-socket. Consider trying to describe the actions inherent in the example: Move the cup to the table assuming that the agent is not currently holding the cup. The agent must rst hold the cup before he can move it. How is this animation speci ed? Explicitly stating the sequence of actions: reach-action agent cup hold-action agent cup to cause the agent to reach his hand to the location of the cup and to constrain his hand to the cup seems awkward. Composing two task-actions allows a new task-action grasp-action to be de ned: deftemplate grasp-action agent object reach-action agent object hold-action agent object. This is the actual Yaps de nition. Deftemplate is the Yaps command to de ne a new task-action template. Grasp-action is a sequence of instantiations of two primitive task-actions. Now that the agent can grasp the cup, how can he move the cup? A second action, position-action, is de ned to relocate the cup to a new location and constrain it there: 226 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS deftemplate position-action object1 location reach-action object1 location hold-action object1 location. If a previous action had left an object the cup in the agent's hand, this task-action could be used to move the object to a new location positionaction cup table. In this instruction set, the only use of the instruction move something that is already being held" required that the object be constrained to the new location. This is the justi cation of the hold-action in this de nition. Note here that location could be the location of object2. Thus, to animate the instruction: Move the cup to the table the animation-script could be: grasp-action agent-right-hand cup position-action cup table-top. It is still necessary to specify a list of commands, since no high-level taskaction has been de ned for move, and therefore the action must be described in increments. However move-action could be de ned as: deftemplate move-action agent object1 location grasp-action agent object1 position-action object1 location. In other words, grasp reach to and hold object1, and position move to and constrain object1 at location where location might be the location of some object2. In the Move the cup example, the instantiation required to achieve the desired animation would be: move-action agent-right-hand cup table-top. This conciseness is one bene t of task-action composition. Once the cup is actually on the table, it can be un-grasped" by using: free-object-action cup which breaks the constraint between the hand and the cup. If the hand is later moved, the cup will no longer move with it. The nal animation script for Move the cup to the table becomes: move-action agent-right-hand cup table-top free-object-action cup. 6.3.4 Domain-speci c task-actions The Move the cup to the table example motivated a few fundamental taskaction de nitions. Some of these are actions common to many instructional 6.3. TASK-LEVEL SIMULATION 227 tasks and milieus; this set of task-actions is also usable in the instruction set describing the FCV removal. However, it was also necessary to return to the instruction set and develop Yaps de nitions for actions speci c to the domain in question. These task-actions can be either primitive see turn-action below or compositional see ratchet-action. The rst new task-action, attach-action, is de ned as: deftemplate attach-action agent object1 object2 move-action agent object1 object2 hold-action object1 object2. This allows the agent to grasp object1, move it to the location of object2, and establish a constraint between object1 and object2. The expansion of this task-action is the command string: reach-action, hold-action, reach-action, hold-action. Attach-action could have been equivalently de ned as: deftemplate attach-action agent object1 object2 grasp-action agent object1 position-action object1 object2 which would expand to exactly the same Jack animation-directive command string as above. The task-action de nitions are associative; this provides exibility and power to the system, and increases the feasibility of de ning a minimal set of task-actions to be used throughout the domain. The FCV removal instructions also require: turn-action object degrees. Turn-action causes the object to rotate by the speci ed number of degrees. The geometric de nition of the object includes information on its DOFs; for example, around which axis a bolt will be allowed to rotate. At the time that this research was done, the system did not have a feedback tool to monitor Jack entities; instead of testing for an ending condition on an action a bolt being free of its hole, actions had to be speci ed iteratively the number of times to turn a bolt. Turn-action is actually a support routine, used in the nal task-action needed to animate the FCV instructions: ratchet-action. This is de ned as: deftemplate ratchet-action object degrees iterations turn-action object degrees turn-action object ,degrees ratchet-action object degrees iterations,1. Ratchet-action is used to animate of a socket wrench ratcheting back and forth.4 4 Having to explicitly state a number of degrees is not an elegant programming solution; it would have been preferable to take advantage of Jack's collision detection algorithms to determine the range of the ratchet movement. Processing considerations at the time the work was done required this rather rough implementation. 228 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS The complete set of task-actions is listed below. With this set of only nine task-actions, it was possible to program the entire animation script from the natural language instructions see Table 6.2 for an excerpt of the nal animation script. reach-action agent object hold-action agent object free-object-action object grasp-action agent object move-action agent object location attach-action agent object1 object2 position-action object1 object2 turn-action object degrees ratchet-action object degrees iterations 6.3.5 Issues Where Does Task-Action Decomposition Stop? There is an interesting question as to whether, in de ning task-actions, one needs to be concerned with variations that arise from di erences in agents and their abilities. Because our work is embedded in Jack, variations in agent ability at the animation speci cation level is not a concern. As long as the animation is within the agent's capabilities and thus the animation is solvable", substituting di erent agents gives di erent valuations of the tasks. By testing di erent agents with varying abilities, one can analyze the task requirements and gather information on human factors issues. Similarly, it is possible to vary workplace geometry, tools, and agent placement. Note the comparison here between innate and planned action. In reaching to grab a cup, we do not think about how to control the muscles in the forearm; we do, however, consider the goal of getting our hand to the same location as the cup. This distinction between cognizant motion and action is internal in this animation; Jack manages the motor skills. The same distinction is found in the level of detail of the instructions. One does not tell someone: Extend your hand to the cup by rotating your shoulder joint 40 while straightening your elbow joint 82 degrees. Constrain your hand to the cup by contracting ngers : : : . Rather, we give them the goal to achieve and allow that goal to lend information as to how to accomplish the instruction. The hierarchy of the task-actions captures some of this knowledge. The task-actions have been de ned in such a way that they are not concerned with the abilities of a speci c agent, but rather allow for interpretation 6.3. TASK-LEVEL SIMULATION 229 Table 6.2: Animation Script Excerpt. ;;; No. 1 ;;; With right hand, remove socket wrench from tool belt, ;;; move to front of body. With left hand, reach to tool belt ;;; pocket, remove 5 8" socket, move to wrench, engage. ;;; Adjust ratchet for removal. ; ; with the right hand, grasp the wrench from the tool belt, ; and move it to site-front-body ; instantiate move-action fred-rh wrench-handle fred-front-body-site planar :instancename "r0-wrench-to-front" :time-constraints 'start now duration eval+fitts fred-rh wrench-handle fitts wrench-handle fred-front-body-site ; with the left hand, attach socket to wrench handle. ; an attach entails, reaching for the socket, grasping ; it and moving it to the wrench head. ; if successful, free the left hand from the socket. ; instantiate attach-action fred-lh 5-8th-socket wrench-head attach-socket-time planar oriented :instancename "r5-attach-socket" :time-constraints 'start end "r0-wrench-to-front" duration eval + fitts fred-lh 5-8th-socket fitts fred-left-pocket fred-front-body-site attach-socket-time :on-success 'progn free-object-action fred-lh free-object-action 5-8th-socket hold-action wrench-head 5-8th-socket :orientation-type '"orientation" 230 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS based on each agent's capabilities. Not only does this allow the same animation script to be used for di erent agents, generating di erent analyses, but it also means that the de nitions of the task-actions decomposition stops at the level of innate action. There is no need to have multiple task-action de nitions for various physical attributes; Jack handles this issue for us. Instruction Translation We noted earlier that one advantage of a task-action level of speci cation was that it might allow an engineer animator to animate tasks directly. In terms of the above task-actions, moving the cup to the table noted in the introduction could be animated by issuing either of two command sequences: grasp-action agent-right-hand cup position-action cup table-top free-object-action cup or: move-action agent-right-hand cup table-top free-object-action cup. In both cases, the engineer has decided to release the constraint between the agent and the cup as soon as the cup is on the table-top. The engineer has also described the required animation at the task-level. Sequencing Sub-tasks Yaps is a simultaneous language; that is, all task-action instantiations are resolved concurrently. To sequence the actions and force them to occur in a speci c order, the engineer animator must use the timing-constraints option provided by Yaps. This construct allows the user to specify starting, ending and duration conditions for the instantiation of each action. It is possible to achieve the ordering needed to create a sequential animation by predicating the starting condition of instruction-2 on the ending condition of instruction1; but a task-action template, which is de ned as a series of other task-actions, has the sequencing automatically built in via the instantiation process. If this were not the case, de ning grasp-action, for example, would be impossible because achieving and completing the reach-action before starting the holdaction could not be guaranteed. The actions do not need to be performed discretely. Other Yaps timing constructs allow the actions to be overlapped and delayed by specifying start after 5 min or start now, for example KKB88 . Nor is de ning a discrete linear order on the sub-tasks the only possibility. The simultaneous nature of Yaps is used to animate actions such as moving an object with both hands by simultaneously animating: move-action agent-left-hand box move-action agent-right-hand box. 6.4. A MODEL FOR INSTRUCTION UNDERSTANDING 231 The Yaps timing constraints provide a powerful mechanism for specifying the relationships among the task-actions in the animation. Timing is one of the most critical issues involved in generating realistic animations; the power that Yaps provides in resolving timing issues greatly enhances the potential of the Jack animation system. Task Duration The Yaps timing constraints provide a powerful mechanism for specifying the inter-relationships among the task-actions in the animation script. Timing is one of the most critical issues involved in generating realistic animations. We have already noted that it is not su cient to simply list all the actions; they must be times, sequenced and connected temporally. As in Esakov's work, adaptations of Fitts' Law were used to determine mimimum action times. Fitts' Law was used to calculate the duration of all reach-action instantiations. Thus, time requirements were cumulative i.e., the sum of the sub-task-action times. Create-constraint uses a small default constant time to estimate sub-task duration. Although Fitts' Law only approximates the action times in this domain and must be further scaled by a motivation factor, it does give reasonable estimates. Relative to one another, the subtask times make sense. Although the length of each task-action might not be correct, the animation does appear to be temporally coherent. 6.3.6 Summary Recent work in de ning animation behaviors reviewed earlier in this book greatly expands the set of animation directives available in Jack. In our current work, we will investigate using the new animation behaviors to script animations. Since animation directives form the semantical basis for our action de nitions, a more powerful set of animation directives provides us with a richer language with which to work. As it becomes easier to de ne new task-actions, the animator will spend less time coordinating sub-actions. Finally, this new vocabulary will allow us to express tasks or de ne taskactions which di er from the earlier work in their semantic content. Our rst attempt at rescripting the instruction set resulted in a more realistic animation, in that the new behaviors allowed us to include such low-level actions as take step to maintain balance when the animated agent was reaching beyond his comfort range. We need to compare the expressive powers of the previous animation directives with the enhanced set of animation behaviors. 6.4 A Model for Instruction Understanding 5 The three experiments described in the previous sections were all concerned with the operational semantics of single-clause commands. But the range of 5 Barbara Di Eugenio, Michael White, Breck Baldwin, Chris Geib, Libby Levison, Michael Moore. 232 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS tasks that can be communicated to an agent with such commands is very limited the less expertise and experience on an agent's part, the more he needs to be told. A telling example of this is given in Pri81 . Here, Prince compares a recipe for stu ed roast pig given in a nineteenth century French cookbook with that given in Rombauer's contemporary The Joy of Cooking. The former says, essentially, Roast pig. Stu with farce anglaise." Rombauer's instructions go on for two pages: she assumes very little culinary experience with pigs on the part of today's men and women. Multi-clause commands are very common in maintenance and assembly instructions, such as the following examples from Air Force maintenance manual T.O. 1F-16C-2-94JG-50-2: With door opened, adjust switch until roller contacts cam and continuity is indicated at pins A and B. Verify positive switch contact by tightening bottom nut one additional turn." p. 5-24 Hold drum timing pin depressed and position entrance unit on drum. Install three washers and three bolts, release drum timing pin, and torque bolts to 60-80 inch-pounds." p. 6-14 Now just as multi-clause texts are commonly organized into paragraphs, multi-clause instructions are commonly organized into steps. In fact, the above multi-clause commands are actually single steps from longer, multistep instructions. While there are no rm guidelines as to what a single instruction step should encompass, there is a strong tendency at least for steps to be organized around small coherent sub-tasks such as adjusting a switch or installing a component, as in the above examples. A typical step may specify several actions that need to be performed together to accomplish a single subtask, or several aspects of a single complex action e.g. its purpose, manner, things to watch out for, appropriate termination conditions, etc.. The agent must develop some degree of understanding of the whole step before starting to act. In our current work on instruction understanding, we add to this sub-task sense of step, the sense that a step speci es behavior that the agent must attend to continuously: while carrying out a step, the agent's attention is xed on the task at hand. Communication with the instructor is not allowed until completion or failure of the current step. Because of this, a step de nes the extent of the instructions that must be processed before the agent begins to act on them. With some re ection on one's own confrontations with new instructions, it is easy to recall situations where one has tried to understand too much or to act on too little understanding. It is not always obvious when one should begin to act. While our focus is on multi-clause instructions, it turns out that many of their important features can be demonstrated simply with two-clause instructions. As in many things, the biggest leap is from one to two. The two-clause example we will use here to describe our framework for instruction understanding and animation is: 6.4. A MODEL FOR INSTRUCTION UNDERSTANDING 233 Go into the kitchen to get me the co ee urn." This example will be used to illustrate, among other things: expectations raised by instructions; the need for incremental generation of sub-goals plan expansion in order to act in accordance with instructions; the need to accommodate the agent's behavior in carrying out actions, to the objects being acted upon; and the need to develop plans at more than one level. Figure 6.2 shows a schematic diagram of the AnimNL ANIMation from Natural Language architecture. Before going through the example, we want to call attention to the system's overall structure in particular, to the fact that it consists of two relatively independent sets of processes: one set of which produces commitments to act for a particular purpose, what we call animated task actions e.g. gotodoor1, opendoor1 go to door1 for the purpose of opening it" graspurn1, carryurn1 grasp urn1 for the purpose of carrying it" and the other set of which gures out how the agent should move in order to act for that purpose. In this framework, instructions lead to initial commitments to act, and actions once embarked upon allow further commitments to be made and acted upon. While our discussion here will be in terms of single-agent procedures, it can be extended to multi-agent procedures by adding communicative and coordinating actions. As shown in earlier chapters, both Jack and its behavioral simulator can support the activity of multiple agents. However, extending the upper set of processes to delineate the communication and coordination required of multiple agents cooperating on a task requires solution of many problems currently under investigation by members of the AI planning community. We now begin by giving AnimNL the instruction step: Go into the kitchen to get me the co ee urn." A picture of the agent in its starting situation, when it is given the instruction, is shown in Plate 6. Steps are rst processed by a parser that uses a combinatory categorial grammar CCG Ste90 to produce an action representation based on Jackendo 's Conceptual Structures Jac90 . We are using CCG because of its facility with conjoined constituents, which are common in instructions for example Clear and rope o an area around the aircraft and post warning signs." Air Force Maintenance manual T.O. 1F-16C-2-94JG-50-2 234 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS Figure 6.2: AnimNL System Architecture. 6.4. A MODEL FOR INSTRUCTION UNDERSTANDING 235 We are using Jackendo 's Conceptual Structures for two reasons: rst, the primitives of his decompositional theory capture important generalizations about action descriptions and their relationships to one another, and second, they reveal where information may be missing from an utterance and have to be provided by inference. For the instruction step Go into the kitchen to get me the co ee urn", the parser produces the following structure:   GOSp  agent i ; TO IN kitchen    FOR  CAUSEi; GOSp  coffee-urn j ; k    FROM ATj   TOl k This representation makes explicit the fact that getting the co ee urn involves its moving from its current location to a new one which should be the location of the instructor. The FOR-function derived from the to -phrase encodes the purpose relation holding between the go -action and the get -action . Indices indicate di erent instances of a single conceptual type ZV92 . From these indexed conceptual structures, an initial plan graph is constructed to represent the agent's intentions, beliefs and expectations about the task it is to perform. To do this, the system consults the agent's knowledge of actions and plans the Action KB and Plan Library in Figure 6.2, to develop hypotheses about the instructor-intended relationships between the speci ed actions e.g., temporal relations, enablement relations, generation relations, etc.. The initial plan graph for our running example is shown in Figure 6.3. This initial plan graph is further elaborated through processes of reference resolution, plan inference, reference grounding, plan expansion and performance through simulation. To show the interaction between these processes and how they are used to elaborate the plan graph, we will contrast our example Go into the kitchen to get me the co ee urn." with a somewhat di erent but related example Go into the kitchen and wash out the co ee urn." In the rst case, recall from the conceptual structure produced by the parser, that get me" is interpreted as an instance of a cause something to go somewhere" action. One recipe that the system has in its Plan Library for accomplishing this is shown in Figure 6.4. With respect to this recipe, go" can be seen as a substep of get" which is one way it can serve the purpose of get". This action representation and the plan graph are described in greater detail in EW92 . Getting an object from one place to another requires rst going to its location. This leads to the assumption, noted in Figure 6.3, that the co ee 236 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS A1: BE(urn, IN([other-room])) "GET(urn)" substep substep substep Γ 1 "GO.sp(TO(urn))" enab Γ2 enab Γ "GO.sp.with(urn)" 3 "GO.ctrl(urn)" gen (A1) "GO.sp(INTO(kitchen))" Figure 6.3: Initial Plan Graph: Go into the kitchen and get me the co ee urn." urn is in the kitchen. The role of plan inference in instruction understanding is discussed in more detail in Di 92, DW92 . Reference resolution cannot contribute any further constraints to the description the co ee urn", since 1 there is no urn in the discourse context nor anything that has a unique co ee urn associated with it, and 2 the assumption that the urn is in the kitchen is incompatible with its being unique in the current spatio-temporal context which is the room next to the kitchen. Reference grounding does not attempt to associate this description with an object in the current spatiotemporal context, for the same reason. In fact, the agent will not attempt to ground this referring expression until it has entered the kitchen. Whether the agent then succeeds immediately in grounding the expression will depend on whether the urn is perceivable i.e., out in full view. We will discuss this shortly. In any case, the agent expects to be able to get access to the urn when it gets to the kitchen. This is what will drive it to seek the urn, if it is not in view when it gets to the kitchen. In the contrasting example Go into the kitchen and wash out the co ee urn", the system again hypothesizes that the purpose relation between go and wash-out is a substep relation but in this case, it is because washing out an object requires being at a washing site e.g., a sink or tub. That kitchens usually have sinks gives further weight to this hypothesis. Reference resolution may now contribute something to the agent's understanding of the de nite expression the co ee urn". While the discourse context does not provide evidence of a unique co ee urn, either directly or by association, there is also no evidence against the hypothesis that the urn is in the current spatio-temporal context. An initial hypothesis added by reference resolution that the urn is in the current space, if con rmed by reference 6.4. A MODEL FOR INSTRUCTION UNDERSTANDING 237 Header CAUSE agent i; GOSp j; k    FROM ATj   TOl k Body - GOSp  i, TO ATj    1 - CAUSEi, GOCtrlj , TO ATi     - GOSp i;jk WITH 2  3 - Annotations - 1 enables 2 enables 3 Quali ers - NOT BESp j , l E ects - BESp j , l Figure 6.4: A Move Something Somewhere Action. grounding, would lead plan expansion through sub-goal generation to get the agent over to its location. Failure of that hypothesis would lead to the alternative hypothesis that the co ee urn is in the kitchen. This is the same hypothesis as in the original example it has just arisen in a di erent way. The next thing to discuss is how the plan graph is expanded, and why it is expanded incrementally, as actions are performed in accordance with earlier elements of the plan graph. How it is expanded is through subgoal generation down to what we have called annotated task actions. This process makes use of a new kind of planner that 1 eschews pre-conditions in favor of decisions based on the agent's positive and negative intentions, and 2 takes upcoming intentions into account when deciding how to expand current goals, so as to put the agent in the best position with respect to satisfying those intentions. This planner, called ItPlanS, is described in more detail in Gei92 . It is also 238 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS Figure 6.5: The Urn is Not Visible, so Cabinets will be Opened. the source of the annotations of purpose in annotated task actions. The main reason why the plan graph is expanded incrementally is that the agent does not have su cient knowledge, before beginning to act, of what it will need to do later. In particular, AnimNL assumes that an agent cannot have up-to-date knowledge of any part of its environment that is outside its direct perception. An AnimNL agent may know what non-visible parts of its environment were like, when it saw them earlier, and have expectations about what they will be like, when it sees them next, but its knowledge is limited to general truths about the world and to its direct perceptions. As for the extent of the agent's perception, it is assumed that an agent cannot see into any space that has no portal open into the space the agent occupies. Thus AnimNL agents have to open doors, closets, boxes, etc., if they want to know what is inside, or go into other rooms to nd out what is there. What this means in our example is that only the plan graph node corresponding to go into the kitchen" can be expanded in this case, to go over to the door", open door", and enter kitchen" before the agent begins to act. The node corresponding to go to the location of the co ee urn" cannot be expanded until the door has been opened and the agent can see whether or not the urn is visible. If it is visible, the agent can go to its location Plate 6. If it is not visible, this same node must be expanded with actions corresponding to nding the urn going through the kitchen cabinets one at a time looking for the urn, until it is found or all cabinets have been searched Figure 6.5. When an annotated task action becomes su ciently speci ed for the agent 6.4. A MODEL FOR INSTRUCTION UNDERSTANDING 239 to be ready to commit to it and temporal dependencies permit such commitment, it is gated, triggering other, low-level planning processes see Figure 6.2 below the action gate". An annotated task action is su ciently speci ed if the action is executable" i.e., a task action, as described in Section 6.3. all actions temporally prior to it have been committed to. Note that previous actions need not be completed before a new action is committed to: an agent can be and usually is doing more than one thing at a time. its purpose has been determined. It is worthwhile saying a bit more here about these purpose annotations, since we have come to believe they play a large part in low-level decisions about how to act. The kind of observations that motivates them are the following: when told to pick up a book and hand it to someone, an agent will grasp it one way; when told to pick up the same book and turn it over, an agent will commonly grasp it in quite a di erent way; when told to pick up the book and open to page 70, the agent will grasp it yet a third way. when just told to pick up the book, and nothing further, agents commonly grasp it, lift it up and wait expectantly for the next command. These variations in grasp extend to such low-level features as grasp site and wrist position. What we have tentatively concluded from such observations is that when agents don't know the purpose of some action they are told to perform, they put themselves into a position that easily supports subsequent action. Of course, always going into a position in which an agent is poised for subsequent action is very ine cient, especially when the agent knows what that subsequent action will be. In that case, he or she acts in such a way to smoothly and e ciently transition from one to the other. In AnimNL, purpose annotations including PFA" or poised for action are there to allow the simulator, upon action commitment, to come up with the most e ective ways of moving the agent's body for the given purpose. It is also why the system is designed to delay commitment until it knows the purpose of any task action or knows that the only thing it can know is PFA. When an action is committed to, there is still further work to be done in order to determine the agent's behavior. In particular, one result of the experiment described in the previous section Section 6.3 was our recognition of the need for tailoring an agent's behavior in carrying out an action to the 240 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS type of object given as an argument to that action. This follows from the fact that the same Natural Language verb is commonly used with di erent objects to denote very di erent behavior on an agent's part, and for a task animation to be correct, these di erences must be depicted. Consider, for example, the following de nition from JCMM73  of the word remove" and sentences illustrating its use: Remove: to perform operations necessary to take an equipment unit out of the next larger assembly or system; to take o or eliminate; to take or move away. 1a. Remove bleed air shuto valves. 1b. Remove bolts from nuts. 2. Remove paint. 3. Remove covers. For each di erent object, the behavior needed to e ect a remove" is quite di erent. The question is whether to de ne a single remove-action, to use in animating both Remove the paint and Remove the bolt? The alternative de ning a multitude of animation procedures e.g. remove-paint, remove-bolt, remove-nut, remove-nail, remove-boxtop, etc. appears expensive in terms of time and e ort, and prone to error. The solution we are adopting is to build a hybrid system. Instead of specifying complete de nitions for each verb, we can identify the core or kernel action for a verb like remove in a fashion similar to that described in Section 6.2. We will use this core meaning, central to many di erent instantiations of the verb, in building the task-action. The missing information can be supplied by the verb's object: The knowledge base is object-oriented and so can store relevant information about individual objects. For example, one slot of information might be the DOFs an object has a bolt knows" i.e., its geometric constraints specify around which axis it turns. Joint and rotation information is already available in Jack. The hybrid system would process an instruction by combining the information in the two representations the underspeci ed de nitions of the task-actions, in conjunction with the object-oriented knowledge base. By identifying which information is lacking in the task-actions, the system can try to supply that information from the knowledge base. The advantages of a hybrid system is economy of both action de nitions and of the object feature information to be stored. We no longer need to worry about developing separate de nitions for each animation movement based on distinct verb object pairs. Instead we take advantage of the compositional nature of the task-actions, and the object-oriented, hierarchical knowledgebase. Using these utilities, we can de ne a single animation de nition for remove which will allow us to animate both Remove the bolt and Remove nuts from bolts while still distinguishing the instruction Remove covers. Our work on using complex Natural Language instructions to motivate the behavior of animated agents is still in its infancy. There is much more to be done before it is a useful tool in the hands of task designers and human factors 6.4. A MODEL FOR INSTRUCTION UNDERSTANDING 241 engineers. On the other hand, we have begun to demonstrate its potential exibility in accommodating the task behavior of an agent to the environment in which the task is being carried out and the agent's own capabilities. 242 CHAPTER 6. TASK-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS Chapter 7 Epilogue 1 To de ne a future for the work described in this book, it is essential to keep in mind the broad goals which motivated the e orts in the rst place. Useful and usable software is desired, to be sure, but the vision of manipulating and especially instructing a realistically behaved animated agent is the greater ambition. Some of our visions for the near future are presented, not just for the sake of prognostication, but for its exciting prospects and possibilities. Any discussion of the future of software must take into account the extraordinary pace of developments in the hardware arena. Even conservative predictions of hardware capabilities such as speed and capacity over the ve year term lead one perilously close to science ction. Accordingly, predictions of better, faster, cheaper, more reliable, more fault tolerant, more highly parallel computers" are easy to make but do little to inform us of the applications these fantastic machines will facilitate. Rather, as general purpose computers improve in all these ways, specialized hardware solutions will decrease in importance and robust, usable software and symbiotic human-computer interfaces will remain the crucial link between a task and a solution. Transforming research into practice is a lengthy process, consisting of a ow of concepts from ideas through algorithms to implementations, from testing and analysis through iterated design, and nally transfer of demonstratably workable concepts to external users and actual applications. This entire process may span years, from the initial description of the concept to a elded system. The publication of initial results often breeds over-optimism and has been known to lead researchers to allow false expectations to arise in the minds of potential users, with unfortunate results. Automatic machine translation of text, speech understanding, and early promises of Arti cial Intelligence problem solving are good examples of premature speculations. At the other end of the spectrum, however, are concepts which take a long time to work their way into mainstream technological consciousness. 3D computer graphics is a good example where concepts and even working systems pre-dated 1 With the help of Mark Steedman. 243 244 CHAPTER 7. EPILOGUE widespread commercial availability by more than a decade. So we will attempt to strike a balance in making speculations: while looking toward a long term research plan we will generally consider technology transfer to occur when serious but sympathetic users can experiment and accomplish real work with it. Our experience with software in the past is both our model and our promise for expecting new concepts to eventually reach potential users for evaluation and feedback. 7.1 A Roadmap Toward the Future We seek to study the conceptual structure and limits of virtual agents" in simulated tasks" VAST: the software and interface systems necessary to permit a user to describe, control, animate, analyze, interact with, and cooperate with multiple virtual computer-synthesized human models. We will remain cognizant of anticipated developments in underlying computer capabilities, but our principal intention will be to probe the intelligent software and user-interface issues. VAST focuses on the simulated human gure not just as a graphical entity but as an active, behaviorally complex agent who can follow instructions and autonomously negotiate its own way in the world. Recall that our introduction emphasized certain simulation goals: Create an interactive computer graphics human model; Endow it with reasonable biomechanical properties; Provide it with human-like" behaviors; Use this simulated human as an agent to e ect changes in its world; Describe and guide its tasks through natural language instructions; VAST augments this list to further improve the symbiosis between user and virtual agents: Control the agent through natural manual interfaces; Automatically generate explications or commentary on its behavior as sub-titles text, voice-over or its own speech; Coordinate the activity of multiple agents engaged in a task. We have probed the state-of-the-art in the rst set of goals, but many problems and prospects remain for study. Indeed, there are other e orts that are advancing human modeling and animation. But our emphasis on interactivity and usability, especially by non-animators, outweighs mere visual beauty. 7.1. A ROADMAP TOWARD THE FUTURE 245 7.1.1 Interactive Human Models While we are currently partway toward this goal with Jack, there are enhancements that are necessary before a virtual human looks and behaves realistically. Increases in hardware capability will certainly aid in the presentation of highly detailed models with smooth real-time response. The realistic and beautiful human models created by the Thalmanns MTT90, MTT91a are illustrative of the surface veracity possible under non-real-time conditions. 7.1.2 Reasonable Biomechanical Properties Joint limits prevent unnatural adjacent body segment postures, but do nothing to prevent non-adjacent collisions. Collision-avoidance should be an implicit part of interactive manipulation for body integrity and natural appearance. In addition, clothing or equipment worn by the virtual human should demonstrate similar collision-free behavior. Realistic strength models for the whole body and especially the torso should be incorporated into the model not only as a source of data but as an active resource for body motions. Preliminary work on strength-guided motion has shown feasibility, but more study of joint torque distribution strategies under comfort and loading constraints is needed. Ongoing performance" models of the virtual human should be maintained throughout an interactive session or animation so that realistic assessments of workload and fatigue may be monitored. 7.1.3 Human-like Behaviors We must continue to build a primitive" behavior library so that the innate" motion vocabulary of the virtual gure is as broad as possible. Ideally the behaviors can be taught" to the gure rather than procedurally coded. Each behavior should enumerate the consequences of its execution so that higher level planning activities may take its potential e ects into account. Posture planning should take into account the spatial organization of the world and the virtual agent's desire to maximize e ective behavior while minimizing useless movements work. This can be done, in part, by having e ective collision-avoidance schemes for articulated gures and, in part, by using symbolical spatial information to prune the high-dimensional numerical search space and move the gure into predictably useful postures. We already realize that classical AI planning paradigms are too weak for posture planning, and more reactive, incremental planners with mental motion simulation" are needed. Moving a virtual gure around an environment requires more than simple locomotion behavior: the behavioral repertoire and planner should understand crawling, climbing, jumping, sliding, etc. With this large repertoire of possible behaviors, a planner will be busy coordinating them all and sorting out priorities, even for simple activities. 246 CHAPTER 7. EPILOGUE 7.1.4 Simulated Humans as Virtual Agents The notion of skill level should be quanti ed with notions of context-sensitive execution time and optimal motion smoothness. Synthesized animations should be customized to the user's own body size and capabilities or limitations for training situations. The environment in which the virtual humans work must be imported from any number of external CAD systems, preferably through standardized interfaces. During importation, perceptually and behaviorally signi cant features such as articulations, handles, removable parts, and open spaces holes should be recognized from the geometric model. We can expect some CAD systems to o er some of this data, but in general we should expect to build enhanced semantics into the models interactively or semi-automatically ourselves. For example, handles are needed to determine likely grasp points, and articulations, parts, and holes are needed for automatic generation of disassembly behaviors given only the object descriptions. 7.1.5 Task Guidance through Instructions For a designer to use Natural Language instructions to describe and guide a virtual agent through a task, the overall system must know how to understand instructions and to use them appropriately in a given environment. Instructions must be understood in terms of intention what is meant to be achieved in the world and in terms of positive and negative constraints on the behavior used to achieve it. Instructions must be used to interpret features of the environment and to coordinate the agent's task-level knowledge and skills in acting to achieve its given goals. Advances in AI planning and execution are coming at a rapid rate, independent of our own work, and we will be incorporating those advances into VAST, to make the bridge to actual behavior. 7.1.6 Natural Manual Interfaces and Virtual Reality The virtual gure should exist in a virtual 3D world that is accessible to a user with a minimum of training and little, if any, computer expertise. While mouse and keyboard input to Jack addresses some of these goals, it is still too low level." By taking advantage of novel 3D, 6D, multiple 6D, and hand posture sensor input devices, the user's movements can be translated directly into virtual gure behaviors. The trick is not to make the mapping one-toone, so the user exhausts herself ailing arms and twisting her body as the current Virtual Reality paradigms would have one do. Rather the mapping should have considerable intelligent multipliers" so that the suggestion of action is enough to precipitate complete behaviors in the virtual human. We can already control the center of mass of the gure to e ect a signi cant multiplier of input e ort, this needs to be extended to arm gestures, view focus, and locomotion generation. We envision a strong corroborating role 7.1. A ROADMAP TOWARD THE FUTURE 247 from our animation from instructions work, such as speech-based commands. Minimal device encumbrances on the user are deemed essential. 7.1.7 Generating Text, Voice-over, and Spoken Explication for Animation Animation for purposes of instruction in the performance of a task frequently requires spoken or written text, as well as graphic presentation, if it is to be understood. Negative instructions such as warnings" or cautions" provide an obvious example. While written captions can be adequate for some purposes, presenting few problems for animation, spoken language is more e cient and more engaging of the viewers' attention. For certain purposes even, a human face speaking in accompaniment to action is the most e cient and attention-holding device of all. Among the problems involved in including linguistic information in an on-going animation are: appropriately allocating information to the di erent modalities; integration of the two modalities over time; limitations of existing speech synthesizers with respect to intonation; integration of a facial animation with speech. All of these are tasks which the animator can in principle take over, but all of them, especially the last, are laborious. It would be highly desirable to automate all of them, especially if they are to be used in highly interactive animations, in which model-based synthesis-by-rule is required, rather than image based techniques. One of the extensions to Jack is an animated facial model with a programming language for integrating its movements with a segmental representation of speech PBS91, Pel91 . This e ort is now focused on the following extensions: Provide an improved programming language for facial animation of speech. Provide a discourse semantics for spoken intonation in terms of appropriate knowledge representations. Perform automatic generation from such semantic representations of phonological representations of spoken explications, including appropriate intonational markers of contrast and background, for input to a speech synthesizer, with or without the facial animation program. 7.1.8 Coordinating Multiple Agents Our principle goal has been getting a single agent to behave plausibly in response to multi-clause instruction steps. One goal for the longer term involves producing sensible behavior on the part of a single virtual agent and plausible behavior from a group of virtual agents engaged in a multi-agent task. Coordinated multi-person simulations will be the next large step after an individual agent's actions can be e ectively determined. Such simulations require physical, task and cognitive coordination among the agents. For 248 CHAPTER 7. EPILOGUE physical coordination, our particular e orts will focus on determining timing coordination, strength and workload distribution, and mutual achievement of spatial goals. In these multi-agent tasks, the interactive user may or may not be one of the participating agents. Task coordination requires augmenting our task knowledge base with information on multi-agent tasks. This is essential both for understanding the text of multi-agent task instructions and for interpolating between explicit instructions, since instructions cannot by virtue of not knowing the precise circumstances under which they will be carried out specify everything. For cognitive coordination among the agents, communication may be necessary to determine or alter the leadership role, initiate activity, keep it moving along, interrupt or abort it, or rest on imminent fatigue. Research on communication for coordinating multi-agent tasks is being carried on at other institutions GS89, CL91, Loc91 . In the longer term, we look to importing the results of this research and incorporating it into the VAST framework. Until then, we will focus on single virtual agents or centrally-controlled multiple agents engaged in tasks in which communication is not required for coordination. 7.2 Conclusion There are a multitude of other directions for virtual agent work. Some of these are automatic view control, a perceptual sense," spatial reasoning for improved posture planning, recognizing and accommodatingtask failures, skill acquisition, exible object interactions, animation presentation techniques, behaving with commonsense, enriched instruction understanding, and speechbased agent animation. But all that's for a sequel. Bibliography AAW74 M. A. Ayoub, M. M. Ayoub, and A. Walvekar. A biomechanical model for the upper extremity using optimization techniques. 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Index A* search 181, 183 animal sciences 137, 145 animation window 126, 129 animation 19, 30 anthropometry 14, 49, 209 apertures 190 arti cial intelligence 1, 233 attachment 132 backtracking 184, 186, 191 balance line 110, 113, 117 balance 13, 78, 79, 103, 108, 110, 115, 117, 123, 129, 135, 170, 192, 197, 221, 231 banking 154, 157 behaviors 13, 16, 101, 102, 116, 127, 129, 135, 137, 139, 148, 154, 208, 214, 240, 245 binocular vision 17 biostereometric bodies 15, 27, 47, 59, 65 body parts ankle 151 arms 12, 40, 108, 114, 123, 132, 135, 182 calf 152 clavicle 12, 39 elbows 80, 103, 109 eyes 17, 103, 106, 123 face 15, 247 feet 12, 79, 103, 105, 111 ., 115, 117, 118, 129 ., 135, 151, 196 ngers 34, 132 forearm 34 hands 12, 13, 107, 114, 126, 132, 133, 135, 196 head 106, 123, 196, 213 heels 103, 130, 131, 151 hips 123, 130, 152, 154 knees 103, 109, 152 legs 123, 135, 192 neck 106, 133 palms 114, 133 pelvis 103, 105, 106, 109, 111, 113, 117, 130, 134, 196 shoulder 12, 39, 123, 184 skeleton 12, 28 skin 15, 24 spine 35, 106, 120, 134 thigh 152 toes 103, 131 torso 12, 28, 35, 79, 103, 105, 109. 112, 122, 130, 132 waist 106, 132, 133, 152, 154 wrists 123 boundary detection 98 center of mass 13, 78, 79, 103, 105, 109, 114, 118, 123, 129, 131, 135, 154, 155 checklists 209 climbing 191 clothing 15, 45, 245 cognition 139 collision avoidance 86, 93, 141, 149, 180, 181, 192, 195, 245 collision detection 15, 17, 46, 132, 143, 146, 195, 221 comfort 13, 161, 163, 164, 173, 189 added joint 169 available torque 167, 189, 190 jerk 169 pull back 168, 190 recoil 169 reducing moment 168, 190 communication 144, 146, 233, 247 complexity 191 compliant motion 132 computer animation 75, 83, 126, 137, 180, 212, 222 computer hardware 243 267 268 computer-aided design 15, 94, 246 conceptual structures 233 Concurrent Engineering 4 con guration space 180 con ict resolution 146 connectionism 138, 145 constraints 9, 14, 16, 75, 127, 224 container 218 contour tracing 98 control points 195 control theory 161 control vectors 195 coordinated motion 174 crash simulation 7, 161 Cspace groups 181 curved path 151, 154 damping 143 dance notation 8 direct manipulation 67, 80, 83, 147, 103 discomfort 164, 167 DOF 12 double stance 155, 158 draping 48 dynamics 10, 53, 85, 143, 146, 152, 166 easing 128 e ectors 137 E ort-Shape 9 elasticity 144 energy constraints 76, 77, 85 energy 173, 190 Eshkol-Wachmann 9 evolution 145 expert systems 137 external forces 161 fatigue 173, 190 feedback 138, 141 eld of view 149 Fitts' Law 212, 231 exible gures 35 force trajectory 163 free space 183 gait 101 gaze 135 geometric models 16 boundary representation 23 constructive solid geometry 26 curved surfaces 24 cylinders 26 INDEX ellipsoids 26 oct-trees 25, 181 polygons 24 potential functions 27 soft models 27 spheres 26 superquadrics 26 surface points 23 volumetric representation 23 voxels 25, 97 globographic limits 12, 41 grammar 233 grasping 108, 126, 132 grip 13 handles 246 human factors analysis 3, 4, 16, 46, 49, 60, 207, 228 human motion analysis 7 human performance 10, 163, 208, 212, 214, 245 human population data 14, 49, 58 icons 71, 82, 128 individual database 54, 56 instructions 207, 222, 232, 244, 246, 247 intention 235, 246 interactive modes 70 interactive systems 10, 18, 30, 54, 70, 103, 145 inverse kinematics 9, 17, 32, 75, 80, 83, 101, 108, 166, 170 jacks 69 Jacobian matrix 85, 166 joint angles 34, 83, 187, 189 joint centers 28 joint gaps 46 joint group 34 joint limits 12, 17, 37, 46, 52, 74, 84, 87, 94, 99, 245 joint sti ness 93 joints 12, 28, 30, 31, 51, 76, 78 key pose 211 kinesthetic feedback 67 knowledge base 210, 224, 235 Labanotation 9, 102, 103, 105, 109, 112 ., 117 learning 138, 245 lexicon 219 lifting 161, 170, 189 load 163 INDEX local minima 48, 78, 80, 144 locomotion 146, 150 mass 14, 53, 57 mental simulation 195, 245 message passing 147 minimum disturbance 199 missing information 235 mobile robot 182, 186 moment of inertia 53 motion dependencies 199 motion planning 180 motion postulator 199 motion understanding 8 motion 126, 128, 164, 182, 189, 197 mouse line 72 multi-dimensional displays 61 multiple agents 143, 174, 233, 247 multiple constraints 83, 91, 126, 197, 215 multiple gures 13 names 210 natural language 8, 10, 207, 209, 214, 222, 246 networking 18 neural nets 138, 148 neuro-ethology 138 nonlinear programming 75, 87, 96 non-monotonic reasoning 145 object references 210 open 217 optimization 75, 78, 161, 165, 184, 189, 192 paint system 211 parallel systems 144 parser 219, 233, 235 path planning 164, 166, 180, 190, 197 path trace 62, 94 perceived exertion 164 perception 137, 139, 149, 238 physically-based models 30, 48, 141, 142, 161 plan expansion 235, 237 plan graph 235 plan inference 235 planning 137 ., 144, 163, 214, 221, 233, 237, 245 postural control 75 posture planning 192, 245 potential eld 180 prepositions 215 269 across 218 in 218 on 219 pseudo-inverse 84 psychology 145 qualitative reasoning 192 quaternions 69 radiosity 18 randomness 144 rate control 164, 166 ray tracing 18 reachable space 18, 94 reactive planning 137, 142, 146 reasoning 192 reference grounding 235 reference resolution 235, 236 re exive behavior 138 region lling 97 region graph 184 retinal projection 17 robotics 29, 75, 84, 94, 137, 163, 180, 190 roll 217 root 31, 78, 79, 87, 92, 108, 112, 114, 118, 158 rotation transformation 68, 74 rotation turntable 68 rotoscoping 2, 150 scaling rules 57, 59 script 18, 30, 209, 226, 228 segments 28, 30, 46, 51, 58 semantic representation 214 sensors 132, 137 shelves 190 shoulder complex motion 41 simulation 10, 19, 60, 139, 141, 143, 147, 152, 154, 197, 197, 207, 221, 235 singularities 42 site 13, 17, 31 , 44, 46, 107, 126, 132, 135, 154, 209, 239 base site 196 situated action 137 skill 246 skitters 69 speech 247 splines 147, 155 spreadsheet 14, 54 stance leg 151 stature 14, 57 270 step length 152 stepping 103, 115, 115, 118, 131, 135, 150, 182, 192 strength bar display 63 strength box display 62 strength 13, 17, 54, 60, 61, 161, 164, 180, 189, 245 subsumption 137 support polygon 79, 109, 110, 115, 117 support 131, 221 swing leg 151 symbolic reasoning 137, 138 task actions 224, 238 task animation 10 tasks 207, 222 temporal planning 10 texture map 211 time line 127 time 126, 129, 147, 182, 212, 230 torques 17, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 153, 161, 164 tracks 126 translation transformation 68, 72 triangulation 98 Turing Test 1 turning 150, 154 turntable 74 verbs 214 view cones 17 view 17 virtual humans 135, 244 virtual reality 246 virtual sphere 69 virtual worlds 18 visibility graph 184 vision 141 volume visualization 96 weight shift 79, 103, 110, 112, 113, 117, 131 work 173, 190 workspace 94, 150 zero gravity 114 INDEX Norman I. Badler is the Cecilia Fitler Moore Professor and Chair of Computer and Information Science at the University of Pennsylvania and has been on that faculty since 1974. Active in computer graphics since 1968, his research focuses on human gure modeling, manipulation, and animation. Badler received the BA degree in Creative Studies Mathematics from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1970, the MSc in Mathematics in 1971, and the Ph.D. in Computer Science in 1975, both from the University of Toronto. He is Co-Editor of the Journal Graphical Models and Image Processing. He also directs the Computer Graphics Research Laboratory with two full time sta members and about 40 students. Cary B. Phillips received his PhD in Computer and Information Science from the University of Pennsylvania in 1991, where he was a member of the Technical Sta in the Computer Graphics Research Lab from 1988-91. He is the principal designer and implementor of Jack. He received his BES and MSE degrees in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from The Johns Hopkins University in 1985. Phillips is currently on the R&D sta at Paci c Data Images, a computer animation production company in Sunnyvale, California. Bonnie Lynn Webber is a Professor of Computer and Information Science at the University of Pennsylvania. She is known for her work in Computational Linguistics in particular, discourse processing and human-computer interaction. She did her undergraduate work at MIT and her graduate work at Harvard, receiving a PhD in 1978. While at Harvard, she was also a Senior Scientist at Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc, Cambridge MA, where she contributed to the rst DARPA Speech Understanding Initiative. She has co-editted several books, including Readings in Arti cial Intelligence and Readings in Natural Language Processing. PLATES 1. The Jack gure inside a Deere and Company o -road vehicle. Vehicle courtesy Jerry Duncan. Image by Cary Phillips and John Granieri. 2. Apache helicopter cockpit with simulated operator. The helicopter cockpit and helmet models were supplied by Barry Smith of the A3 I project at NASA Ames Research Center. Image by Pei-Hwa Ho, Eunyoung Koh, Jiahe Lu, Welton Becket, Catherine Pelachaud, Soetjianto, and Cary Phillips. 3. Graduation Day. Clothes modeling by Lauren Bello, Welton Becket, and Eunyoung Koh. 4. Translucent workspace for left hand reach. Image by Tarek Alameldin. Apache helicopter model courtesy Barry Smith at NASA Ames Research Center. 5. What you see is what you can reach with the left hand. Image by Tarek Alameldin. Apache helicopter model courtesy Barry Smith at NASA Ames Research Center. 6. Go into the kitchen and get me the co ee urn." Scene from the animation from instructions" AnimNL project. Image by Leanne Hwang, David Haynes, Brian Stokes, Moon Jung, and Aaron Fuegi. ...
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