TCP IP Tutorial For A Beginner

TCP IP Tutorial For A Beginner - A Beginner's Guide to...

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A Beginner's Guide to TCP/IP The protocols that make intranets--and the Internet--work By Jeff Prosise 1. Introduction : Most of us know of TCP/IP as the glue that binds the Internet. But not as many can offer a cogent description of what it is and how it works. So what is TCP/IP, really? TCP/IP is a means for networked computers to communicate with each other. It doesn't matter whether they are part of the same network or are attached to separate networks. It doesn't matter if one computer is a Cray and the other a Macintosh. TCP/IP is a platform-independent standard that bridges the gap between dissimilar computers, operating systems, and networks. It's the protocol that drives the global Internet, and it is to the Internet that TCP/IP owes much of its popularity. Understanding TCP/IP is largely a matter of understanding a collection of arcane protocols that TCP/IP hosts use to exchange information. Let's look at some of those protocols and see what makes TCP/IP tick. 2. TCP/IP Basics : TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. In networking terms, a protocol is an agreed- upon standard that permits two computers to exchange data. TCP/IP isn't just one protocol, but several. That's why you'll often hear it referred to as a protocol suite, of which TCP and IP are the two principal protocols. The TCP/IP software that you install on a computer provides platform-specific implementations of TCP, IP, and other members of the TCP/IP family. Typically, it also includes high-level application programs, such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol), which permits users to perform network file transfers from the command line. TCP/IP is an outgrowth of research funded by the U.S. government's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the 1970s. It was developed so that research networks around the world could be joined to form a virtual network known as an internetwork. The original Internet was formed by converting an existing conglomeration of networks, known as ARPAnet, over to TCP/IP; that Internet would eventually become the backbone of today's Internet. The reason TCP/IP is so important today is that it allows standalone networks to be connected to the Internet or linked together to create private intranets. The networks that comprise an intranet are physically connected by devices called routers or IP routers. A router is a computer that transfers packets of data from one network to another. On a TCP/IP intranet, information travels in discrete units called IP packets or IP datagrams. TCP/IP software makes each computer attached to the network a sibling to all the others; in essence, it hides the routers and underlying network architectures and makes everything seem like one big network. Just as connections to an Ethernet network are identified by 48-bit Ethernet IDs, connections to an intranet are identified by 32-bit IP addresses, which we express as dotted decimal numbers (for example, 128.10.2.3). Given a remote computer's IP address, a computer on an intranet or the Internet can send data to the remote computer as if the two were part of the
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This note was uploaded on 08/08/2011 for the course CS 310 taught by Professor Aartisingh during the Spring '11 term at National Institute of Technology, Calicut.

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TCP IP Tutorial For A Beginner - A Beginner's Guide to...

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