Protocol Tutorial - tutorial Protocols such as ATM, SONET,...

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A s demand for data traffic contin- ues to outpace voice traffic, carrier networks will convert to data-centric architectures, transforming the way in which switching is performed in the transport network. Data traffic will be packetized—sent in discrete pack- ets of varying size. However, that does not mean all switching in telecom opera- tors’ networks will be packet switching. In fact, there is a need to add packet switching into the network and, at the same time, optimize the transport net- work to meet the needs of packet switching. This will occur with intelli- gent optical switching. The term “intelligent” refers to the addition of protocols for automatic con- nection control. We are used to having packet networks, especially IP networks, behave intelligently. Now transport net- works are catching up and bringing their own set of value-added features. Before we can see where such technology will take us, however, we must first under- stand the state of the art today. making connections Switching exists in carrier networks to provide universal connectivity while making efficient use of network resources by sharing them with many users, none of whom need to use the resource all the time. In the case of data traffic, which is inherently “bursty,” many users can share the same bandwidth at the same time with each of them seeming to have access to the entire bandwidth of the network. Given the nature of communications today, most of the growth in networking will come from data services, which means traffic that originates as packets. Packet switching involves dividing mes- sages into packets and individually transmitting them across the network to their destination. Because the packets may take different paths to the destina- tion, they can arrive at the switch at any time. Packets from different messages can be intermixed, and communication lines can be shared. The packets are sent with an address and all the information needed to deliver them to their destina- tion. This information is contained in the header, which allows the packets to be reassembled into the original message once all associated packets arrive at the destination. Transmission control protocol/ Internet protocol (TCP/IP), X.25, frame relay, and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) protocols are all based on packet- switching technologies. The systems send traffic at a variable bit rate, meaning resources are assigned as needed on a first-come, first-served basis. Packet switching is best suited for transmitting bursty data traffic that is not affected by delays. E-mail messages and Internet traffic are prime examples. In comparison, circuit switching is
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This note was uploaded on 08/08/2011 for the course CS 310 taught by Professor Aartisingh during the Spring '11 term at National Institute of Technology, Calicut.

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Protocol Tutorial - tutorial Protocols such as ATM, SONET,...

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