protocol - General Telecom Protocol Concepts Handout 770...

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770 00438 0263 VHBE Ed. 01 General Telecom Protocol Concepts Handout
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770 00438 0263 VHBE Ed. 01 2 / 192 Status Released Change±Note Short Title Protocol Concepts All±rights±reserved.±Passing±on±and±copying±of±this document,±use±and±communication±of±its±contents not±permitted±without±written±authorization±from±Alcatel.
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Contents 770 00438 0263 VHBE Ed. 01 3 / 192 Contents 1 Introduction 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 NETWORK SOFTWARE 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Protocol Hierarchies 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Network Architecture 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Interfaces, Services and Service Primitives 17 1.1.4 Service Offering Modes 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 REFERENCE MODELS 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 The OSI Reference Model 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Open systems versus closed systems 22 . . . . 2.1.2 Network Architecture 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 TCP/IP Reference Model 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Evolution towards TCP/IP Network Architecture 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Network Architecture 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Layer 1 : the physical layer. 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Mechanical characteristics. 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Electrical characteristics. 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Bit synchronization 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Line coding techniques 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Maximum data rate 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4 Modulation 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Functional characteristics. 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Procedural characteristics. 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Multiplexing 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Layer 2 : the data link layer 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Framing 43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 The use of length indicators. 43 . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Starting and ending flags with bit stuffing. 44 4.2 Error control procedures 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Error detection procedures 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Information feedback 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Decision feedback (Automatic Repeat Request) 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Flow control 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Layer 3 : The network layer. 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Packet versus circuit switching. 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Contents 770 00438 0263 VHBE Ed. 01 4 / 192 5.2 Datagram versus packet switching on a virtual circuit. 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Datagram. 57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Packet switching on a virtual circuit. 57 . . . . 5.3 Routing algorithms 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non-adaptive routing 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Adaptive routing 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Network congestion. 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Preallocation of buffers. 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Packet discarding. 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 Isarithmic congestion control. 63 . . . . . . . . . 5.4.4 Use of choke packets. 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The transport layer 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 Function 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Transport layer protocol class versus network service type 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 High Level Data Link Control Protocol 69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 HDLC frame format 69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Message synchronization and Transparency 70 . . . . . . . 7.3 Address field 70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Frame Check sequence 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Error Control Procedure 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Flow Control 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7 Example 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8 Link maintenance 77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ISDN 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 INTRODUCTION 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 Evolution towards ISDN 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2 ISDN Integrated access 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 ISDN TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 ISDN Channels 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Access Interfaces 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3 ISDN Functional devices 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.4 ISDN Reference Points 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 ISDN SERVICES 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Overview of ISDN Services 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2 The Bearer Services 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 ISDN PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.1 Protocols, Channels and Reference points 90 8.5 Physical Layer Protocols 92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1 BRI 92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Contents 770 00438 0263 VHBE Ed. 01 5 / 192 8.5.2 PRI 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 THE D-CHANNEL DATA LINK PROTOCOL 98 . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Link access procedures on the D-channel 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.2 LAPD and LAPB 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 THE D-CHANNEL LAYER 3 PROTOCOL 104 . . . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Message Format 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7.2 Basic Circuit Mode Call 107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8 PROTOCOL EXAMPLES 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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protocol - General Telecom Protocol Concepts Handout 770...

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