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ATM Internetworking Anthony Alles ATM Product Line Manager Cisco Systems, Inc. email: aalles@cisco.com May 1995 An abridged version of this paper was presented at Engineering InterOp, Las Vegas, March 1995. 1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2.0 ATM Network Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3.0 ATM Signaling and Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3.1 ATM and the OSI Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.0 ATM Routing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1 P-NNI Phase 1: QoS Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2 P-NNI Phase 1: Scalability and Reachability . . . . . . 16 4.3 The IISP Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.4 Multicast Routing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.5 Public Network Internetworking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.5.1 Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.6 Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.0 LAN Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.1 LANE Components and Connection Types . . . . . . . 26 5.2 LANE Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.2.1 Initialization and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.2.2 Joining and Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.2.3 Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.3 LANE and Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5.4 Intelligent BUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.5 LANE and Virtual LANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.0 Native Mode Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.1 Integrated Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.2 IP Over ATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.2.1 Packet Encapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6.2.2 Address Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.3 NHRP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6.4 Multicast Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6.5 Direct versus Router Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 7.0 Multiprotocol Over ATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7.1 Peer Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7.2 Integrated P-NNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 7.3 Distributed Router Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.0 Wide Area Network Internetworking . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 9.0 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 10.0 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Appendix A: A Survey of ATM Traffic Management . . . 54 Appendix B: Status of Key ATM Standards and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 B.1 Completed Specifications—ATM Forum . . . . . . . . 57 B.2 Completed Specifications—IETF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 B.3 Pending Specifications—ATM Forum. . . . . . . . . . . 57 B.4 Pending Specifications—IETF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 1.0 I NTRODUCTION It is clear that Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology will play a central role in the evolution of current workgroup, campus and enterprise networks. ATM delivers important advantages over existing LAN and WAN technologies, including the promise of scalable bandwidths at unprecedented price and performance points and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees, which facilitate new classes of applications such as multimedia. These benefits, however, come at a price. Contrary to common misconceptions, ATM is a very complex tech- nology, perhaps the most complex ever developed by the net- working industry. While the structure of ATM cells and cell switching do facilitate the development of hardware intensive, high performance ATM switches, the deployment of ATM networks requires the overlay of a highly complex, software intensive, protocol infrastructure. This infra- structure is required to both allow individual ATM switches to be linked into a network, and for such networks to inter- network with the vast installed base of existing local and wide area networks. This paper is a survey of this protocol infrastructure. It starts by discussing the unique features of ATM networks—such as its connection oriented nature, which contributes to the com- plexity of ATM protocols. The fact that ATM is connection oriented implies the need for ATM specific signaling pro- tocols and addressing structures, as well as protocols to route ATM connection requests across the ATM network. These ATM protocols, in turn, influence the manner in which existing higher layer protocols can operate over ATM networks. The latter can be done in a number of different
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