ap08_eng_lang_form_b_frq

ap08_eng_lang_form_b_frq - AP® English Language and...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® English Language and Composition 2008 Free-Response Questions Form B The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION SECTION II Total time—2 hours Question 1 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.) Directions: The following prompt is based on the accompanying six sources. This question requires you to synthesize a variety of sources into a coherent, well-written essay. When you synthesize sources you refer to them to develop your position and cite them accurately. Your argument should be central; the sources should support this argument. Avoid merely summarizing the sources. Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations. Introduction Some nations have a defined national school curriculum, while others, such as the United States, do not. As a result, students in high school English classes in the United States can read texts that vary widely from school to school, while students in other countries may all read the same books in high school. Assignment Read the following sources (including the introductory information) carefully. Then write an essay that develops a position on whether or not there should be specific texts that all students of high school English must read. Synthesize at least three of the sources for support. You may refer to the sources by their titles (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by the descriptions in the parentheses. Source A Source B Source C Source D Source E Source F (Landow) (Table) (Greer) (Book cover) (Pirofski) (Fowler) © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Source A Landow, George P. “The Literary Canon.” The Victorian Web. 3 Sept. 2004 <http://www.victorianweb.org/victorian/canon/ litcanon.html>. The following excerpt is from an online reference source. The American Heritage Dictionary has eleven separate definitions of the term canon, the most relevant of which is “an authoritative list, as of the works of an author” and “a basis for judgment; standard; criterion.” . . . To enter the canon, or more properly, to be entered into the canon is to gain certain obvious privileges. The gatekeepers of the fortress of high culture include influential critics, museum directors and their boards of trustees, and far more lowly scholars and teachers. Indeed, a chief enforcer of the canon appears in middlebrow anthologies, those hangers on of high culture that in the Victorian period took the form of pop anthologies like Golden Treasury and today that of major college anthologies in America. To appear in the Norton or Oxford anthology is to have achieved, not exactly greatness but what is more important, certainly—status and accessibility to a reading public. And that is why, of course, it matters that so few women writers have managed to gain entrance to such anthologies. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Source B Table adapted from a 1992 publication of the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE). The following table is based on data gathered from schools in the United States. Table 1 Most Frequently Required Titles, Grades 9–12 Title and Percent of Schools ______________________________________________________________________________________ Public (non-tuition-charging) Schools Romeo and Juliet Macbeth Huckleberry Finn Julius Caesar To Kill a Mockingbird Scarlet Letter Of Mice and Men Hamlet Great Gatsby Lord of the Flies 84% 81 70 70 69 62 56 55 54 54 Independent (tuition-charging) Schools Macbeth Romeo and Juliet Huckleberry Finn Scarlet Letter Hamlet Great Gatsby To Kill a Mockingbird Julius Caesar Odyssey Lord of the Flies 74% 66 56 52 51 49 47* 42* 39 34 ______________________________________________________________________________________ *Percentage significantly different from public school sample, p < .05. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -4- 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Source C Greer, Michael. “New NCTE Book Stirs Debate on Poetry Canon.” The Council Chronicle Feb. 1996. The following excerpt is taken from an academic journal. Clayton Eshleman, who edits the poetry journal Sulfur and teaches English at Eastern Michigan University, agrees with . . . criticism of the major anthologies, arguing that . . . “teachers have to make their own decisions” about what to include in an introductory poetry course, and that they “can’t trust anthologies” to answer students’ questions about the nature and significance of poetry. Eshleman’s strategy is to teach anthologies alongside other poems—sometimes by the same poets— that the editor(s) chose not to include. In one instance, he provided his class with portions of Whitman’s “Song of Myself” that had been edited out of a particular anthology. Because the passages in question (which Eshleman had to photocopy and provide to the class in handout form) were highly charged with homoerotic energy and sexual imagery, the discussion shifted to the question of what subject matter was “appropriate” in poetry and why a particular editor might have chosen a small selection as “representative” of Whitman’s work. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -5- 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Source D Mack, Maynard, ed. The Norton Anthology: World Masterpieces. New York: Norton, 1999. The following is the cover of a widely used literature textbook. Torii Kiyonaga, Shigeyuki Executing Calligraphy, Philadelphia Museum of Art: Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., 1946 © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Source E Pirofski, Kira Isak. “Multicultural Literature and the Children’s Literary Canon.” 23 Oct. 2006 <http://www.edchange.org/ multicultural/papers/literature.html>. The following is taken from an online article about using multicultural literature in the classroom. This paper presents an historical overview of research and reading programs which have found that multicultural literature is a valuable learning tool as well as research which documents the longstanding lack of multicultural literature in the children’s literature. Reasons for the exclusion of culturally authentic reading materials in the canon are discussed as well. Pioneer researcher, Florez-Tighe (1983), was one of the first educators to advocate the use of multicultural literature in school curriculum. Her research indicated that culturally authentic children’s literature enhances language development and thought processes of African-American children (Florez-Tighe, 1983). Florez-Tighe (1983) believes that use of African-American folktales by teachers in the classroom can teach respect for African-American culture and affirm a child’s feeling of self worth (Florez-Tighe, 1983). © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Source F Fowler, Robert M. “The Fate of the Notion of the Canon in the Electronic Age.” Forum 9 (1993). The following is the introduction to a discussion about how reading changes when it occurs online. What happens when text moves from page to screen? First, the digital text becomes unfixed and interactive. The reader can change it, become writer. The center of Western culture since the Renaissance— really since the great Alexandrian editors of Homer—the fixed, authoritative, canonical text, simply explodes into the ether. (Lanham, The Electronic Word, 31) In the world of electronic writing, there will be no texts that everyone must read. There will only be texts that more or fewer readers choose to examine in more or less detail. The idea of the great, inescapable book belongs to the age of print that is now passing. (Bolter, Writing Space, 240) The idea of a relatively stable [literary] canon made sense in a culture dominated by printed books. The canon was also appropriate to a centralized educational system, in which everyone studied the same subjects and the same texts in order to be introduced into the standards of cultural life. But the notion of a standard has now collapsed, and the collapse is mirrored in the shift from the printed to the electronic writing space, in which a stable canon of works and authors is meaningless. (Bolter, Writing Space, 237) © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -8- 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Question 2 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.) Read the following passage from “America Needs Its Nerds” by Leonid Fridman. Then write an essay in which you analyze how Fridman develops his argument. There is something very wrong with the system of values in a society that has only derogatory terms like nerd and geek for the intellectually curious and academically serious. A geek, according to Webster’s New World Dictionary, is a street performer who shocks the public by biting off heads of live chickens. It is a telling fact about our language and our culture that someone dedicated to pursuit of knowledge is compared to a freak biting the head off a live chicken. Even at a prestigious academic institution like Harvard, anti-intellectualism is rampant: Many students are ashamed to admit, even to their friends, how much they study. Although most students try to keep up their grades, there is a minority of undergraduates for whom pursuing knowledge is the top priority during their years at Harvard. Nerds are ostracized while athletes are idolized. The same thing happens in U.S. elementary and high schools. Children who prefer to read books rather than play football, prefer to build model airplanes rather than get wasted at parties with their classmates, become social outcasts. Ostracized for their intelligence and refusal to conform to society’s anti-intellectual values, many are deprived of a chance to learn adequate social skills and acquire good communication tools. Enough is enough. Nerds and geeks must stop being ashamed of who they are. It is high time to face the persecutors who haunt the bright kid with thick glasses from kindergarten to the grave. For America’s sake, the anti-intellectual values that pervade our society must be fought. There are very few countries in the world where anti-intellectualism runs as high in popular culture as it does in the U.S. In most industrialized nations, not least of all our economic rivals in East Asia, a kid who studies hard is lauded and held up as an example to other students. In many parts of the world, university professorships are the most prestigious and materially rewarding positions. But not in America, where average professional ballplayers are much more respected and better paid than faculty members of the best universities. How can a country where typical parents are ashamed of their daughter studying mathematics instead of going dancing, or of their son reading Weber* while his friends play baseball, be expected to compete in the technology race with Japan or remain a leading political and cultural force in Europe? How long can America remain a world-class power if we constantly emphasize social skills and physical prowess over academic achievement and intellectual ability? Copyright © 1990 by the New York Times. Reprinted by permission. * Maximilian Weber (1864 –1920), German political economist and sociologist Line 5 35 40 10 45 15 50 20 55 25 30 © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 2008 AP® ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Question 3 (Suggested time—40 minutes. This question counts for one-third of the total essay section score.) Read the following excerpt from The Decline of Radicalism (1969) by Daniel J. Boorstin and consider the implications of the distinction Boorstin makes between dissent and disagreement. Then, using appropriate evidence, write a carefully reasoned essay in which you defend, challenge, or qualify Boorstin’s distinction. Dissent is the great problem of America today. It overshadows all others. It is a symptom, an expression, a consequence, and a cause of all others. I say dissent and not disagreement. And it is the distinction between dissent and disagreement which I really want to make. Disagreement produces debate but dissent produces dissension. Dissent (which comes from the Latin, dis and sentire) means originally to feel apart from others. People who disagree have an argument, but people who dissent have a quarrel. People may disagree and both may count themselves in the majority. But a person who dissents is by definition in a minority. A liberal society thrives on disagreement but is killed by dissension. Disagreement is the life blood of democracy, dissension is its cancer. STOP END OF EXAM © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -10- ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/08/2011 for the course ENG 1502 taught by Professor Penfield during the Fall '10 term at Emory.

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