ap09_human_geography_sgs - AP® Human Geography 2009...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Human Geography 2009 Scoring Guidelines The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,600 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, ® ® enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT , the PSAT/NMSQT and the Advanced ® ® Placement Program (AP ). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. © 2009 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. V isit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ® AP Central is the official online home for AP teachers : apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 The map above shows the distribution of three religious groups in the contiguous United States. Part A (3 points) Using the letters in the legend, name the three religious groups shown on the map. X: Mormon or Latter-Day Saints or LDS—1 point Y: Lutheran—1 point Z: Baptist or Southern Baptist—1 point Part B (4 points: 2 factor points and 2 explanation points) For ONE of the three religious groups, first identify and then explain TWO factors that have influenced the distribution shown on the map. Region X Factor 1: Original migration Explanation: Mormonism began in the eastern United States, but believers migrated west to Utah, an area outside the authority of those who persecuted them. Factor 2: Subsequent migration Explanation: Mormon families grew and migrated throughout the region to farm new areas that could be cultivated in the intermountain West. Factor 3: Lack of inmigration Explanation: During the 1880– 1920 great wave of European immigration, no new immigrants with different religions came to this region because of lack of urbanization. Factor 4: Physical environment Explanation: Arid, rigorous climate with lack of water. Region Y Factor 1: Original migration from northern and western Europe Explanation: Germans and Scandinavians migrated from Europe in large numbers, bringing with them their religion—Lutheranism. Explanation: Railroad companies and state governments recruited these groups to farm. Chain migration occurred as relatives continued to arrive. Factor 2: Lack of later inmigrations of other religions Explanation: Later groups from Europe (Jewish, Catholic, Orthodox) did not come, as the region lacked the pull of cities. Explanation: Upper Midwest did not attract rural-to-urban migration from the South during the twentieth century because of the smaller number of cities. Region Z Factor 1: Indigenous religion with origins in small towns and rural areas of the southeastern United States Explanation: Baptist religion matured as an indigenous religion in the rural South. Based on Calvinism brought from Europe. No requirement for formally credentialed clergy. Explanation: Baptists appealed to African-Americans excluded from mainline Protestant denominations in the South. Explanation: Baptists included other groups that created locally specific church communities. Factor 2: Lack of inmigration Explanation: Other groups of European immigrants with different religions were not attracted to this predominantly agricultural region. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (continued) Part C (1 point) Explain how the map as presented at this scale is an incomplete representation of the geography of religion in the United States. • • • • • Map does not show small areas where other religions dominate. Map does not show areas where density of adherents is really high. Map gives greater importance to small populations. Map masks much “diversity” and “variation” in religions. Not able to view subcounty variation. Map overgeneralizes. The following is NOT acceptable to earn the part C point: “Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.” © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 A large proportion of urban residents in the megacities of the periphery of the world system live in squatter settlements. Part A (1 point) Describe a typical location of squatter settlements within urban areas of megacities on the global periphery. • • • • Edge of city Elsewhere in the built area other than the edge (with explanation) Vacant or undesirable land, such as steep hillsides, floodplains, dumps/landfills, cemeteries, close to industries Land with unclear title Part B (2 points) Describe two factors that contribute to the formation of squatter settlements. • • • • Large-scale rural-to-urban migration Poverty (with elaboration) Lack of enough affordable housing (public/private) Lack of, or failure to enforce, land use policy (government or private) • • NOT immigration, unless clearly talking about rural-to-urban migration NOT refugees Part C (3 points) Give a detailed account of THREE consequences of the rapid growth of squatter settlements. The three consequences you discuss may be social, economic, political, or environmental. • • • • • • • • • • • • Unhealthy living conditions leading to high morbidity and/or mortality rates in squatter settlements Increase in crime Development of gangs or other nonlegal authority systems that use force to impose their rules Development of political action and/or political unrest Increased water pollution resulting from lack of sanitation facilities and refuse collection Increased soil erosion on hillsides as existing vegetation is removed Decreased air quality resulting from fires used for cooking and heating in settlements Deforestation Visual pollution Increase in the availability of cheap labor Increased risk of disasters, such as fires, industrial accidents, mudslides, flooding Strain on the already inadequate infrastructure—such as water, electricity, education, sewer, and fire protection—resulting in an increased burden on existing taxpayers © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Agriculture in the United States has changed significantly in the past few decades. With respect to the past, present, and projected trends in agriculture shown in the diagram above, answer the following: Part A (4 points) First identify and then explain TWO factors contributing to the steady decline in the number of dairy farms since 1970. Factors (1 point per factor; max 2 points) Increased production of milk Explanations (1 point per explanation; max 2 points) Cows produce higher yields, meaning fewer cows are needed to meet the demand for milk; therefore there are fewer farms. Increased mechanization Mechanization/technological changes in the milking process have enabled farmers to increase the size of their dairy herds. This efficiency has made small farms unprofitable. The number of farms, including dairy farms, in the United States is decreasing, owing to one or more of these factors [elaboration required]. Dairy farmers close to cities where dairy farms traditionally have been located (milk shed) have been displaced by urbanization, leading to a decline in the number of dairy farms overall. Development of agribusiness, economies of scale, factory farms, industrialization of agriculture; changes from labor-intensive to less labor-intensive forms of agriculture Displacement by urbanization Scoring Notes: • Students must identify and then explain TWO factors—that is, link the decline in the number of farms (EFFECT) to a factor (CAUSE). Just saying “agribusiness” or “industrialization” is insufficient to earn 2 points. • Do not award points for discussions of the LOCATION of dairy farms (a repetition of von Thünen’s ideas) that are not directly related to the decline in the NUMBER of farms. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (continued) Part B (4 points) First identify and then explain TWO factors contributing to the increase in the number of organic farms since 1970. Factors (1 point each; max 2 points) Increasing demand for organic products has made organic agriculture profitable and led to a growth in organic farming (both large-scale and small-scale). Shifts in organic agriculture have led to better care for the land (land stewardship, sustainability, environmental concerns). Small farms competing with large-scale farms (agribusiness) are forced to shift to more profitable agriculture. Explanations (1 point each; max 2 points) • Consumers in the U.S. seek alternatives to the industrial products of modern agriculture because of (media-driven) concerns about the nutrition and healthiness of commercial agricultural products. • Consumers have become wary of the insecticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) used in agriculture and to produce foodstuffs and have become concerned about related long-term health issues. • Population of the U.S. is increasing in wealth and is better able to afford (and willing to pay) higher prices for organic products. • Buying organic food is an example of conspicuous consumption to display cultural preferences (a green lifestyle). • Some consumers switch to organic products because they are concerned about the humane treatment of animals. • Households have declined in size and have more disposable income to spend on higher-quality (organic) food rather than lower-quality (nonorganic) food. • Better advertising and marketing systems have made organic products more appealing to consumers, thereby increasing the demand for goods and profitability. • The demand has increased, aided by the growth of chains of supermarkets dedicated to organic products, which has increased profitability and led to the growth of suppliers for these chains. • As stewards of the land, farmers/consumers wish to sustain it in the same state they found it rather than exhaust it or otherwise degrade it by the application of agricultural chemicals. • Some consumers switch to organic products because they wish to eat foods that have a less negative impact on the environment (wish to live in greater harmony with nature). • The economies of scale achieved by large-farm operations have kept the retail price of food low. Because small-farm operations cannot achieve these economies, they have to either go out of business or shift to more intensive forms of agriculture or supply specialty food for niche markets that bring higher prices and greater profitability, e.g., producing higher-priced, higher-quality organic products. Scoring Notes: • For parts A and B, factor points and explanation points are independent; students can earn one without the other. • For both parts, do not award full credit for a “double dip”—e.g., two explanations of demand for organic foods. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/08/2011 for the course ENG 1502 taught by Professor Penfield during the Fall '10 term at Emory.

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