ap10_human_geo_scoring_guidelines

ap10_human_geo_scoring_guidelines - AP® Human Geography...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Human Geography 2010 Scoring Guidelines The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admission, guidance, assessment, financial aid and enrollment. Among its widely recognized programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®), SpringBoard® and ACCUPLACER®. The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. © 2010 The College Board. College Board, ACCUPLACER, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, SpringBoard and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service is a trademark owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 According to Alfred Weber’s theory of industrial location, three factors determine the location of a manufacturing plant: the location of raw materials, the location of the market, and transportation costs. Part A (2 points) Using an example of a specific industry other than the one portrayed on the map above, explain under what conditions an industry would locate near the market. Examples of appropriate industries (1 point) Soft-drink bottling Bread products Explanation (1 point) Weight/bulk are gained in processing/manufacturing; therefore the industry locates close to the market in order to minimize transportation costs. Note: The industry identified must match the explanation. Part B (2 points) Using an example of a specific industry other than the one portrayed on the map above, explain under what conditions an industry would locate near raw materials. Examples of appropriate industries (1 point) Copper smelting Lumber products used for paper or furniture Explanation (1 point) Weight/bulk are lost in processing/manufacturing; therefore the industry locates close to the source of raw materials in order to minimize transportation costs. Note: The industry identified must match the explanation. Part C (2 points) Using the map above and Weberian theory, explain the geography of ethanol plants in the United States. Factor for plant location (1 point) Plants are located close to the key raw material of corn in order to minimize transportation costs. Explanation (1 point) Ethanol is a weight-/bulk-losing industry. Corn is bulky; thus plants are built close to the supply of raw material in order to minimize transportation costs and maximize profit. Note: “Explain” in this case should mean “tell why.” The explanation should be linked to Weber’s theory and discuss the weight-loss situation, or the second point is not awarded. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Since 1950 many states have faced challenges in developing a strong national identity. Part A (4 points) Using contemporary examples, explain how each of the following has contributed to the development of national identity and the strengthening of a state. 1. Economic development 2. Relocation of a state’s capital (since 1950) A1. Economic development (to strengthen national identity and the state) A2. Relocation of political state’s capital (to strengthen national identity and the state) Examples of states Explanation of factor (1 point) (1 point) China, Japan, Mexico, • Strong economy creates jobs, supports a sense of South Africa, South well-being, and supports confidence in leadership Korea, United States and loyalty to the state — all lead to unity. • Economic prosperity tends to mask ethnic divisions. • National pride reinforces national identity. Brazil, Nigeria, • Centralized capital that breaks ties with colonial past Pakistan is intended to overcome regional imbalance and strengthen the state; OR • May strengthen historic focus on the interior; OR • May focus on poorly developed interior/resource frontier; OR • May return to a historically symbolic location. Part B (4 points) Using contemporary examples, explain how each of the following may detract from the development of national identity and weaken a state. 1. Ethnicity 2. Transportation infrastructure B1. Ethnicity (to weaken national identity and the state) B2. Transportation infrastructure (to weaken national identity and the state) Examples of states (1 point) Belgium, Canada, Russia/USSR, Yugoslavia Chile, Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Russia Explanation of factor (1 point) • Ethnic tension erodes loyalty to the state. • Tension between ethnic groups can lead to balkanization, separatism, devolution, regionalism, sectionalism, ethnonationalism. • Placement of political boundaries without regard to traditional ethnic territories can lead to fissure between ethnic groups who lose or gain territory. Ethnic strife defeats any attempts at nationalism. • Immigration causes cultural change. • Poor transportation infrastructure contributes to isolation and a sense of separation. • Friction of distance, e.g., topography/other barriers. • Size or shape of a state may hinder development of transportation infrastructure. • Colonial legacy affects transportation networks. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (continued) Notes • The example must be a politically independent state (e.g., United States, United Kingdom), not a political subdivision (e.g., Arizona, Northern Ireland). • Race does not equal ethnicity. • Appropriate state + wrong explanation = 1 point; wrong state or no state + correct explanation = 1 point; appropriate state + correct explanation = 2 points. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 The population pyramids above represent two countries at different stages of the demographic transition and economic development. Part A (2 points) Explain the demographic characteristics of each country above with respect to the demographic transition model. Country A • Must mention Stage 2 (second or early expanding stage) AND elaborate briefly about its characteristics, such as high birth rate, falling death rate, youthful population, developing country. • It is not acceptable to suggest Stages 1 or 3 for Country A. Country B • Must mention Stage 4 (fourth, final, or low stationary stage) AND elaborate briefly about its characteristics, such as low birth rate, low death rate, aging population, developed country. • It is acceptable to mention a possible Stage 5 (fifth stage) for Country B. Part B (2 points) Discuss ONE positive impact of EACH country’s population structure on its economic development. Country A (1 point) • Expanding or large workforce • Youthful population, which can spark creativity, receptivity to change, etc. • Less need for immigrant labor • Less need for elder social safety net (e.g., Social Security) Country B (1 point) • Educated (skilled, experienced, etc.) workforce • Low youth dependency ratio • More women in the compensated workforce • Tendency to spend discretionary income on needs other than education • Might need immigrant labor, which would allow citizens to take higher-order jobs Part C (2 points) Discuss ONE negative impact of EACH country’s population structure on its economic development. Country A (1 point) • High youth dependency ratio • Strain on resources, the environment or society owing to rapid population growth • Low literacy rate for women • Fewer women in the compensated workforce © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (continued) Country B (1 point) • High elder dependency ratio • Possible future labor shortage • Greater need to fund elder social safety net (e.g., Social Security) © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ...
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