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ABD_CH07_design principles

ABD_CH07_design principles - 124 Grannic lmnact “85m”...

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Unformatted text preview: 124 Grannic lmnact: “85m” Princinles The Design Process Sketches Once your research is completed, you sketch to give Form to your ideas. Many people create thumbnail sketchesmsmall rough sketches—during the initial stage of the design process. Some use a pencil or market; some create their thumbnails right on the computer. Either way, it’s an important phase. Many students are tempted to create one bigger design on the computer, but that’s a danger in that it tends to inhibit the generation of other solutions, exploration, and experimentation. Experimentation It’s in the initial design stage that you can wildly explore. Try anything andiieverything that serves your advertising idea and the client’s brand. Part of the fun of being an art director or designer is experimenting. intuition and Feelings Another part of being a creative professional is trusting your uinner artist,” that little voice suggesting the most creative solutions. Trusting your talent, your training, and your creative hunches is what makes you a creative individual. Creativity and Risk Most children are creative; they make random associations, mix metaphors, combine things into new arrangements. Somehow we lose that to rational thought as we become adults. Fearmthe Fear of taking risks and appearing foolish~also causes us to lose our creative incli» nation. Risk taking is good; it stretches a designer’s limits. Stay open—minded. Roughs Once you’ve created a good number of thumbnails, it’s time to turn a few of them into roughs. Thanks to computer technology, most roughs don’t look rough; they look like slick, professionally printed pieces. The advantage to this is that you can very clearly see what the piece will look like. The disadvantage is that this same finished look seems to inhibit rework» ing things, Don’t be seduced by the slicknessmlteep designing. Keep working on the arrangement, and especially on the typography. Depending upon the advertising agency or design studio, you may show either thumb» nails or troughs to your creative director. You’ll get her input and then go back to designing some more. You’ll probably get input from others as well, including your partner, the copy4 writer, and perhaps an associate creative director or other team members. Comps Once your creative director has approved your design. you create Final comprehensives (comps) to show your client. After your client gives his input, you‘ll probably have to do some additional designing. It’s rare that a client says, “That’s perfect! Let’s print it.” More often than not, the design process involves redesigning. Composition: Critical Principles of Design You may have terrific advertising ideas in your head, but to be an art director. you need design skills and the sensibility to communicate your ideas. Line. color, shape, type, texture, Form, pattern, light, spacewthe elements of design visually interact to shout or whisper ideas and emotions. Design for advertising has a main thrust; combined with words, it stim» ulates perceptions in order to sell products, services, and ideas. The way you create, select, and arrange everythingwthe type, visuals, and graphic ele— merits—in an ad or graphic design piece is design. It’s the composition or arrangement. The design is part and parcel of your concept, your idea, and helps to communicate the idea. Format Whether it’s a magazine ad or a computer screen, whatever substrate you start out with is the fiarmat, a vital element in two‘dimensional design. Brochures, posters, video screens, and outdoor boards are just a few of the many formats designers use. Formats come in a variety of shapes. Most are rectangular. There are standard rectangles (for example, a standardvsize magazine page), which are not extremely long in any one direc~ tion, and elongated rectangles, which are much longer in one direction, either vertical or horizontal (such as a magazine spread of two facing pages or an outdoor board). For exam— ple, a poster for Spyke Beer is an elongated vertical format (figure 7‘1). The shape of the For‘ mat influences the use of the other formal elements, such as line and shape, as well as com‘ positional decisions. Designing on a computer screen, a standard~size rectangle, is a differ~ our experience from composing and designing on a folded brochure that opens into an extended horizontal. How do you learn to compose within differently shaped formats well, appropriately, and to your advantage? The best way to learn about the inherent energy and distinctions of for» mats is to explore them, play with their boundaries, and design within them. ?—1 “Lab Rats“ Agency: Butler. Shine & Stem/Sausalito Creative Team; Ha; Auda. Mike Shine fittest: Anheuser Busch/Sayre © 2003 Butler, Shine & Stern This interesting composition makes great use of an elongated format, liiflfllllfi impact: 895W Principles 125 $2 “Freezers” agency: Forsman 8. Bodeniors/Gomenourg so Bireerors: Anders Ekiino. Andreas Maim, Mikko Timonen Cesywriters: Johan Oiivero, Filip Niissoo Photographer: Henrik Bonevier fitient: Volvo Cars Sweden This humorous ad utilizes a symmetric composition to make a point about Volvo’s ability. 125 advertising in: {lesion Balance Viewers need to feel or sense balance in order to comfortably engage with the arrangement and to believe the design is complete. A design that is poorly balanced might frustrate view~ ers, making them feel uncomfortable and possibly dismiss the message. Combining the principles of balance with other design principles will ensure that your compositions func~ tion harmoniously and deliver the message you intend. Symmetry A symmetric design uses similar or identical elements arranged on two sides olian imaginary horizontal or vertical axis so that each side of the composition is a mirror image of the other. The resulting arrangement is orderly and Feels stable. Symmetry works favorably because of the strong sense of stability it projects. This feeling can be tapped to contribute to or rein~ force the expressiveness of a design. Asymmetry An asymmetric design has a balance of visual weights, but the arrangement is not Formalized around a central axis. Asymmetry relies on a complex positioning and interaction ol~ dissimilar elements to arrive at a sense of equilibrium throughout the arrangement. Any composition that is balanced and not symmetric is asymmetric. The asymmetric design challenges the viewer to search and discover the compositional balance. The balance created through an asymmetric composition is not as obvious as a symmetric one. Asymmetry’s dynamic nature commands attention as well as actively engages the viewer. Asymmetric designs can help express a feeling or define your message. Compare the compositions in two cleverly creative ads in the same cam» paign-~onc is symmetric and the other is asymmetric (figures 7-2, 733). In another ad in the campaign, “\Where Did We Park the Car?,” the visual is almost symmetric; however, the line is positioned at the left, balanced by the claim in the upper right‘hand corner and the product name in the lower right~hand corner, making the composition asymmetrical (figure 74). Here’s the key: Whether on paper or computer screen, a viewer who is comfortable and engaged with a composition is likely to remain interested. .- -J $3 “Sam Ben" figem’g: Forsman & BUGeninrs/Gatnenburg Art 13mm: Anders Ekimd. Andieas Mam? Mikkcr Timman Esaywmm: Johan Olivero Filip Niissoi': Phomgragher: Jesper Branai Giant: Volvo Cars Swede? Equafing driving in a convertible to getting a tan on the beach, this ad's amusing drama is enhanced by the asymmetric composition, ‘54 “Where Did We Park the Car?" Agency: Forsman & Badeniorstoihenburg Ari Dimming Andm Eklind Andreas M85571. Mikka Timoner; Cogywriters: Janan OIIVBIQ Filip NIISSQF Phntflgraphei: Siéberg Photo Agency Ciiem: Valve Cars Sweden Using humor, this ad iiiustrams a vehicle’s abiity to go trimth extreme terrain, '" vulva u'fiss'm Gfflflhit “MEET: 98533" PfiflCiiBS 127 128 Havetrisinq m; Besign Positive/Negative Shapes and Space In a successfill positive/negative relationship, the positive (visuals, type, graphic elements) and the negative (space between and around positive elements) are interdependent and interactive, No space should go unconsideted. Dam! space refers to hlank areas that are not actively W0fl£~ ing in the overall design; this does mt mean that all blank space must be filled. (Most visually unsophisticated clients would prefer that you fill every available: space, believing that they are getting more design for their money.) A designer must be constantly aware of the blank spaces and make them work in the design, as does designer Paula Schet in the poster “Dancing on Her Knees,” created for the Public Theater in New York (figure 735). Notice the way the leg, in this poster leads to the title of the play, Dancing on Her Knees. Directing the viewer‘s eyes with the placement of elcmentwthat is, how one element leads to anotherwalso helps estal» lish a visual hierarchy (discussed in the next section). Actively dividing the space contributes to a dynamic composition. Both positive and negative shapes become active in a symmetric poster by Luha Lukova (figure 743}; acting as both a nuclear cloud and a backdrop between the figures, the black shape is forceful. Considering all the space actively Forces you to consider the whale space. Think of it as holistic design. mmmmm m ImM-omm-uwawmwmcmamnlm #— war is not Ihe answer ?»5 “Dancing on Her Knees” Stnééa' Pewtagramftéew Yon: Creatite QitectotiParmgt: Paula Stile: (3:932: Putilzt Trieste: Not only does the batkgtnund become an active participant due to the color and division of space, but one element directs our eyes to the next. if; “Wat is Not the Answer“ Stunts: Luba Lukgva SlUGlU Designat: tuba Lutova Client NBA Oriando Lima tukova Lukova treats all space. both positive and negative. as active— yielding very dramatic communication. Brannst impact: Resign Puntinles 129 2V? “Japanese” agency: Butler Shine & Siem/Sausaiito {treatise team: Brad Wood. Ryan Elmer attest: Valor Tours @2 2003 Butler. Shine & Stem Often, the art director must include a great deal of information in one ad. That’s when visual hierarchy is key to communication. 130 advertising in Basin Visual Hierarchy Wharf: the main message? What} the are! trying to tell 2176.95.91! me? Where am I on} it? Whom do I (all? From every ad, a reader tries to glean information. lfan ad does not have a visual hierv archy. then the reader will have a very difficult time getting information, and will probably give up trying. For example, in Butler, Shine (‘56 Stern’s ad for Valor Tours, there is a great deal of information and Four images (figure 77). Without a visual hierarchy, we wouldn’t be able to get the advertising message easily. First we look at the center, boxed headline; sec~ ond, at the biggest photograph; third, at the smaller two photographs at top; then we go on to the body copy; and finally, we move to the bottom right~hand corner. More importantly, if there is no visual hierarchy, the ad will, in almost all cases, look chaotic and not attract readers in the first place. In an ad, the most important information is the message communicated by the combi~ nation of the line (headline) and visual. However, the viewer‘s eyes can go to only one place at a time, so the designer should arrange all the elements within the composition to allow the viewer to move effortlessly from one element to another. Even though it is the cooper ative action of the headline and visual that communicates the ad message, the viewer will tend to look at one before the other. Either the Visual or the line should be the local point. After that, some people read the body copy, and most people, iiiengaged by the main mes, sage, look at the sign-oilf (claim, logo, or product shot). Certainly, the goal is to design such a compelling ad that the reader takes in all the information, including the body copy. In posters that advertise events, there is additional important information that must be accessible, such as the date, time, and location of the event. In public service advertising there is usually a phone number or ‘Web address. All information must be arranged into a visual hierarchy. The art director or designer is responsible For arranging all the elements so that there is a main focus or focal point, which is usually the main ad message, and then subsequent information. What do you want the reader to see first? Second? Third? Fourth? In Richter 7’s dramatic ad for WCF, there is a clear visual hierarchy (figure 78). First we see the hand, second the headline, third the subheadline, then the body copy, and finally the logo. T2...........,.....m wamwmwwtwm’ on name at, mt. at. as gum (they, “mm. w.» in mm»; rm gr: saw. at»: asme A» m; mum AM do Mr» as. my swim»; » rm 6 await»: Wummwm wahrmnwhkfiahwmwlwwewimxfewgué-nnim.mWu or”. mas: m was we» «do Mar, or». $83! flair or» want er gm mm». test! so: swat s cam my ‘3‘ “WW win n. W“, «no kirk: “Mt/$3 on of flour hum mm M no mm «1 "visas; ems amend“ H54, the m m u m to“ «we W. m m»; be; an; m; IIQMk rims} wi mm am. M M mi. stair w a» m; sm- a via-c m? «a mum; to mom: no. mm and «44 km. 1 in. wt. u awry. 6» on éofiw’c m a Wan «MMEWXJWW we Hmfifiuwwmt (WMHWWIW fire sesutrs tie ? a: was two lists “ rm-wm,wwmm mi mugs mum «my. I fiéfi 5?21;!. E ’32“)??? Yfibsi" to“ finned; sea-am 130% 9‘.” ppm was on a. For: guesses. we‘re; tens sesame EAFAfififisg Wmmhmflw immunommm vi a» W “flat our”, 2:» «M mm. Mus» mmwsmm :hadafltnélflflfimmle Why 89;: m. no; mu W W mm m. mm» .us we to m. . . , creationism: - I Hm V tam MWWN essay».de nmrrplmafibnmqffim rm rathtmnstenmmwanw MRQQMW. tamawmmw-uamnugmtwkmmm .rmmmwwnumiwmrmtwrmmmew»thr .wsmamignfimwmthmmwwwwwysmmtphm N‘nkrfiny It’s the designer’s job to control ths ordcar in which type and Visuals are seen by the radar, fiver} whén them is a grfifat deal (bf type, as in Hunt Adkins’ ad For American Skandia (figure 74)). In this ad, first we read the‘ headline; than our eyes mcwe to the left»han<l column. The Visuals inset into thc body capy help movs our eyes From column :0 column and then finally (0 thfi Signwoffflofthe logo and tagline. 33131339135 mmwngum LONG. ‘VOUG wumawaw ! gunman-um-.. mammal-m win—anoint»... mMMImMpw-a, “Wnkflwm " “Max's-fits“: mmwwww whammueu immwu mwoedimtnumnn «muuuww mméumnug fits-mums.” mun» ' fimmdfiaw as“... mdhuucadwiu-(xd nun-w» m was» s. m; «Au _ “bl may“ ism waedw 7 WWNIWVM Wmedswm aim-oywmm l mm»u.w~ 2 l LWWMWMMMVw WWW“ mmumwmy. flywwaemrw Mm Mlfimd wm~msyww m W mat-warm MMQflun’mJ/M.» wéwmdymfilmw fiwmlt-mv-u‘mw mama—.9 mop-«am .4 RI NEW [nu-g... —.--—.—.'.. ——.-.-——«...........n... n. 3......“ Hfl-‘n—nrs. h.-.III-H—--—-\-.‘ a..__..~....-—.a---n_....— . whi—*-—’n_d‘u—.‘o—_~ .— .........r......_...... WI} gm... ,_...u.......,_ ,7 l l 1 g l l I l I ll vantmmm" muqc-u‘munhm gaff-7.5% I .. .... h)“—-Q—uhnn ‘ -u...~....-.u... .. 1-d— 743 Financial services Company Ageacyt Hunt AdkinsfMinneamlis Cyeaiwe Directarzfiegywriter; Dnug Adkins Assaciaie Cteafive Simmer/Ari fiérester: Steve Mitchell Phoingragher: Joe Lamm Chem: American Skandia The layout conveys the message “Trust us,“ in essence saying, "We know what we’re talking about,” and the wit makes an investment company feel friendlierl ?~8 "Four 0m 0! Five" Aganay: Ruchter 7/53“ Lake 93!}: Creative Macias: T C Chriszgnsen Ari Déresms: Ryan Andersmz Caaywritey: Em; Gutietre: Phaéegmgher: Ma: GOUHEy’ Chant: Workeis Compensation Funij This is a great example of the an director being able to steer the viewer’s eyeg very effectively from one element is another in the composition. manic {munch Resign Principles 131 In a magazine ad, creating a meaningful hierarchical relationship between tha main line (headline) and visual is a delicata balancing act. The designer must consider: ' Format ' Scale (size relationships between type and imagés) - Weight of type ' Size ofiall the type, including the lint: and body copy ‘ Arrangement: (cnmposition) - Color and value fifilal ilfib “PW, "Stare at It” gigging: Carmichaal Lynch/Minagamlis irgatéve Diiegtar: Brian Ktaening mu m m Ari {fireman llamas Clam; Eagywnzer: Miahael Atkinson aw :w «m w u Fnazggiasher: Ron Crafoel iiéem: American Standard The design and concept behind this campaign changed consumers’ perception 0f American Standard fmm institutmnai to stylish. 9m.» u .: Icing “a”. ma u mm: :5 max mo : nun 132 Havemsmg nu Design In an ad that has no or very little copy—“Where the entire message is communicated by the visualmthe visual must have a main focal point and, if necessary, secondary and perhaps additional levels of Focal points. Turning bathroom fixtures into beautiful art objects, ads for American Standard use the fixture as the main focal point (figures 7-10:1, ,7«th). If a visual is carrying the entire responsibility of communicating the ad message, then it must he care» Fully created or selected, with care given to the visual hierarchy of the elements in the image. In an ad where there is copy and no visual, visual hierarchy is paramount. Unity and Varieg A design must hold together. A design has 2min when the elements look as though they belong together. How does a designer get the entire ad or Web site or direct mail piece to work as a Whole, to look unified? One of the most important factors afflicting unity is correspondence, that is, connections among all the elements. When elements, such as color, texture, a font, imagery, and direc~ tion, are repeated, then correspondence is established. Our eyes and mind expect some type of repetition; we have various types of memory, hierarchical perception, pattern recognition, and associative processes. Mike Quon uses fiat shapes to create both the positive forms (dove and war plane) and the background shapes and a font that is perceived as flat shapes to cre» ate correspondence among all the elements in the stirring “Peace Poster” (figure 7~1 1). In the “Printed W'ornan” exhibition poster, flat shapes with white lines that describe details '1311 i _' Peace Faster . -. : Agency: Desolation/New Yeti: ' I Art Director/Designer: Mike Dunn © Mike Dunn 2002 Unity is established in this poster by utilizing a similar vocabulary of forms and by establishing flow from one element to another, lilflfllllll Impact: Design PllflClDlES 133 Within them are combined with hand lettering in whim sstablishing unity beatween (hf: visuai and the typographia design (figure W12)~ Thére are many ways to create unity in the design 05;: single ad» Elements may be: repeated in the degign, Color alone can create an amazingly powzirful cmrespondence throughout a I‘ x, if , désign. Integrating elements so that they seem cemplctely united greatly contribdté‘s In How, €42 j‘The Primed Woman" Emma: Luna Lukava Sludm Sesigfier: Luisa Lukova Ciéeaiz La MaMa em Luna Lukava Often, Lukova uses her own hand~ drawn lettering to erasure that the type and visuafi act in concert, to cammumcate expressway. “Inn-mum "Rim", gm...” .— _,.’ -h‘flw- A.on u».- :-:-.4-.=ug unw- 74 3 “Hands” Agency: Butter. Shme & Stem/Sausafito fireative Team: Naihan Naylor‘ Mike Shine, Nicoie Micheis CSient: N anaio © 2003 Butter, Shine & Stem The visua! and type‘ in this ad, are conceived tagether t0 contribute ta flow and unity. Some, 643 We Main ways *1: achieve 0min. : CeweSpcuAence - II, *W~fimw~—- Themfic evocesses Repefifiau a? am eiewzvd' in siighfly «keyed {low air Various raids in We design Type afigumeui- Comfimiw ($amiiy vesem’niance among eiemeui-s} Flaw av moveweuir by «wangeweuiv a? demeui's 134 advertising nunesign 'mm—m-mli-n rw-u‘ -.~Lr-wnu.-.-u-.-I-:-!r as in the “Hands” ad for ll Fornaio (figure :7'13). Flow is the ease oi‘movement from one ole» rnent to another in a composition. Establishing unity within a campaign (a series of ads) is a similar process. One must have corresponding elements in the ads, such a...
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