Chapter 19 and 20 Notes

Chapter 19 and 20 Notes - Chapter 19: The Expansion of...

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Chapter 19: The Expansion of Europe in the Eighteenth Century Agriculture and the Land The Open-Field System The open-field system was the great accomplishment of medieval agriculture. Three field rotations helped keep fields fertile. Traditional village rights reinforced traditional patterns of farming. Peasants were exploited in a number of ways, with those in eastern Europe generally the worst off. The Agricultural Revolution The use of more complex systems of crop rotation increased cultivation. Grain crops were alternated with nitrogen-storing crops. The open-field system was ended by “enclosing” the fields, particularly in England. The enclosure movement meant an end to common lands and to the independence of the rural poor who relied on them to survive. The Leadership of the Low Countries and England The Dutch advantage was due to a very dense population. Jethro Tull gained fame in experimental agriculture and animal husbandry. By the mid-eighteenth century, English agriculture was in the process of a radical transformation. The Cost of Enclosure Half of all English land was enclosed by 1750. By 1700 a distinctive pattern of landownership and production existed in England. Tenant farmers were the key to mastering new methods of farming. Enclosure marked the emergence of market-oriented estate agriculture and of a landless rural proletariat. The Beginning of the Population Explosion Limitations on Population Growth Famine, disease, and war were the usual checks on growth. Europe’s population growth was kept fairly low. The New Pattern of the Eighteenth Century Fewer deaths occurred, in part due to the disappearance of the plague. Advances in medicine did little to decrease the death rate. Improved sanitation promoted better public health. An increase in the food supply meant fewer famines and epidemics. The Growth of the Cottage Industry The Putting-Out System The two main participants in the putting-out system were the merchant capitalist and the rural worker. Merchants loaned, or “put out,” raw materials to workers who processed the raw materials and returned finished goods to the merchant. The putting-out system grew because it had competitive advantages. Rural agriculture did not spread across Europe at an even rate.
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Chapter 19 and 20 Notes - Chapter 19: The Expansion of...

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