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chapter35;36 - 35.1 What is an integrated circuit An...

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35.1 What is an integrated circuit? An integrated circuit is a collection of electronic devices (e.g., transistors, diodes, resistors) that have been fabricated and electrically intraconnected onto the surface of a small flat chip of semiconductor material. 35.2 Name some of the important semiconductor materials. Silicon (Si); Ge and GaAs 35.3 Describe the planar process. The planar process refers to the fabrication of an IC chip by a sequence of layering processes - adding, altering, and removing layers to create the devices and their \ intraconnection on the IC chip. 35.4 What are the three major stages in the production of silicon-based integrated circuits? a. silicon processing b. IC fabrication c. IC packaging 35.5 What is a clean room and explain the classification system by which clean rooms are rated? A clean room is a room or rooms where the air is purified to reduce airborne particles. The classification system indicates the quantity of particles of size 0.5 microns or greater per cubic foot of air. For example, a class 100 clean room contains 100 or fewer particles of size 0.5 microns per cubic foot. 35.6 What are some of the significant sources of contaminants in IC processing? Sources of contaminants include humans (bacteria, cigarette smoke, viruses, and hair), and processing equipment (wear particles, oil, and dirt) 35.7 What is the name of the process most commonly used to grow single crystal ingots of silicon for semiconductor processor? Czochralski process 35.8 What are the alternatives to photolithography in IC processing? Extreme ultraviolet lithography, Electron-beam lithography, X-ray lithography, Ion Lithography 35.9 What is a photoresist? A photoresist is a polymer that is sensitive to light radiation in a certain wavelength range; the sensitivity causes either an increase or a decrease in solubility of the polymer to certain chemicals. 35.10 Why is ultraviolet light favored over visible light in photolithography?
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UC light has a short wavelength compared to visible light, permitting sharper imaging of microscopic circuit details on the wafer surface. It also permits the fabrication and photoresist areas in the plant to be illuminated at low light levels outside the UC band. 35.11 Name the three exposure techniques in photolithography Contact printing Proximity printing Projection printing 35.12 What layer material is produced by thermal oxidation in silicon IC fabrication? Thermal oxidation produces SiO2 on the surface of the Si wafer. 35.14 What are some of the important design functions of IC packaging? Electrical connections to external circuits
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