Chapter 3 PSYC 2230 Notes

Chapter 3 PSYC 2230 Notes - AbnormalPsychology Ch 3: Models...

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Ch 3: Models of Abnormality Abnormal Psychology
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Models… Models, or paradigms Perspectives used to explain events Basic assumptions, gives order to field of study, sets guidelines for investigation Influences observations, questions asked, info sought, and interpretation of info
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Topic Overview: Models Biological Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic-Existential Sociocultural
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Biological Model Physiological causes; medicinal Brain anatomy Brain chemistry Sources of abnormalities Treatments Assessment
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Brain anatomy 100 bn nerve cells = NEURONS Brain regions = function E.g., hippocampus = control memory and emotions Amygdala = emotional memories Huntington’s disease
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Brain chemistry Neurotransmitters Electrical impulse stimulates release of chemical that travels across synapse to next neuron Excitatory versus inhibitory response Anxiety disorders = GABA (low) Schizophrenia = dopamine (excess) Depression = serotonin (low) Endocrine system Works with neurons to release hormones into bloodstream, activate body organs Stress = adrenal glands secrete cortisol
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Sources Genetics Each cell in human body/brain has 23 pairs of chromosomes Chromosomes contain genes (inherited from parents) e.g., Schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s, etc. (but we don’t know specific genes, extent of association) Evolution Survival of the fittest (“abnormality” may aid in survival) But, not useful in today’s “safe” society Viral infections Exposure in utero (e.g., Schizophrenia, maybe)
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Treatments Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Electrical current (65-140 volts) passed through brain Neurosurgery; psychosurgery Lobotomy (1930s) – severe connections b/w frontal lobes and lower brain centers; outlawed at one point; Today: Only used for severe cases; more precise Psychotropic medications - neurotransmitters REVOLUTION! “Surgery in a pill” Anti-anxiety (xanax, valium) Anti-depressants (prozac, zoloft, lexapro) Anti-bipolar drugs (mood stabilizers) Anti-psychotic drugs (seroquel, haldol)
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Early mental illness treatments in  general (fyi) http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=1Izmyru5T_w&feature=related
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ECT Early forms: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_T7WbjcO One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DCUmINGa Dangerous – break bones, bruising, etc. unless they held you down. Now: they put you under sedation and strap you down.
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Walter Freeman – “transorbital lobotomy” http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=_0aNILW6ILk
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Chapter 3 PSYC 2230 Notes - AbnormalPsychology Ch 3: Models...

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